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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527569/estrogen-hormone-biology
#1
Katherine J Hamilton, Sylvia C Hewitt, Yukitomo Arao, Kenneth S Korach
The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanism with direct DNA binding but also a nongenomic mode of action and one using tethered or indirect binding...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526326/effects-on-the-reproductive-system-of-young-male-rats-of-subcutaneous-exposure-to-n-butylparaben
#2
Tania Garcia, Elga Schreiber, Vikas Kumar, Raju Prasad, Juan J Sirvent, Jose L Domingo, Mercedes Gómez
This study was aimed at determining whether an in vivo subcutaneous exposure to n-butylparaben (n-ButP) during one complete spermatogenic cycle could be harmful to the reproductive system of young male rats. Animals were subcutaneously given 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of n-ButP with vehicle (peanut oil). Body and organ weights, n-ButP excretion, biochemical parameters, sperm and spermatid count, sperm motility, viability, maturity and morphology were examined. Results showed that after a completed spermatogenic cycle, although n-ButP did not induce dose-related changes in the different biochemical parameters, a significant decrease of triacylglicerides (TAG) -due to the vehicle-was found...
May 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525858/effects-of-intermediate-frequency-magnetic-fields-on-male-fertility-indicators-in-mice
#3
K Kumari, M Capstick, A M Cassara, M Herrala, H Koivisto, J Naarala, H Tanila, M Viluksela, J Juutilainen
Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to new applications such as electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer and induction heating cookers. However, limited data is available on effects of IF magnetic fields (MF) on male fertility function. This study was conducted to assess possible effects on fertility indicators from exposure to IF MF. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed continuously for 5 weeks to 7.5kHz MF at 12 and 120μT. Sperm cells from cauda epididymis were analysed for motility, total sperm counts, and head abnormalities...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525341/morphological-analysis-of-testicles-in-cats-with-disorders-of-sex-development
#4
S Dzimira, W Nizanski, J A Madej
Disorders of sex development (DSD) are rare in cats. They can be caused by chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations or other undefined factors. The aim of the present study was to compare the histological structure and immunohistochemical reactivity of testes in cats with DSD and in healthy cats. The research material consisted of the gonads of four cats - phenotypic males with an incorrect structure of the reproductive system. The control group consisted of the testes of four healthy cats - routinely castrated phenotypical males...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515890/sex-dependent-infection-causes-nonadditive-effects-on-kissing-bug-fecundity
#5
Carezza Botto-Mahan, Verónica Campos, Rodrigo Medel
The influence of parasites on host reproduction has been widely studied in natural and experimental conditions. Most studies, however, have evaluated the parasite impact on female hosts only, neglecting the contribution of males for host reproduction. This omission is unfortunate as sex-dependent infection may have important implications for host-parasite associations. Here, we evaluate for the first time the independent and nonindependent effects of gender infection on host reproductive success using the kissing bug Mepraia spinolai and the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi as model system...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515879/sexual-signals-reflect-telomere-dynamics-in-a-wild-bird
#6
Conor Claverie Taff, Corey R Freeman-Gallant
Telomere dynamics in natural populations have been linked to survival, reproduction, and energetic investment. Given their putative role in mediating life-history trade-offs, telomeres are also a likely candidate for maintaining honesty in sexually selected signals; few studies to date, however, have demonstrated a correlation between sexual signals and telomere dynamics. Here, we show that plumage coloration in male common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) is correlated with both relative telomere length and with the rate of telomere loss between years...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512374/description-of-enchodorus-yeatsi-n-sp-dorylaimida-nordiidae-from-southern-iran-and-its-molecular-phylogenetic-study
#7
Majid Pedram
Enchodorus yeatsi n. sp., a new species of the rare genus Enchodorus is described and illustrated based on its morphological and molecular characters. It was recovered from southern Iran. Females of the new species are characterized by having 1,511.3- to 1,792.5-µm long slender body, angular lip region having prominent papillae, 12- to 13-µm long odontostyle, double guiding ring, simple rod-like odontophore, didelphic-amphidelphic reproductive system, and 102- to 160-µm long elongate-conoid tail with rounded tip...
