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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786908/opposing-patterns-of-intraspecific-and-interspecific-differentiation-in-sex-chromosomes-and-autosomes
#1
Peter A Moran, Sonia Pascoal, Timothee Cezard, Judith E Risse, Michael G Ritchie, Nathan W Bailey
Linking intraspecific and interspecific divergence is an important challenge in speciation research. X chromosomes are expected to evolve faster than autosomes and disproportionately contribute to reproductive barriers, and comparing genetic variation on X and autosomal markers within and between species can elucidate evolutionary processes that shape genome variation. We performed RADseq on a 16-population transect of two closely-related Australian cricket species, Teleogryllus commodus and T. oceanicus, covering allopatry and sympatry...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782307/cutaneous-manifestations-of-tuberous-sclerosis
#2
Mirjana Bakić, Marina Ratković, Branka Gledović, Balsa Vujović, Danilo Radunović, Vera Babić, Vladimir Prelević
Dear Editor, Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disease, which occurs due to genetically determined hyperplasia of ectodermal and mesodermal cells. Clinical manifestations present on the skin and in the nervous system, kidneys, heart, and other organs. Recent studies estimate the incidence of TS at 1/6000 to 1/10,000 live births, and a prevalence in the general population of approximately 1 in 20,000 (1). There are two different genetic loci responsible for TS: 9q34 (TSC1-hamartin) and 16p13...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781539/intermittent-resistance-exercise-and-obesity-considered-separately-or-combined-impair-spermatic-parameters-in-adult-male-wistar-rats
#3
Ana Paula Franco Punhagui, Giovana Rampazzo Teixeira, Marcelo Conrado de Freitas, Patricia Monteiro Seraphim, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves Fernandes
Obesity and absence of physical exercise are global problems that affect concentration and sperm quality in the male reproductive system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of obesity and resistance training, considered separately or in association, on testicular function and reproductive capacity. Twenty pubertal male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C) and exercise (E) groups that received standard rat chow; and obese (O) and obese with exercise (OE) groups that received a high-fat diet...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780666/chitin-distribution-in-the-oithona-digestive-and-reproductive-systems-revealed-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#4
Kevin Sugier, Benoit Vacherie, Astrid Cornils, Patrick Wincker, Jean-Louis Jamet, Mohammed-Amin Madoui
Among copepods, which are the most abundant animals on Earth, the genus Oithona is described as one of the most numerous and plays a major role in the marine food chain and biogeochemical cycles, particularly through the excretion of chitin-coated fecal pellets. Despite the morphology of several Oithona species is well known, knowledge of its internal anatomy and chitin distribution is still limited. To answer this problem, Oithona nana and O. similis individuals were stained by Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Fluorescein IsoThioCyanate (WGA-FITC) and DiAmidino-2-PhenylIndole (DAPI) for fluorescence microscopy observations...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778270/is-female-health-cyclical-evolutionary-perspectives-on-menstruation
#5
REVIEW
Alexandra Alvergne, Vedrana Högqvist Tabor
Why do some females menstruate at all? Answering this question has implications for understanding the tight links between reproductive function and organismal immunity. Here we build on the growing evidence that menstruation is the byproduct of a 'choosy uterus' to: (i) make the theoretical case for the idea that female immunity is cyclical in menstruating species, (ii) evaluate the evidence for the menstrual modulation of immunity and health in humans, and (iii) speculate on the implications of cyclical female health for female behaviour, male immunity, and host-pathogen interactions...
