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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336491/effect-of-sex-steroid-hormone-fluctuations-in-the-pathophysiology-of-male-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#1
Carlo Astarita, Barbara D'Angelo-Maansson, Mina Massaro-Giordano, Maria Pia Alba, Silvia Boffo, Ilaria Macchi, Antonio Giordano, Marcella Macaluso
Gender-based differences may influence the occurrence of several ocular conditions suggesting the possibility that fluctuations in sex steroid homeostasis may have direct effects on the eye physiology. Here, we evaluated the effect of sex steroid hormone fluctuations in male retinal pigment epithelial cells, RPEs (ARPE-19). To mimic hormonal fluctuations occurring during aging, we exposed ARPE-19 to acute, prolonged or chronic estradiol and progesterone challenges. We found that chronic estradiol treatment promotes a remarkable necrosis of RPE cells, and does not affect pRb2/p130 or PAI-2 sub-cellular localization...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334211/curcumin-and-quercetin-ameliorated-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin-induced-reproductive-system-impairment-in-male-wistar-rats-by-upregulating-the-activity-of-pituitary-gonadal-hormones-and-steroidogenic-enzymes
#2
Poonam Sharma, Irshad Aslam Khan, Rambir Singh
Background: Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp) and deltamethrin (Del) and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals...
April 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328538/conflict-between-heterozygote-advantage-and-hybrid-incompatibility-in-haplodiploids-and-sex-chromosomes
#3
Ana-Hermina Ghenu, Alexandre Blanckaert, Roger K Butlin, Jonna Kulmuni, Claudia Bank
In many diploid species the sex chromosomes play a special role in mediating reproductive isolation. In haplodiploids, where females are diploid and males haploid, the whole genome behaves similarly to the X/Z chromosomes of diploids. Therefore, haplodiploid systems can serve as a model for the role of sex chromosomes in speciation and hybridization. A previously described population of Finnish Formica wood ants displays genome-wide signs of ploidally and sexually antagonistic selection resulting from hybridization...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328408/genistein-attenuates-di%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-induced-testicular-injuries-via-activation-of-nrf2-ho%C3%A2-1-following-prepubertal-exposure
#4
Liandong Zhang, Hecheng Li, Ming Gao, Tongdian Zhang, Zhizhong Wu, Ziming Wang, Tie Chong
Di‑(2‑ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and genistein (GEN) are of the most common endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) present in the environment or the diet. However, investigation of the effects of acute exposure to these two EDCs during prepuberty has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague‑Dawley rats by gavage from PND22 to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, DEHP50, 150 and 450 mg/kg bw/day, and combined treatment. Reproductive parameters including testis weight, anogenital distance and organ coefficient were evaluated on PND36...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325824/in-utero-combined-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-diethyl-phthalate-exposure-cumulatively-impairs-rat-fetal-leydig-cell-development
#5
Guoxin Hu, Junwei Li, Yuanyuan Shan, Xiaoheng Li, Qiqi Zhu, Huitao Li, Yiyan Wang, Xiaofang Chen, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge
Phthalate diesters, including di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP), are chemicals to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. Humans are exposed simultaneously to multiple environmental chemicals, including DEHP and DEP. There is little information available about how each chemical may interact to each other if they were exposed at same time. The present study investigated effects of the combinational exposure of rats to DEP and DEHP on fetal Leydig cell development. The results showed that the gestational (GD12-20) exposure of DEP + DEHP resulted in synergistic and/or dose-additive effects on the development of fetal Leydig cell...
January 8, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324596/preterm-delivery-and-low-birth-weight-among-neonates-conceived-with-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-compared-with-conventional-in-vitro-fertilization
#6
Sanaz Keyhan, Tracy Truong, Yi-Ju Li, Tia Jackson-Bey, Jennifer L Eaton
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) among singletons conceived with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) compared with those conceived with conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: Using the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing a first, fresh autologous ICSI or conventional IVF cycle from 2004 to 2013. Singleton live births were included in the analysis...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321918/reproductive-management-in-dairy-cows-the-future
#7
REVIEW
Mark A Crowe, Miel Hostens, Geert Opsomer
Background: Drivers of change in dairy herd health management include the significant increase in herd/farm size, quota removal (within Europe) and the increase in technologies to aid in dairy cow reproductive management. Main body: There are a number of key areas for improving fertility management these include: i) handling of substantial volumes of data, ii) genetic selection (including improved phenotypes for use in breeding programmes), iii) nutritional management (including transition cow management), iv) control of infectious disease, v) reproductive management (and automated systems to improve reproductive management), vi) ovulation / oestrous synchronisation, vii) rapid diagnostics of reproductive status, and viii) management of male fertility...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321869/imitating-the-cost-of-males-a-hypothesis-for-coexistence-of-all-female-sperm-dependent-species-and-their-sexual-host
#8
Christelle Leung, Bernard Angers
All-female sperm-dependent species are particular asexual organisms that must coexist with a closely related sexual host for reproduction. However, demographic advantages of asexual over sexual species that have to produce male individuals could lead both to extinction. The unresolved question of their coexistence still challenges and fascinates evolutionary biologists. As an alternative hypothesis, we propose those asexual organisms are afflicted by a demographic cost analogous to the production of males to prevent exclusion of the host...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313303/ecologically-relevant-exposure-to-methylmercury-during-early-development-does-not-affect-adult-phenotype-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#9
Spencer A M Morran, John E Elliott, Jessica M L Young, Margaret L Eng, Niladri Basu, Tony D Williams
Methylmercury causes behavioural and reproductive effects in adult mammals via early developmental exposure. Similar studies in birds are limited and mostly focussed on aquatic systems, but recent work has reported high blood mercury concentrations in terrestrial, passerine songbirds. We used the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model to explore the long-term effects of early developmental exposure to methylmercury exposure. Chicks were dosed orally with either the vehicle control, 0.0315 µg Hg/g bw/day, or 0...