March 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510703/long-chain-fatty-acid-triglyceride-tg-metabolism-disorder-impairs-male-fertility-a-study-using-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-deficient-mice
#8
Hidetake Masaki, Namhyo Kim, Hitomi Nakamura, Keiichi Kumasawa, Eriko Kamata, Ken-Ichi Hirano, Tadashi Kimura
STUDY QUESTION: Does the deletion of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) gene impair male fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: The deletion of Atgl gene impaired male fertility but the effect was partially reversed by a low long chain triglyceride (TG) diet. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ATGL specifically hydrolyses long-chain fatty acid triglyceride (TG) to diacylglycerol and a high level of expression of ATGL in testes has been reported. However, the role of ATGL in male fertility is unknown...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506992/reduced-mad2-levels-dampen-apoptotic-response-to-non-exchange-sex-chromosomes-and-lead-to-sperm-aneuploidy
#9
Imrul Faisal, Liisa Kauppi
In meiosis, non-exchange homologous chromosomes are at risk for missegregation and should be monitored by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to avoid formation of aneuploid gametes. Sex chromosome missegregation is particularly common and can lead to sterility or to aneuploid offspring (e.g. individuals with Turner or Klinefelter syndrome). Despite major implications for health and reproduction, modifiers of meiotic SAC robustness and the subsequent apoptotic response in male mammals remain obscure. Levels of SAC proteins, e...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504114/a-shortened-tamoxifen-induction-scheme-to-induce-creer-recombinase-without-side-effects-on-the-male-mouse-skeleton
#10
Ferran Jardí, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Rougin Khalil, Ludo Deboel, Dieter Schollaert, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren
The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen exerts estrogen agonistic or antagonistic actions on several tissues, including bone. The off-target effects of tamoxifen are one of the most widely recognized pitfalls of tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinases (CreERs), potentially confounding the phenotypic findings. Still, the validation of tamoxifen induction schemes that minimize the side effects of the drug has not been addressed. Here, we compared the side effects on the skeleton and other androgen-responsive targets of a shortened tamoxifen regimen (2 doses of 190 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage) to a standard protocol (4 doses) and determined their efficiency in inducing CreER-mediated gene deletion...
May 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502228/the-toxic-effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyl-aroclor-1242-on-tm3-leydig-cells
#11
Yasemin Aydin, Melike Erkan
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine function in biological systems, especially in the male reproductive system. Previous studies on the reproductive toxicity of PCBs have focused on the impairment of spermatogenesis, disruption of steroidogenesis, decreased sperm number, and infertility. Aroclor 1242 is a commercial mixture with an average of 42% chlorine by weight. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the hazardous effects of Aroclor 1242 on Leydig cells through an evaluation of cell viability, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radicals, H2O2 production, antioxidant enzymes, and steroidogenic enzymes...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501790/obesity-aggravates-toxic-effect-of-bpa-on-spermatogenesis
#12
Weiyue Hu, Tianyu Dong, Lingling Wang, Quanquan Guan, Ling Song, Daozhen Chen, Zuomin Zhou, Minjian Chen, Yankai Xia, Xinru Wang
Both bisphenol A (BPA) and obesity affect male reproductive system. However, whether there is an interaction between them remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interaction between BPA exposure and obesity on semen quality and elucidate the mechanism in humans and animals. We firstly analyzed the interaction on semen volume, sperm count per ejaculate, sperm concentration and sperm motility in 357 men, and found that urinary BPA concentration was significantly correlated with sperm count per ejaculate in obese men (β=-34...
May 11, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495475/ameliorative-effects-of-achillea-millefolium-inflorescences-alcoholic-extract-against-nicotine-induced-reproductive-failure-in-rat
#13
M Hallaj Salahipour, Sh Hasanzadeh, H Malekinejad
BACKGROUND: Nicotine (Nic) is a major risk factor in the development of functional disorders of male reproductive system. Achillea millefolium; is highly regarded for medicinal activities, due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was carried out to evaluate whether Achillea millefolium (Achm) inflorescences alcoholic extract could serve as a protective agent in male reproductive male failures during Nic exposure in a rat model. METHODS: Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were categorized into the five groups...
May 8, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493870/functional-male-accessory-glands-and-fertility-in-drosophila-require-novel-ecdysone-receptor
#14
Vandana Sharma, Anuj K Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Snigdha Misra, Himanshu P K Gupta, Snigdha Gupta, Anshuman Singh, Norene A Buehner, Kristipati Ravi Ram
In many insects, the accessory gland, a secretory tissue of the male reproductive system, is essential for male fertility. Male accessory gland is the major source of proteinaceous secretions, collectively called as seminal proteins (or accessory gland proteins), which upon transfer, manipulate the physiology and behavior of mated females. Insect hormones such as ecdysteroids and juvenoids play a key role in accessory gland development and protein synthesis but little is known about underlying molecular players and their mechanism of action...