June 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775752/the-genetics-and-molecular-pathogenesis-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-in-populations-of-different-ancestry
#6
REVIEW
George N Goulielmos, Maria I Zervou, Vassilis M Vazgiourakis, Yogita Ghodke-Puranik, Alexandros Garyfallos, Timothy B Niewold
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; OMIM 152700) is a highly heterogeneous disorder, characterized by differences in autoantibody profile, serum cytokines, and a multi-system involvement commonly affecting the skin, renal, musculoskeletal, and hematopoetic systems clinical manifestations involving. Disease features range from mild manifestations, such as rash or arthritis, to life-threatening end-organ manifestations, such as glomerulonephritis or thrombosis, and it is difficult to predict which manifestations will affect a given patient...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775751/expression-pattern-and-functional-analysis-of-the-two-ring-box-protein-rbx-in-spermatogenesis-of-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#7
Jia-Shun Zhang, Xue-Jie Li, Lei Yang, Wei-Wei Li, Qun Wang
Studies in E. sinensis have shown that ubiquitination mediated by Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) plays important roles in spermatogenesis. In other species, CRLs are also essential in cell cycle progression, DNA replication, signal transduction, gene transcription, and development. The catalytic RING component, the RING box protein, is an important part of CRLs. However, there have been few studies on CRLs in crustaceans. In this study, we cloned two RING box protein genes from the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, termed Es-RBX1 and Es-RBX2 The full length Es-RBX1 cDNA comprises 741 nucleotides, and encodes a protein of 124 amino acid residues, whereas the Es-RBX2 cDNA comprises 1325 nucleotides, and encodes a protein of 110 amino acid residues...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774754/effect-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-on-the-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-reproduction-in-adult-male-rats-and-its-relationship-to-anxiogenic-behavior-participation-of-gabaergic-system
#8
S Carbone, O J Ponzo, N Gobetto, Y A Samaniego, R Reynoso, J A Moguilevsky, R A Cutrera
The endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used in a variety of consumer products made with polyvinyl chloride and also in the manufacture of medical devices. DEHP disrupts reproductive tract development in an antiandrogenic manner and also may induce neurobehavioral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic postnatal exposure to DEHP (30 mg/kg body weight/day, orally from birth to day 60) on the neuroendocrine regulation of the gonadal axis and its impact on the anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats, as well as the probable participation of the GABAergic system in these effects...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774504/environmental-toxins-and-male-fertility
#9
REVIEW
Mahmoud Mima, David Greenwald, Samuel Ohlander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Global industrialization has increased population exposure to environmental toxins. A global decline in sperm quality over the last few decades raises questions about the adverse impact of environmental toxins on male reproductive health. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple animal- and human-based studies on exposure to environmental toxins suggest a negative impact on semen quality, in terms of sperm concentration, motility, and/or morphology. These toxins may exert estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects, which in turn alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA), induce sperm DNA damage, or cause sperm epigenetic changes...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773976/facing-the-challenges-of-neuropeptide-gene-knockouts-why-do-they-not-inhibit-reproduction-in-adult-teleost-fish
#10
REVIEW
Vance L Trudeau
Genetic manipulation of teleost endocrine systems started with transgenic overexpression of pituitary growth hormone. Such strategies enhance growth and reduce fertility, but the fish still breed. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease in zebrafish and medaka has established the role of follicle stimulating hormone for gonadal development and luteinizing hormone for ovulation. Attempts to genetically manipulate the hypophysiotropic neuropeptidergic systems have been less successful...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771299/at-the-crossroads-of-fate-somatic-cell-lineage-specification-in-the-fetal-gonad
#11
Emmi Rotgers, Anne Jørgensen, Humphrey Hung-Chang Yao
The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal primordium. After separation of the adrenal and gonadal primordia, the gonadal somatic cells initiate sex-specific differentiation during gonadal sex determination with the specification of the supporting cell lineages: Sertoli cells in the testis vs...
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770362/study-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-preliminary-results
#12
Manuela Ergoli, Massimo Venditti, Raffaele Dotolo, Esther Picillo, Sergio Minucci, Luisa Politano
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a multisystemic disorder characterized by myotonia, muscle weakness and involvement of several organs and apparatus such as heart, lungs, eye, brain and endocrine system. Hypogonadism and reproductive abnormalities are frequently reported. A progressive testicular atrophy occurs in about 80% in the affected males leading to Leydig cell hyperproliferation and elevated basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) - a dimeric glycoprotein belonging to the super-family of transforming grow factor beta (TGF-beta) - is the earliest Sertoli cell hormone secreted in males and, together with inhibin B and FSH, is an important indicator of Sertoli cell function...
December 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769422/melatonin-receptors-subtypes-mt1-and-mt2-in-the-uterus-masculinus-of-mature-male-european-bison-biological-and-seasonal-reproductive-role
#13
A Tabecka-Lonczynska, J Mytych, P Solek, M Kulpa-Greszta, M Koziorowski
Regulation of seasonality in reproduction is closely related to melatonin and circadian rhythms. Melatonin affects the functions of reproductive organs through membrane melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. The current knowledge about the presence, location and function of MT1 and MT2 receptors in the reproductive tract of an adult male European bison, seasonally breeding animal, is still missing. Frequently occurring organ in the male reproductive system of the European bison is uterus masculinus, what seems to confirm its specific role in seasonal reproduction control...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767280/carnosine-and-histidine-supplementation-blunt-lead-induced-reproductive-toxicity-through-antioxidative-and-mitochondria-dependent-mechanisms
#14
Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Zilong Sun, Mohammad Javad Zamiri, Forouzan Khodaei, Saeed Mousapour, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Nafiseh Javanmard, Babak Shirazi Yeganeh
Lead (Pb)-induced reproductive toxicity is a well-characterized adverse effect associated with this heavy metal. It has been found that Pb exposure is associated with altered spermatogenesis, increased testicular degeneration, and pathological sperm alterations. On the other hand, it has been reported that Pb-induced reproductive toxicity is associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and diminished antioxidant capacity in the reproductive system. Hence, administration of antioxidants as protective agents might be of value against Pb-induced reproductive toxicity...
