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Chest anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336877/sin-quadratic-model-for-chest-tomosynthesis-respiratory-signal-analysis-and-its-application-in-four-dimensional-chest-tomosynthesis-reconstruction
#1
Xi Tao, Hua Zhang, Genggeng Qin, Jianhua Ma, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen
Chest tomosynthesis (CTS) is a newly developed imaging technique which provides pseudo-3D volume anatomical information of thorax from limited-angle projections and contains much less of superimposed anatomy than the chest X-ray radiography. One of the relatively common problems in CTS is the patient respiratory motion during image acquisition, which negatively impacts the detectability. In this work, we propose a sin-quadratic model to analyze the respiratory motion during CTS scan, which is a real time method where the respiratory signal is generated by extracting the motion of diaphragm from projection radiographs...
January 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317990/artefactual-angulated-lesion-on-angiography-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Sadat Ali Edroos, Jeremy William Sayer
We present a case of a patient who presented with chest pain, and on diagnostic coronary angiography appeared to have a grossly angulated yet significant coronary stenosis. This was proven to be an artefactual appearance on further assessment with intravascular ultrasound imaging. We describe the causes and associations of coronary tortuosity with other arteriopathy, and highlight challenges in the interpretation of tortuous vessels to accurately assess luminal narrowing and suitability for coronary intervention...
December 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237361/hybrid-endovascular-aortic-arch-reconstruction-for-acute-aortic-dissection-an-endovascular-bridge-technique-for-complex-anatomy
#3
Michael P Rogers, Sophie M Reskin, Adam Ubert, Matthew C Black, Kendra J Grubb
Acute type A aortic dissections starting at the arch pose a challenge for cardiac surgeons. Open surgical repair requires deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for arch reconstruction and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Hybrid aortic repair techniques, with open arch debranching and thoracic endovascular aortic repair, have been employed in high-risk cases and challenging aortic pathology. Herein, we present a case of a 33-year-old African American male with a history of open thoracoabdominal aortic reconstruction and femoral-femoral artery bypass for a type B dissection who subsequently presented with new-onset chest pain and was found to have a retrograde type A dissection of a bovine arch with multiple dissection flaps and possible contrast extravasation on chest computed tomography...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234912/advanced-ct-acquisition-protocol-with-a-third-generation-dual-source-ct-scanner-and-iterative-reconstruction-technique-for-comprehensive-prosthetic-heart-valve-assessment
#4
Marguerite E Faure, Laurens E Swart, Marcel L Dijkshoorn, Jos A Bekkers, Marcel van Straten, Koen Nieman, Paul M Parizel, Gabriel P Krestin, Ricardo P J Budde
OBJECTIVES: Multidetector CT (MDCT) is a valuable tool for functional prosthetic heart valve (PHV) assessment. However, radiation exposure remains a concern. We assessed a novel CT-acquisition protocol for comprehensive PHV evaluation at limited dose. METHODS: Patients with a PHV were scanned using a third-generation dual-source CT scanner (DSCT) and iterative reconstruction technique (IR). Three acquisitions were obtained: a non-enhanced scan; a contrast-enhanced, ECG-triggered, arterial CT angiography (CTA) scan with reconstructions at each 5 % of the R-R interval; and a delayed high-pitch CTA of the entire chest...
December 12, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233767/patch-repair-of-anomalous-origin-of-left-anterior-descending-artery-from-the-right-coronary-artery
#5
Nikki L Stamp, Christopher J Merry
Coronary artery anomalies occur in an estimated 1.3% of the population. We present a case of a 52 year-old-man who had a less common anomaly of a left anterior descending artery arising from the right coronary ostium, causing ischaemia and chest pain demonstrated by perfusion scan. The usual options of management of coronary anomalies were not suitable for this anatomy and thus, we present the case of patch augmentation of the arteries.