May 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492802/gonadotrophic-prolactin-corticosterone-and-gonadal-hormones-levels-over-15-months-in-giant-amazon-river-turtles-podocnemis-expansa-schweigger-1812-testudines-podocnemididae-in-captive-conditions
#15
G E Freneau, V A Sá, C R Franci, D Vieira, B N Freneau
In order to achieve successful captive breeding the Podocnemis expansa, it is necessary to study their reproductive endocrinology. The purpose of this research was to evaluate and characterize plasma concentrations in gonadotrophic, gonadic, corticosterone and prolactin hormones from Giant Amazon Turtles under captive conditions. Blood samples were collected over a 15 month period. The samples were assayed by the use of radioimmunoassay, prolactin, corticosterone, LH, FSH, testosterone, 17β-estradiol and progesterone...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492799/reproductive-biology-of-endemic-solanum-melissarum-bohs-solanaceae-and-updating-of-its-current-geographic-distribution-as-the-basis-for-its-conservation-in-the-brazilian-cerrado
#16
C P Coelho, D C Gomes, F A G Guilherme, L F Souza
The genus Solanum (family Solanaceae) includes more than 1400 species and has buzz-pollinated flowers with poricidal anthers. The present study aimed to describe the distribution, breeding system and pollination mechanism of Solanum melissarum, a species endemic to Brazil. The study of breeding system was conducted in an urban forest fragment in Jataí, GO. Distribution data were gathered from floristic surveys and digital plant databases. The floral morphology and the pollination mechanism were studied on through field observations and preserved flowers...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485778/toxic-effects-of-ketamine-on-reproductive-system-via-disrupting-hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis
#17
L Qi, J-Y Liu, Y-L Zhu, W Liu, S-D Zhang, W-B Liu, J-J Jiang
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we focused on the toxic effect of ketamine on the reproductive system in male rats and its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=10), i.e. a control group and 3 ketamine groups (high-dose, mid-dose, low-dose). Animals in the ketamine groups received an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (20, 40 or 60 mg/kg) every 3 days for 7 times. Control rats were injected with normal saline instead...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482992/barriers-to-use-of-family-planning-methods-among-heterosexual-mexican-couples
#18
María Luisa Flores Arias, Jane Dimmitt Champion, Norma Elva Sáenz Soto, Marlene Tovar, Sandra Paloma Esparza Dávila
BACKGROUND: Family planning has become increasingly important as a fundamental component of sexual health and as such is offered via public health systems worldwide. Identification of barriers to use of family planning methods among heterosexual couples living in Mexico is indicated to facilitate access to family planning methods. METHODS: Barriers to family planning methods were assessed among Mexican heterosexual, sexually active males and females of reproductive age, using a modified Spanish version of the Barriers to the Use of Family Planning Methods scale (Cronbach's alpha = ...
May 1, 2017: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482843/sero-prevalence-of-specific-leptospira-serovars-in-fattening-pigs-from-5-provinces-in-vietnam
#19
Hu Suk Lee, Nguyen Viet Khong, Huyen Nguyen Xuan, Vuong Bui Nghia, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Delia Grace
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with a worldwide distribution. In Vietnam, leptospirosis is considered endemic. In pigs, leptospirosis can result in reproductive problems (such as abortion and infertility) which lead to economic loss. In addition, transmission to people presents a public health risk. In Vietnam, few national studies have been conducted on sero-prevalence of leptospirosis in pigs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the sero-prevalence and incidence of presumptive infective leptospira serovars in fattening pigs from 5 provinces in Vietnam...
May 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482339/sex-differences-in-forebrain-monoaminergic-response-to-song-performance
#20
Susan M Lyons, Keith W Sockman
In many species, successful reproduction is dependent on the ability to adjust social behavior in response to an ever-changing social environment. Because a sexual signal's value and meaning can differ between females and males, responses to those signals should also differ. One way individuals can modulate social behavior is through experience-dependent modulation of the sensory systems that process social signals. Central monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin) modulate neural sensitivity to social stimuli and are key regulators of experience-dependent neuroplasticity in vertebrate sensory systems...
May 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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