January 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311328/modeling-lethal-x-linked-genetic-disorders-in-pigs-with-ensured-fertility
#10
Hitomi Matsunari, Masahito Watanabe, Kazuaki Nakano, Shin Enosawa, Kazuhiro Umeyama, Ayuko Uchikura, Sayaka Yashima, Toru Fukuda, Nikolai Klymiuk, Mayuko Kurome, Barbara Kessler, Annegret Wuensch, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Eckhard Wolf, Yutaka Hanazono, Masaki Nagaya, Akihiro Umezawa, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Hiroshi Nagashima
Genetically engineered pigs play an indispensable role in the study of rare monogenic diseases. Pigs harboring a gene responsible for a specific disease can be efficiently generated via somatic cell cloning. The generation of somatic cell-cloned pigs from male cells with mutation(s) in an X chromosomal gene is a reliable and straightforward method for reproducing X-linked genetic diseases (XLGDs) in pigs. However, the severe symptoms of XLGDs are often accompanied by impaired growth and reproductive disorders, which hinder the reproduction of these valuable model animals...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311296/ibuprofen-alters-human-testicular-physiology-to-produce-a-state-of-compensated-hypogonadism
#11
David Møbjerg Kristensen, Christèle Desdoits-Lethimonier, Abigail L Mackey, Marlene Danner Dalgaard, Federico De Masi, Cecilie Hurup Munkbøl, Bjarne Styrishave, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Bruno Le Bizec, Christian Platel, Anders Hay-Schmidt, Tina Kold Jensen, Laurianne Lesné, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Karsten Kristiansen, Søren Brunak, Michael Kjaer, Anders Juul, Bernard Jégou
Concern has been raised over increased male reproductive disorders in the Western world, and the disruption of male endocrinology has been suggested to play a central role. Several studies have shown that mild analgesics exposure during fetal life is associated with antiandrogenic effects and congenital malformations, but the effects on the adult man remain largely unknown. Through a clinical trial with young men exposed to ibuprofen, we show that the analgesic resulted in the clinical condition named "compensated hypogonadism," a condition prevalent among elderly men and associated with reproductive and physical disorders...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303051/a-novel-function-of-geranylgeraniol-in-regulating-testosterone-production
#12
Hsin-Jung Ho, Hitoshi Shirakawa, Puspo E Giriwono, Asagi Ito, Michio Komai
Isoprenoids play widely differing roles in various physiological processes in animals and plants. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is an isoprenoid found in plants, and is an important metabolic derivative in the isoprenoid/cholesterol synthesis pathway. Earlier studies focused on GGOH's ability to improve the side effects of bisphosphonate therapy by regulating the mevalonate pathway. More recently, the mevalonate pathway-independent effects of GGOH have been described, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and neuroprotective activities...