December 9, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218363/chest-computed-tomography-angiography-in-children-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo
#6
Nathan C Hull, Gary R Schooler, Larry A Binkovitz, Eric E Williamson, Phillip A Araoz, Lifeng Yu, Philip M Young
Performing chest CT angiography on pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be challenging. Successfully performing CT angiography in these children requires substantial communication and coordination between the radiologists and clinical care providers. Additionally, the radiologist must understand the child's anatomy and disease pathophysiology, flow dynamics of the ECMO circuit, image acquisition timing, contrast injection site, and volume, rate and duration of contrast administration...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217342/cinematic-rendering-of-cardiac-ct-volumetric-data-principles-and-initial-observations
#7
Steven P Rowe, Pamela T Johnson, Elliot K Fishman
BACKGROUND: Cinematic rendering (CR) a new method of 3D computed tomography (CT) volumetric visualization that produces photorealistic images. As with traditional 3D visualization methods, CR may prove to be of value in providing important information when evaluating regions of complex anatomy such as the heart. METHODS: The gated, IV contrast-enhanced chest CT angiogram data from three recent patients were evaluated with CR. Image comparision demonstrates the difference between CR and traditional volume rendering (VR), owing to a more complex lighting model that enhances surface detail and produces realistic shadows to add depth to 3D visualizations...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200069/visualization-improves-supraclavicular-access-to-the-subclavian-vein-in-a-mixed-reality-simulator
#8
Joshua Warren Sappenfield, William Brit Smith, Lou Ann Cooper, David Lizdas, Drew B Gonsalves, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Samsun Lampotang, Albert R Robinson
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether visual augmentation (3D, real-time, color visualization) of a procedural simulator improved performance during training in the supraclavicular approach to the subclavian vein, not as widely known or used as its infraclavicular counterpart. METHODS: To train anesthesiology residents to access a central vein, a mixed reality simulator with emulated ultrasound imaging was created using an anatomically authentic, 3D-printed, physical mannequin based on a computed tomographic scan of an actual human...
November 30, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101461/a-confounding-rib-variation-bilateral-symmetric-aberrant-posterior-rib-articulations-and-bridgings
#9
Zuhal Bayramoglu, Ravza Yilmaz, Emine Caliskan, Gulsah Buyuksahin, Furkan Bulut, Shamil Aliyev, Ibrahim Adaletli
INTRODUCTION: Although mild bone angulation with osseous enlargement often suggests fractures with callus formation, in some cases the diagnosis is synchondrosis. CASE REPORT: We present a rare variation of the chest wall in a 15-year-old male with a history of lymphoma. Bilateral multi-level posterior rib enlargements revealing mild (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake were detected via positron-emission tomography/computed tomography. The variations were identified as healing fractures, although the more accurate diagnosis was determined to be multi-level posterior rib synchondroses with consecutive bridgings...
November 3, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078674/single-incision-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-left-lower-lobe-anterior-segmentectomy-s8
#10
Carlos Galvez, Francisco Lirio, Julio Sesma, Benno Baschwitz, Sergio Bolufer
Unusual anatomical segmentectomies are technically demanding procedures that require a deep knowledge of intralobar anatomy and surgical skill. In the other hand, these procedures preserve more normal lung parenchyma for lesions located in specific anatomical segments, and are indicated for benign lesions, metastasis and also early stage adenocarcinomas without nodal involvement. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed of a benign pneumocytoma in the anterior segment of the left-lower lobe (S8, LLL), so we performed a single-incision video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (SI-VATS) anatomical S8 segmentectomy in 140 minutes under intercostal block...
2017: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078588/video-assisted-and-minimally-invasive-open-chest-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-mediastinal-tumors-and-masses
#11
REVIEW
George Rakovich, Jean Deslauriers
This article reviews the anatomy of the mediastinum as well as indications, limitations, techniques, and results of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and other minimally-invasive open-chest surgery approaches currently used for the surgical management of mediastinal tumors and masses. It is written by two surgeons with vastly different backgrounds and thoracic surgical experience. One of them is young and very familiar with VATS approaches and technologies while the other is a senior surgeon relatively unfamiliar with minimally-invasive techniques...
2017: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076936/lung-ultrasound-after-transbronchial-biopsy-for-pneumothorax-screening-in-post-lung-transplant-patients
#12
Karen Bensted, Jane McKenzie, Adrian Havryk, Marshall Plit, Erez Ben-Menachem
BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound has been suggested as an alternative to routine chest radiography (CXR) to screen for pneumothorax after transbronchial lung biopsy. In post-lung transplant patients, who may have altered anatomy and pleural adhesions, the validity of lung ultrasound to screen for postbiopsy pneumothoraces has not been investigated. METHODS: Lung ultrasound using an ultraportable handheld device was performed in a standardized manner 2-hour after biopsy in post-lung transplant patients...
January 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075525/chest-wall-underappreciated-structure-in-sonography-part-i-examination-methodology-and-ultrasound-anatomy
#13
REVIEW
Andrzej Smereczyński, Katarzyna Kołaczyk, Elżbieta Bernatowicz
Chest wall ultrasound has been awarded little interest in the literature, with chest wall anatomy described only in limited extent. The objective of this study has been to discuss the methodology of chest wall ultrasound and the sonographic anatomy of the region to facilitate professional evaluation of this complex structure. The primarily used transducer is a 7-12 MHz linear one. A 3-5 MHz convex (curvilinear) transducer may also be helpful, especially in obese and very muscular patients. Doppler and panoramic imaging options are essential...