May 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766538/chronic-exposure-to-cannabidiol-induces-reproductive-toxicity-in-male-swiss-mice
#15
Renata K Carvalho, Monaliza L Santos, Maingredy R Souza, Thiago L Rocha, Francisco S Guimarães, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Renata Mazaro-Costa
Children and adults with frequent and severe episodes of epilepsy that do not respond to standard treatments (such as carbamazepine, phenytoin and valproate) have long been prescribed cannabidiol (CBD) as an anticonvulsant drug. However, the safety of its chronic use in relation to reproduction has not been fully examined. This study aimed to assess the effects of chronic CBD exposure on the male reproductive system. CBD was orally administered to 21-day-old male Swiss mice at doses of 15 and 30 mg kg-1 daily (CBD 15 and 30 groups, respectively), with a control group receiving sunflower oil, for 34 consecutive days...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764960/a-genomic-region-containing-rec8-and-rnf212b-is-associated-with-individual-recombination-rate-variation-in-a-wild-population-of-red-deer-cervus-elaphus
#16
Susan E Johnston, Jisca Huisman, Josephine M Pemberton
Recombination is a fundamental feature of sexual reproduction, ensuring proper disjunction, preventing mutation accumulation and generating new allelic combinations upon which selection can act. However it is also mutagenic, and breaks up favourable allelic combinations previously built up by selection. Identifying the genetic drivers of recombination rate variation is a key step in understanding the causes and consequences of this variation, how loci associated with recombination are evolving and how they affect the potential of a population to respond to selection...
May 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760811/global-dna-methylation-changes-spanning-puberty-are-near-predicted-estrogen-responsive-genes-and-enriched-for-genes-involved-in-endocrine-and-immune-processes
#17
Emma E Thompson, Jessie Nicodemus-Johnson, Kyung Won Kim, James E Gern, Daniel J Jackson, Robert F Lemanske, Carole Ober
Background: The changes that occur during puberty have been implicated in susceptibility to a wide range of diseases later in life, many of which are characterized by sex-specific differences in prevalence. Both genetic and environmental factors have been associated with the onset or delay of puberty, and recent evidence has suggested a role for epigenetic changes in the initiation of puberty as well. Objective: To identify global DNA methylation changes that arise across the window of puberty in girls and boys...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753534/phenotypic-varieties-of-sperm-pathology-genetic-abnormalities-or-environmental-influences-can-result-in-different-patterns-of-abnormal-spermatozoa
#18
REVIEW
Hector E Chemes
The present paper reviews in detail ultrastructural and molecular studies addressed to characterize different phenotypes of sperm pathology in sterile men. In each case ultrastructural, immunocytochemical, molecular and genetic information is provided to differentiate two main kinds of sperm pathologies: systematic phenotypes with known or suspected genetic origin and non-systematic ones, usually secondary to different pathologies of the male reproductive system. Special attention is paid to detailed ultrastructural features profusely illustrated with electron micrographs...
April 20, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750559/morph-specific-patterns-of-reproductive-senescence-connections-to-discrete-reproductive-strategies
#19
Andrea S Grunst, Melissa L Grunst, Vince A Formica, Marisa L Korody, Adam M Betuel, Margarida Barcelo-Serra, Sarah Ford, Rusty A Gonser, Elaina M Tuttle
How reproductive strategies contribute to patterns of senescence in natural populations remains contentious. We studied reproductive senescence in the dimorphic white-throated sparrow, an excellent species for exploring this issue. Within both sexes the morphs use distinct reproductive strategies, and disassortative pairing by morph results in pair types with distinct parental systems. White morph birds are more colorful and aggressive than tan counterparts, and white males compete for extrapair matings, whereas tan males are more parental...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750393/losp-a-putative-marker-of-parasperm-lineage-in-male-reproductive-system-of-the-prosobranch-mollusk-littorina-obtusata
#20
Arseniy A Lobov, Arina L Maltseva, Viktor V Starunov, Irina Y Babkina, Vadim A Ivanov, Natalia A Mikhailova, Andrey I Granovitch
Reproductive isolation is the key attribute of biological species and establishment of the reproductive barriers is an essential event for speciation. Among the mechanisms of reproductive isolation, gamete incompatibility due to the variability of gamete interaction proteins may drive fast divergence even in sympatry. However, the number of available models to study this phenomenon is limited. In case of internally fertilized invertebrates, models to study gamete incompatibility and sperm competition mechanisms are restricted to a single taxon: insects...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
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