January 5, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300822/spatio-temporal-arrangement-of-chamaerops-humilis-inflorescences-and-occupancy-patterns-by-its-nursery-pollinator-derelomus-chamaeropsis
#13
M E Jácome-Flores, Miguel Delibes, Thorsten Wiegand, José M Fedriani
Background and Aims: Nursery pollination is a highly specialized interaction in which pollinators breed inside plant reproductive structures. Pollinator occupancy of host plants often depends on plant location, flowering synchrony and sex. The nursery pollination system between the dioecious dwarf palm Chamaerops humilis (Arecaceae) and the host-specific palm flower weevil Derelomus chamaeropsis was investigated. For the first time, sex, flowering synchrony and spatial distribution of plants was related to the occupancy probability and the abundance of D...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299300/an-integrative-mating-system-assessment-of-a-nonmodel-economically-important-pacific-rockfish-sebastes-melanops-reveals-nonterritorial-polygamy-and-conservation-implications-for-a-large-species-flock
#14
Kurt W Karageorge, Raymond R Wilson
Characterizing the mating systems of long-lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity-assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, and reproductive life history traits-in the framework of sexual selection theory-to assess the mating system of Sebastes melanops...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299268/parasite-associated-mortality-in-a-long-lived-mammal-variation-with-host-age-sex-and-reproduction
#15
Carly L Lynsdale, Hannah S Mumby, Adam D Hayward, Khyne U Mar, Virpi Lummaa
Parasites can cause severe host morbidity and threaten survival. As parasites are generally aggregated within certain host demographics, they are likely to affect a small proportion of the entire population, with specific hosts being at particular risk. However, little is known as to whether increased host mortality from parasitic causes is experienced by specific host demographics. Outside of theoretical studies, there is a paucity of literature concerning dynamics of parasite-associated host mortality. Empirical evidence mainly focuses on short-lived hosts or model systems, with data lacking from long-lived wild or semi-wild vertebrate populations...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299205/the-correlation-of-anandamide-with-gonadotrophin-and-sex-steroid-hormones-during-the-menstrual-cycle
#16
Na Cui, Luning Wang, Wei Wang, Jie Zhang, Yueming Xu, Lei Jiang, Guimin Hao
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in plasma anandamide (AEA) levels throughout the normal menstrual cycle, and to analyze the relationship among AEA, sex steroids and gonadotrophins. Materials and Methods: The patients were fertile women with normal menstrual cycle, proposed to get in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment due to oviduct obstruction or male infertility. Patients were divided into two groups, cross-sectional (n=79) and longitudinal (n=10)...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298661/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-male-and-female-swimming-crab-portunus-trituberculatus-reproductive-systems-during-mating-embrace-stage-ii
#17
Zhengfei Wang, Linxia Sun, Weibing Guan, Chunlin Zhou, Boping Tang, Yongxu Cheng, Jintian Huang, Fujun Xuan
BACKGROUND: The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is one of the most commonly farmed crustaceans in China. As one of the most widely known and high-value edible crabs, it crab supports large crab fishery and aquaculture in China. Only large and sexually mature crabs can provide the greatest economic benefits, suggesting the considerable effect of reproductive system development on fishery. Studies are rarely conducted on the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the development of the reproductive system during the mating embrace stage in this species...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297293/various-wolbachia-genotypes-differently-influence-host-drosophila-dopamine-metabolism-and-survival-under-heat-stress-conditions
#18
Nataly Е Gruntenko, Yury Yu Ilinsky, Natalya V Adonyeva, Elena V Burdina, Roman A Bykov, Petr N Menshanov, Inga Yu Rauschenbach
BACKGROUND: One of the most widespread prokaryotic symbionts of invertebrates is the intracellular bacteria of Wolbachia genus which can be found in about 50% of insect species. Wolbachia causes both parasitic and mutualistic effects on its host that include manipulating the host reproductive systems in order to increase their transmission through the female germline, and increasing the host fitness. One of the mechanisms, promoting adaptation in biological organisms, is a non-specific neuroendocrine stress reaction...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291410/effect-of-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer-on-birthweight-macrosomia-and-low-birthweight-rates-in-us-singleton-infants
#19
Julia F Litzky, Sheree L Boulet, Navid Esfandiari, Yujia Zhang, Dmitry M Kissin, Regan N Theiler, Carmen J Marsit
BACKGROUND: Singleton infants conceived using assisted reproductive technology have lower average birthweights than naturally-conceived infants and are more likely to be born low birthweight (<2500 grams). Lower birthweights are associated with increased infant and child mortality and poor adult health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Data from registry and single center studies suggest that frozen/thawed embryo transfer may be associated with larger birthweights...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290392/mlh1-is-required-for-female-fertility-in-drosophila-melanogaster-an-outcome-of-effects-on-meiotic-crossing-over-ovarian-follicles-and-egg-activation
#20
Divya Vimal, Saurabh Kumar, Ashutosh Pandey, Divya Sharma, Sanjay Saini, Snigdha Gupta, Kristipati Ravi Ram, Debapratim Kar Chowdhuri
Mismatch repair (MMR) system, a conserved DNA repair pathway, plays crucial role in DNA recombination and is involved in gametogenesis. The impact of alterations in MMR family of proteins (bacterial MutS and MutL homologues) on mammalian fertility is well documented. However, an insight to the role of MMR in reproduction of non-mammalian organisms is limited. Hence, in the present study, we analysed the impact of mlh1 (a MutL homologue) on meiotic crossing over/recombination and fertility in a genetically tractable model, Drosophila melanogaster...
December 16, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
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