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Chest anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101461/a-confounding-rib-variation-bilateral-symmetric-aberrant-posterior-rib-articulations-and-bridgings
#1
Zuhal Bayramoglu, Ravza Yilmaz, Emine Caliskan, Gulsah Buyuksahin, Furkan Bulut, Shamil Aliyev, Ibrahim Adaletli
INTRODUCTION: Although mild bone angulation with osseous enlargement often suggests fractures with callus formation, in some cases the diagnosis is synchondrosis. CASE REPORT: We present a rare variation of the chest wall in a 15-year-old male with a history of lymphoma. Bilateral multi-level posterior rib enlargements revealing mild (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake were detected via positron-emission tomography/computed tomography. The variations were identified as healing fractures, although the more accurate diagnosis was determined to be multi-level posterior rib synchondroses with consecutive bridgings...
November 3, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078674/single-incision-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-left-lower-lobe-anterior-segmentectomy-s8
#2
Carlos Galvez, Francisco Lirio, Julio Sesma, Benno Baschwitz, Sergio Bolufer
Unusual anatomical segmentectomies are technically demanding procedures that require a deep knowledge of intralobar anatomy and surgical skill. In the other hand, these procedures preserve more normal lung parenchyma for lesions located in specific anatomical segments, and are indicated for benign lesions, metastasis and also early stage adenocarcinomas without nodal involvement. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed of a benign pneumocytoma in the anterior segment of the left-lower lobe (S8, LLL), so we performed a single-incision video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (SI-VATS) anatomical S8 segmentectomy in 140 minutes under intercostal block...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078588/video-assisted-and-minimally-invasive-open-chest-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-mediastinal-tumors-and-masses
#3
REVIEW
George Rakovich, Jean Deslauriers
This article reviews the anatomy of the mediastinum as well as indications, limitations, techniques, and results of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and other minimally-invasive open-chest surgery approaches currently used for the surgical management of mediastinal tumors and masses. It is written by two surgeons with vastly different backgrounds and thoracic surgical experience. One of them is young and very familiar with VATS approaches and technologies while the other is a senior surgeon relatively unfamiliar with minimally-invasive techniques...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076936/lung-ultrasound-after-transbronchial-biopsy-for-pneumothorax-screening-in-post-lung-transplant-patients
#4
Karen Bensted, Jane McKenzie, Adrian Havryk, Marshall Plit, Erez Ben-Menachem
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound has been suggested as an alternative to routine chest radiography (CXR) to screen for pneumothorax after transbronchial lung biopsy. In post-lung transplant patients, who may have altered anatomy and pleural adhesions, the validity of lung ultrasound to screen for postbiopsy pneumothoraces has not been investigated. METHODS: Lung ultrasound using an ultraportable handheld device was performed in a standardized manner 2-hour after biopsy in post-lung transplant patients...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075525/chest-wall-underappreciated-structure-in-sonography-part-i-examination-methodology-and-ultrasound-anatomy
#5
REVIEW
Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz
Chest wall ultrasound has been awarded little interest in the literature, with chest wall anatomy described only in limited extent. The objective of this study has been to discuss the methodology of chest wall ultrasound and the sonographic anatomy of the region to facilitate professional evaluation of this complex structure. The primarily used transducer is a 7-12 MHz linear one. A 3-5 MHz convex (curvilinear) transducer may also be helpful, especially in obese and very muscular patients. Doppler and panoramic imaging options are essential...
September 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064969/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-ischemic-heart-disease-primary-and-preventive-care-review
#6
REVIEW
Brittany S Fuller, Lynn Carlyle, Michele D Voeltz
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists often are the sole health care providers for otherwise healthy women. Therefore, they must be aware of risk factors, signs, and symptoms of cardiovascular disease and be prepared to recognize and treat this condition in patients as well as provide referrals when specialized care is indicated. Women with cardiac problems typically present with chest discomfort; however, they also are more likely than healthy women to present with other common symptoms, such as shortness of breath, back pain, jaw pain, or nausea and vomiting...
November 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032865/electron-postmastectomy-chest-wall-plus-comprehensive-nodal-irradiation-technique-using-electron-monte-carlo-dose-algorithm
#7
Linda Hong, Ase Ballangrud, Beryl McCormick, James Mechalakos
For left-sided postmastectomy patients requiring chest wall plus comprehensive nodal irradiation, sometimes traditional techniques such as partial wide tangents or electron/tangents combination are not feasible due to abnormal chest wall contour or heart position or unusually wide excision scar. We developed electron chest wall irradiation technique using Electron Monte Carlo (EMC) dose algorithm that will achieve heart sparing with acceptable ipsilateral lung dose, minimal contralateral lung, and breast dose...