September 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064969/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-ischemic-heart-disease-primary-and-preventive-care-review
#14
REVIEW
Brittany S Fuller, Lynn Carlyle, Michele D Voeltz
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists often are the sole health care providers for otherwise healthy women. Therefore, they must be aware of risk factors, signs, and symptoms of cardiovascular disease and be prepared to recognize and treat this condition in patients as well as provide referrals when specialized care is indicated. Women with cardiac problems typically present with chest discomfort; however, they also are more likely than healthy women to present with other common symptoms, such as shortness of breath, back pain, jaw pain, or nausea and vomiting...
November 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032865/electron-postmastectomy-chest-wall-plus-comprehensive-nodal-irradiation-technique-using-electron-monte-carlo-dose-algorithm
#15
Linda Hong, Ase Ballangrud, Beryl McCormick, James Mechalakos
For left-sided postmastectomy patients requiring chest wall plus comprehensive nodal irradiation, sometimes traditional techniques such as partial wide tangents or electron/tangents combination are not feasible due to abnormal chest wall contour or heart position or unusually wide excision scar. We developed electron chest wall irradiation technique using Electron Monte Carlo (EMC) dose algorithm that will achieve heart sparing with acceptable ipsilateral lung dose, minimal contralateral lung, and breast dose...
October 9, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983174/left-side-approach-for-aortic-valve-replacement-in-patient-with-dextrocardia-and-situs-inversus-totalis
#16
Salah E Altarabsheh, Fuad M Al-Azzam, Salil V Deo, Ade F Almomane, Abdullah Al-Omari, Sakher M Alma'ayeh, Yagthan M Obeidat, Abeer Rababa'h
Aortic valve replacement in patients with dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis is technically challenging due to anatomical considerations. Modifications of the cannulation strategy and operative tool sets are helpful. We report a 47-year-old man who had dextrocardia with situs inversus totalis with severe aortic regurgitation. Our approach was precisely planned depending on the clear anatomy outlined by preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest. We used a surgical approach in which the main surgeon was standing on the left side of the patient...
October 2017: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901615/model-based-dose-reconstruction-for-ct-dose-estimation
#17
Mingye Wu, Zhye Yin, Bruno De Man
PURPOSE: Our goal is to develop a model-based approach for CT dose estimation. We previously presented a CT dose estimation method that offered good accuracy in soft tissue regions but lower accuracy in bone regions. In this work, we propose an improved physic-based approach to achieve high accuracy for any materials and realistic clinical anatomies. METHODS: Like Monte Carlo techniques, we start from a model or image of the patient and we model all relevant x-ray interaction processes...
September 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900048/community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Jennifer Franco
The most commonly ordered radiologic examination is the chest radiograph, and it is considered the gold standard for diagnosing pneumonia. For this reason, it is essential that radiologic technologists understand the disease and how it affects patients. This article discusses the anatomy of the lungs, along with the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and complications of community-acquired pneumonia.
July 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890056/giant-chest-wall-arteriovenous-malformation-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Cullen McCarthy, Subrato Deb, Suhair Maqusi, Joshua Gierman
INTRODUCTION: We present an interesting case of a 55 year-old male with a large left chest mass after significant cutaneous bleeding. CT angiogram of the chest revealed arteriovenous malformation with blood supply from subbranches of the left subclavian artery, left internal mammary artery and left external carotid artery. Measuring 5.0x14.0x10.8cm, the mass extended superior to the clavicle and inferior to the third rib with medial and lateral borders at the level of the clavicular head and coracoid, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809436/anatomical-description-of-the-main-vessels-for-venipuncture-in-the-black-striped-capuchin-monkey-sapajus-libidinosus-silva-junior-2002
#20
Ana Y F La Salles, Jefferson F Cordeiro, José R S Santos, Artur N Carreiro, Gildenor X Medeiros, Danilo J A Menezes
BACKGROUND: The scarcity of data on the anatomy of Sapajus libidinosus has impeded the execution for appropriate veterinary treatment. The objective of this study was to describe the main peripheral veins of the capuchin monkey, used in venipuncture and indicate the best access route for venipuncture procedures. METHODS: Ten S. libidinosus corpses were used. The face, neck, chest, and pelvic limb were dissected using surgical instruments to identify and locate surface vessels...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
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