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Chest anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213995/thoracoscopic-division-of-vascular-rings
#1
Kevin M Riggle, Samuel E Rice-Townsend, John Ht Waldhausen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Vascular rings are traditionally treated via an open thoracotomy. In recent years the use of thoracoscopy has increased. Herein we report our experience with thoracoscopic division of vascular rings in pediatric patients. METHODS: We reviewed all patients who underwent thoracoscopic or open division of a vascular ring at our institution between 2007 and 2015. We analyzed patient demographics, presenting symptoms, diagnostic imaging modality, ring anatomy, operative details, complications, and symptom resolution...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207464/modified-mallampati-score-improves-specificity-of-stop-bang-questionnaire-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
Mehmet Ozgur Avincsal, Mehmet Emre Dinc, Seckin Ulusoy, Abdullah Dalgic, Cengiz Ozdemir, Omer Necati Develioglu
BACKGROUND: An accurate, clinical screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that identifies patients for further diagnostic testing would assist in the diagnosis of this comorbidity. One example, the STOP-BANG questionnaire (SBQ), has been validated as a screening tool with high sensitivity. However, its specificity may result in a high false-positive rate. The aim of this study to determine if addition of the Modified Mallampati score to the SBQ improves its specificity. METHODS: The authors studied 162 patients referred to the Sleep Disorders Clinic at Yedikule Chest Disease Education and Research Hospital...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203176/a-case-of-gastric-cancer-with-situs-inversus-totalis
#3
Byoung Jo Suh
Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital anomaly that refers to a completely reversed location of the abdominal and thoracic organs. We report the case of 50-year-old man with gastric cancer and SIT who was diagnosed during a screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy. A chest X-ray, abdominopelvic computed tomography, and (18)F-fluoro2-deoxyglucose-D-glucose-positron emission tomography scans revealed SIT. We performed a radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection. Advanced surgical skill is required to perform a precise lymphadenectomy in a patient with SIT by visualizing the exact mirror image of the anatomy during the operation...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185691/thoracic-ultrasound-technique-applications-and-interpretation
#4
REVIEW
Suraj H Rambhia, Catherine A D'Agostino, Ali Noor, Robert Villani, Jason J Naidich, John S Pellerito
Thoracic ultrasound is used at the bedside in emergency and critical care settings. Advantages of ultrasound include rapid real-time, low-cost, diagnostic information that can direct patient care without the use of ionizing radiation. We describe methods on how to perform lung ultrasound, with the intent to educate the radiologist who might otherwise be relatively unfamiliar with thoracic sonography. We describe and depict the normal sonographic appearance of lung anatomy. We also show the sonographic appearance of a wide range of lung and pleural pathologies such as pneumonia, pneumothorax, as well as lung and pleural masses...
December 15, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180983/scoliosis-convexity-and-organ-anatomy-are-related
#5
Tom P C Schlösser, Tom Semple, Siobhán B Carr, Simon Padley, Michael R Loebinger, Claire Hogg, René M Castelein
PURPOSE: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a respiratory syndrome in which 'random' organ orientation can occur; with approximately 46% of patients developing situs inversus totalis at organogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between organ anatomy and curve convexity by studying the prevalence and convexity of idiopathic scoliosis in PCD patients with and without situs inversus. METHODS: Chest radiographs of PCD patients were systematically screened for existence of significant lateral spinal deviation using the Cobb angle...
February 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166907/practice-makes-perfect-performance-optimisation-in-arboreal-parkour-athletes-illuminates-the-evolutionary-ecology-of-great-ape-anatomy
#6
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Robin H Crompton, Susannah K S Thorpe
An animal's size is central to its ecology, yet remarkably little is known about the selective pressures that drive this trait. A particularly compelling example is how ancestral apes evolved large body mass in such a physically and energetically challenging environment as the forest canopy, where weight-bearing branches and lianas are flexible, irregular and discontinuous, and the majority of preferred foods are situated on the most flexible branches at the periphery of tree crowns. To date the issue has been intractable due to a lack of relevant fossil material, the limited capacity of the fossil record to reconstruct an animal's behavioural ecology and the inability to measure energy consumption in freely moving apes...
