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Male reproductive system

Wei Zhou, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Matthew D Dun, Brett Nixon
The testicular spermatozoa of all mammalian species are considered functionally immature owing to their inability to swim in a progressive manner and engage in productive interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex. The ability to express these key functional attributes develops progressively during the cells' descent through the epididymis, a highly specialized ductal system that forms an integral part of the male reproductive tract. The functional maturation of the spermatozoon is achieved via continuous interactions with the epididymal luminal microenvironment and remarkably, occurs in the complete absence of de novo gene transcription or protein translation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
S C Mills, J L O'Donnell, G Bernardi, R Beldade
Group-living animals commonly display differences in behaviour, physiology and endocrine profiles between conspecifics within the group, which are tightly linked to reproduction. Teleosts exhibit a variety of social systems, where social status, as well as sex, has been linked to different androgen and oestrogen profiles. Levels of gonadal androgen and oestrogen were investigated as a function of sex and position in a social hierarchy in free-living individuals of the skunk anemonefish Amphiprion akallopisos, a protandrous pomacentrid fish with a size-based dominance hierarchical social system...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
A G V Salvanes, M J Gibbons
The oceans of the world are slowly losing oxygen, in part because of climate change and in part because of anthropogenic eutrophication. This deoxygenation affects marine organisms in species-specific ways. This paper reviews what is known on how hypoxia tolerant species respond to low dissolved oxygen, using the bearded goby Sufflogobius bibarbatus as a model system. This species is endemic to the Benguela upwelling ecosystem, where, off Namibia, 9000 km2 of the shelf is hypoxic. Here, the species is now considered central to ecosystem functioning and in recent decades it has sustained commercial fisheries...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
M J Schulze, R Henriques, K A Feldheim, R C K Bowie, S von der Heyden
Fishes belonging to the family Clinidae in South Africa display super-embryonation, a rare reproductive mode were females gestate broods at different gestational stages, but little is known regarding the mating systems of this family. Here we tested the hypothesis that multiple males would contribute not only to the offspring of each female, but that several males would contribute to each brood, by sampling Muraenoclinus dorsalis from three sampling locations along the west and south-west coast of South Africa...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Maria Maiarù, Oakley B Morgan, Tianqi Mao, Michaela Breitsamer, Harry Bamber, Max Pöhlmann, Mathias V Schmidt, Gerhard Winter, Felix Hausch, Sandrine M Géranton
It is well-established that FKBP51 regulates the stress system by modulating the sensitivity of the glucocorticoid receptor to stress hormones. Recently, we have demonstrated that FKBP51 also drives long-term inflammatory pain states in male mice by modulating glucocorticoid-signalling at spinal cord level. Here, we explored the potential of FKBP51 as a new pharmacological target for the treatment of persistent pain across the sexes. First, we demonstrated that FKBP51 regulates long-term pain states of different aetiologies independently of sex...
March 12, 2018: Pain
Alison R Gerken, James F Campbell
Controlling postharvest pest species is a costly process with insecticide resistance and species-specific control requiring multiple tactics. Mating disruption (MD) can be used to both decrease a female's access to males and delay timing of mating and decreases overall mating success in a population and population growth rate. Development of new commercially available MD products requires an understanding of life history parameters associated with mating delay. These can provide information for targeting proportions of reproducing individuals using MD...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Steven Ger Nyanjom, Cyrus Tare, Fred Wamunyokoli, George Fredrick Obiero
Tsetse flies (Glossina) are vectors of African trypanosomiasis. Olfaction plays a critical role in Glossina behavior, including larviposition, feeding, and reproduction. Odorant receptors (ORs) are important in insect chemoreception as they bind volatile odorants and transport them to olfactory receptor neurons to elicit behavioral response. To better understand Glossina chemoreception, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction to examine the expression levels of ORs in female and male Glossina morsitans morsitans Wiedemann, 1850 (Diptera: Glossinidae) antennae and legs...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Carolina Mondillo, María Luisa Varela, Adriana María Belén Abiuso, Ramiro Vázquez
Histamine (HA) is a pleiotropic biogenic amine synthesized exclusively by histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in most mammalian tissues. The literature on the role of HA within the male gonad has expanded over the last years, attracting attention to potential unexpected side-effects of anti-histamines on testicular function. In this regard, HA receptors (HRH1, HRH2 and HRH4) have been described in Leydig cells of different species, including human. Via these receptors, HA has been reported to trigger positive or negative interactions with the LH/hCG signaling pathway depending upon its concentration, thereby contributing to the local control of testicular androgen levels...
March 9, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
J Das Neves, I E J Barnhoorn, G M Wagenaar
The organochlorine pesticides aldrin (0.14 μg/L) and methoxychlor (0.23 μg/L) were both present in the Albasini Dam, Limpopo Province, South Africa, during a field survey in 2014. The use of aldrin has been banned in the USA since 1987 and restricted in South Africa since 1992. The use of methoxychlor, however, remains undefined with little information available about its registration in South Africa despite being banned in Europe (2002) and USA (2003). The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of aldrin and methoxychlor on the reproductive system of male catfish, Clarias gariepinus...