October 9, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983174/left-side-approach-for-aortic-valve-replacement-in-patient-with-dextrocardia-and-situs-inversus-totalis
#8
Salah E Altarabsheh, Fuad M Al-Azzam, Salil V Deo, Ade F Almomane, Abdullah Al-Omari, Sakher M Alma'ayeh, Yagthan M Obeidat, Abeer Rababa'h
Aortic valve replacement in patients with dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis is technically challenging due to anatomical considerations. Modifications of the cannulation strategy and operative tool sets are helpful. We report a 47-year-old man who had dextrocardia with situs inversus totalis with severe aortic regurgitation. Our approach was precisely planned depending on the clear anatomy outlined by preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest. We used a surgical approach in which the main surgeon was standing on the left side of the patient...
October 2017: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901615/model-based-dose-reconstruction-for-ct-dose-estimation
#9
Mingye Wu, Zhye Yin, Bruno De Man
PURPOSE: Our goal is to develop a model-based approach for CT dose estimation. We previously presented a CT dose estimation method that offered good accuracy in soft tissue regions but lower accuracy in bone regions. In this work, we propose an improved physic-based approach to achieve high accuracy for any materials and realistic clinical anatomies. METHODS: Like Monte Carlo techniques, we start from a model or image of the patient and we model all relevant x-ray interaction processes...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900048/community-acquired-pneumonia
#10
Jennifer Franco
The most commonly ordered radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, and it is considered the gold standard for diagnosing pneumonia. For this reason, it is essential that radiologic technologists understand the disease and how it affects patients. This article discusses the anatomy of the lungs, along with the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and complications of community-acquired pneumonia.
July 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890056/giant-chest-wall-arteriovenous-malformation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Cullen McCarthy, Subrato Deb, Suhair Maqusi, Joshua Gierman
INTRODUCTION: We present an interesting case of a 55 year-old male with a large left chest mass after significant cutaneous bleeding. CT angiogram of the chest revealed arteriovenous malformation with blood supply from subbranches of the left subclavian artery, left internal mammary artery and left external carotid artery. Measuring 5.0x14.0x10.8cm, the mass extended superior to the clavicle and inferior to the third rib with medial and lateral borders at the level of the clavicular head and coracoid, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809436/anatomical-description-of-the-main-vessels-for-venipuncture-in-the-black-striped-capuchin-monkey-sapajus-libidinosus-silva-junior-2002
#12
Ana Y F La Salles, Jefferson F Cordeiro, José R S Santos, Artur N Carreiro, Gildenor X Medeiros, Danilo J A Menezes
BACKGROUND: The scarcity of data on the anatomy of Sapajus libidinosus has impeded the execution for appropriate veterinary treatment. The objective of this study was to describe the main peripheral veins of the capuchin monkey, used in venipuncture and indicate the best access route for venipuncture procedures. METHODS: Ten S. libidinosus corpses were used. The face, neck, chest, and pelvic limb were dissected using surgical instruments to identify and locate surface vessels...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777699/multidetector-ct-for-evaluation-of-the-extrapleural-space
#13
Mario G Santamarina, Ignacio Beddings, Guillermo V Lermanda Holmgren, Hector Opazo Sanchez, Mariano M Volpacchio
The extrapleural space (EPS) is an anatomic space at the periphery of the chest that can be involved in a number of disease processes. This space lies between the inner surface of the ribs and the parietal pleura and contains adipose tissue, loose connective tissue, lymph nodes, vessels, endothoracic fascia, and the innermost intercostal muscle. It is often overlooked on cross-sectional imaging studies and almost invariably overlooked on conventional radiographic studies. At conventional radiography, the EPS occasionally can be seen when there is extrapleural fat proliferation, which might be confused with pleural thickening or pleural effusion...