March 9, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Chenyang Yue, Qi Li, Hong Yu
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is a commercially important bivalve in aquaculture worldwide. C. gigas has a fascinating sexual reproduction system consisting of dioecism, sex change, and occasional hermaphroditism, while knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation is still limited. In this study, the transcriptomes of male and female gonads at different gametogenesis stages were characterized by RNA-seq. Hierarchical clustering based on genes differentially expressed revealed that 1269 genes were expressed specifically in female gonads and 817 genes were expressed increasingly over the course of spermatogenesis...
March 8, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Maria V Drahulian, Polina V Buchek, Tamara P Gulko
Background: Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system...
March 2018: EPMA Journal
Tabata Mariz Bohlen, Marina Augusto Silveira, Daniella do Carmo Buonfiglio, Hildebrando Candido Ferreira-Neto, José Cipolla-Neto, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
The reproduction of seasonal breeders is modulated by exposure to light in an interval of 24 h defined as photoperiod. The interruption of reproductive functions in seasonally breeding rodents is accompanied by the suppression of the Kiss1 gene expression, which is known to be essential for reproduction. In non-seasonal male rodents, such as rats and mice, short-day photoperiod (SP) conditions or exogenous melatonin treatment also have anti-gonadotropic effects; however, whether photoperiod is able to modulate the puberty onset or Kiss1 gene expression in mice is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Zi-Ling Wang, Lin-Bo Chen, Zhu Qiu, Xiong-Bin Chen, Ying Liu, Jing Li, Lu Wang, Ya-Ping Wang
With the growing population, aging, extended lifespans and anti-aging have become popular areas of research in the life and social sciences. With increasing age, the structure and function of the testes, the spermatogenetic and androgen‑producing organ in the male reproductive system, gradually declines. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an extract of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine. The extract facilitates anti‑aging through its anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, it has not been reported whether ginsenoside Rg1 delays testicular aging...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Susana I L Gomes, Carlos P Roca, Natália Pegoraro, Tito Trindade, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
The current testing of nanomaterials (NMs) via standard toxicity tests does not cover many of the NMs specificities. One of the recommendations lays on understanding the mechanisms of action, as these can help predicting long-term effects and safe-by-design production. In the present study, we used the high-throughput gene expression tool, developed for Enchytraeus crypticus (4 × 44k Agilent microarray), to study the effects of exposure to several copper (Cu) forms. The Cu treatments included two NMs (spherical and wires) and two copper-salt treatments (CuNO3 spiked and Cu salt field historical contamination)...
March 5, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Estelle Lecluze, Bernard Jégou, Antoine D Rolland, Frédéric Chalmel
The testis plays a central role in the male reproductive system - secreting several hormones including male steroids and producing male gametes. A complex and coordinated molecular program is required for the proper differentiation of testicular cell types and maintenance of their functions in adulthood. The testicular transcriptome displays the highest levels of complexity and specificity across all tissues in a wide range of species. Many studies have used high-throughput sequencing technologies to define the molecular dynamics and regulatory networks in the testis as well as to identify novel genes or gene isoforms expressed in this organ...
March 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Arnold De Loof
Are sex and gende r interchangeable terms? In classical biology, both are sometimes but not always used on an equal basis for some groups of animals. However, for our own species the Homo sapiens, they are not. A major question is why are there only two types of gametes (sperm- and egg cells), two types of sex steroids, (androgens and estrogens in vertebrates, and two types of ecdysteroids in insects), while the reproduction-related behaviour of the gamete producers displays a much greater variability than just two prominent forms, namely heterosexual males and heterosexual females? It indicates that in addition to a few sex-determining genes ( = the first pillar), other factors play a role...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Cory Becher, Jennifer M Gumm
Male-male competition and female mate choice may both play important roles in driving and maintaining reproductive isolation between species. When previously allopatric species come into secondary contact with each other due to introductions, they provide an opportunity to evaluate the identity and strength of reproductive isolating mechanisms. If reproductive isolation is not maintained, hybridization may occur. We examined how reproductive isolating mechanisms mediate hybridization between endemic populations of the Red River pupfish Cyprinodon rubrofluviatilis and the recently introduced sheepshead minnow C...
February 2018: Current Zoology
David Bierbach, Lenin Arias-Rodriguez, Martin Plath
During adaptation to different habitat types, both morphological and behavioral traits can undergo divergent selection. Males often fight for status in dominance hierarchies and rank positions predict reproductive success. Ecotypes with reduced fighting abilities should have low reproductive success when migrating into habitats that harbor ecotypes with superior fighting abilities. Livebearing fishes in the Poecilia mexicana -species complex inhabit not only regular freshwater environments, but also independently colonized sulfidic (H2 S-containing) habitats in three river drainages...
February 2018: Current Zoology
Sara E Lipshutz
Research on sexual selection and hybridization has focused on female mate choice and male-male competition. While the evolutionary outcomes of interspecific female preference have been well explored, we are now gaining a better understanding of the processes by which male-male competition between species in secondary contact promotes reproductive isolation versus hybridization. What is relatively unexplored is the interaction between female choice and male competition, as they can oppose one another or align with similar outcomes for reproductive isolation...
February 2018: Current Zoology
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