September 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763154/best-practices-in-peri-operative-management-of-patients-with-skeletal-dysplasias
#14
Klane K White, Viviana Bompadre, Michael J Goldberg, Michael B Bober, Tae-Joon Cho, Julie E Hoover-Fong, Melita Irving, William G Mackenzie, Shawn E Kamps, Cathleen Raggio, Gregory J Redding, Samantha S Spencer, Ravi Savarirayan, Mary C Theroux
Patients with skeletal dysplasia frequently require surgery. This patient population has an increased risk for peri-operative complications related to the anatomy of their upper airway, abnormalities of tracheal-bronchial morphology and function; deformity of their chest wall; abnormal mobility of their upper cervical spine; and associated issues with general health and body habitus. Utilizing evidence analysis and expert opinion, this study aims to describe best practices regarding the peri-operative management of patients with skeletal dysplasia...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751430/persistent-air-leak-after-pulmonary-transplantation
#15
Laurence Pearmain, Piotr Krysiak, John Blaikley, Mohamed Alaloul
A 59-year-old man with bilateral apical emphysema underwent a double lung transplant for end-stagechronic obstructive pulmonary disease leaving remnant right apical native tissue due to pleural adhesions. Initial postoperative course was uneventful until the chest drains were removed. This revealed a small pneumomediastinum, which progressively increased in size causing gross surgical emphysema. Re-insertion of the chest drain stabilised the patient so that the cause could be identified and corrected. Two bronchoscopies excluded anastomotic dehiscence as a cause...
July 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734644/postmastectomy-radiation-therapy-technique-and-cardiopulmonary-sparing-a-dosimetric-comparative-analysis-between-photons-and-protons-with-free-breathing-versus-deep-inspiration-breath-hold
#16
Sagar A Patel, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Jacqueline A Nyamwanda, Rachel B Jimenez, Alphonse G Taghian, Shannon M MacDonald, Nicolas Depauw
PURPOSE: Dosimetric studies have suggested greater cardiopulmonary sparing with protons over photons for left-sided postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Modern techniques such as deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) can help spare the heart. This analysis compares photon and proton delivery with and without DIBH. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten women with left breast cancer referred for PMRT on a prospective clinical trial with unfavorable cardiac anatomy underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH computed tomography simulation...
June 21, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728443/functional-assessment-of-coronary-artery-disease-by-cardiac-computed-tomography
#17
T A Treibel, A Rossi, F Pugliese, L C Davies
Rapid technological advances in computed tomography (CT) have allowed CT coronary angiography (CTCA) to be delivered at low radiation dose and high diagnostic accuracy. Due to its high negative predictive value for coronary artery disease, it has become a gatekeeper for the assessment of patients with chest pain of recent onset. Second line functional assessment of a detected coronary stenosis relies mostly on other imaging modalities. Functional assessment of coronary artery disease by CT is therefore an attractive addition to CTCA...
July 25, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723765/perioperative-management-of-intracardiac-leiomyomatosis-an-observational-cohort-study
#18
Jiaying Xu, Min Wei, Qi Miao, Bin Zhu, Chunhua Yu, Yuguang Huang
Intracardiac leiomyomatosis (ICLM) is a rare condition in which the benign tumor extends into the right heart chambers through inferior vena cava. The best surgical approach still remains unclear.We present a retrospective cohort of 36 patients diagnosed with ICLM in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2002 and 2016.The mean patient age was 44.5 (range 25-55) years. The clinical manifestations were various, including shortness of breath, chest tightness, edema of the lower extremities, palpitations, syncope, etc...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656146/incidental-and-underreported-pleural-plaques-at-chest-ct-do-not-miss-them-asbestos-exposure-still-exists
#19
Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Francesco Contorni, Francesco Gentili, Susanna Guerrini, Francesco Giuseppe Mazzei, Antonio Pinto, Nevada Cioffi Squitieri, Antonietta Gerardina Sisinni, Valentina Paolucci, Riccardo Romeo, Pietro Sartorelli, Luca Volterrani
Pleural plaques (PPs) may be a risk factor for mortality from lung cancer in asbestos-exposed workers and are considered to be a marker of exposure. Diagnosing PPs is also important because asbestos-exposed patients should be offered a health surveillance that is mandatory in many countries. On the other hand PPs are useful for compensation purposes. In this study we aimed to evaluate the prevalence, as incidental findings, and the underreporting rate of PPs in chest CT scans (CTs) performed in a cohort of patients (1512) who underwent chest CT with a slice thickness no more than 1...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648435/current-concepts-of-diagnosis-and-management-of-pericardial-cysts
#20
REVIEW
Sandeep Kumar Kar, Tanmoy Ganguly
Pericardial cysts are rare with an incidence of about 1 in every 100,000 persons and one in 10 pericardial cysts may actually be a pericardial diverticulum. Pericardial cysts and diverticula share similar developmental origin and may appear as an incidental finding in chest roentgenogram in an asymptomatic patient. CT scan is considered as best modality for diagnosis and delineation of the surrounding anatomy. Cardiac MRI is recommended in the evaluation of the compressive effects caused by the pericardial cysts...
May 2017: Indian Heart Journal
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