February 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165635/variance-of-the-pectoralis-major-in-relation-to-the-inframammary-fold-and-the-pectoralis-minor-and-its-application-to-breast-surgery
#7
Woo Yeol Baek, Il Hwan Byun, Young Seok Kim, Bok Ki Jung, In Sik Yun, Tai Suk Roh
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the anatomy of the muscles and other structures of the chest is of great importance in breast surgery. We have conducted the first analysis of the overall variations and relationships among the pectoralis major (PM), inframammary fold (IMF), and pectoralis minor (Pm). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 30 patients and 10 cadavers, leading to a total of 50 breasts. Preoperatively, the breast width was measured, and the costal origin of the lowest IMF point was marked...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151908/implantation-of-vvi-pacemaker-in-a-patient-with-dextrocardia-persistent-left-superior-vena-cava-and-sick-sinus-syndrome-a-case-report
#8
Gongliang Guo, Lili Yang, Jinyi Wu, Liqun Sun
BACKGROUND: Dextrocardia, or right-lying heart, is an uncommon congenital heart disease in which the apex of the heart is located on the right side of chest. Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVA) is a rare venous anomaly that is often associated with the abnormalities of cardiac transduction system. A case with combination of dextrocardia, persistent left superior vena cava, and sick sinus syndrome has not been reported. METHODS: We used different techniques including cardiac color Doppler echocardiography, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and abdominal ultrasound to make a diagnosis and treated the patient by implanting a VVI pacemaker...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134985/fast-and-effective-quantification-of-symmetry-in-medical-images-for-pathology-detection-application-to-chest-radiography
#9
Laurens Hogeweg, Clara I Sánchez, Pragnya Maduskar, Rick H H M Philipsen, Bram van Ginneken
PURPOSE: Symmetry is an important feature of human anatomy and the absence of symmetry in medical images can indicate the presence of pathology. Quantification of image symmetry can then be used to improve the automatic analysis of medical images. METHODS: A method is presented that computes both local and global symmetry in 2D medical images. A symmetry axis is determined to define for each position p in the image a mirrored position p' on the contralateral side of the axis...
January 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109316/adenosine-induced-ventricular-fibrillation-in-a-structurally-normal-heart-a-case-report
#10
Christopher A Rajkumar, Norman Qureshi, Fu Siong Ng, Vasileios F Panoulas, Phang Boon Lim
BACKGROUND: Adenosine is the first-line pharmacotherapy for termination of supraventricular tachycardia through its action on the atrioventricular node. However, pro-arrhythmic effects of adenosine are also recognised, most notably in the presence of pre-excited atrial fibrillation. In this case report, we describe the induction of ventricular fibrillation in a patient with no demonstrable accessory pathway, nor any other structural heart disease. This rare, idiosyncratic reaction has never previously been reported and is of relevance given the widespread and routine use of adenosine in clinical practice...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047768/th-ab-207a-06-the-use-of-realistic-phantoms-to-predict-ct-dose-to-pediatric-patients
#11
D Carver, S Kost, P Segars, N Fraser, D Pickens, R Price, M Stabin
PURPOSE: To predict pediatric patient dose from diagnostic CT scans using Monte Carlo simulation of realistic reference phantoms of various ages, weights, and heights. METHODS: A series of deformable pediatric reference phantoms using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) was developed for a large range of ages, percentiles, and reference anatomy. Individual bones were modeled using age-dependent factors, and red marrow was modeled as functions of age and spatial distribution based on Cristy1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046639/su-f-t-85-energy-modulated-electron-postmastectomy-unreconstructed-pu-chest-wall-cw-irradiation-technique-to-achieve-heart-sparing
#12
L Hong, A Ballangrud, B McCormick, J Mechalakos
PURPOSE: For left-sided PU patients requiring CW and nodal irradiation, sometimes partial wide tangents (PWT) are not feasible due to abnormal chest wall contour or heart position close to the anterior chest wall or unusual wide excision scar. We developed an energy modulated electron chest wall irradiation technique that will achieve heart sparing. METHODS: Ten left-sided PU patients were selected for this dosimetry study. If PWT were used, the amount of the ipsilateral lung would be ranged 3...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046630/su-f-t-114-a-novel-anatomically-predictive-extension-model-of-computational-human-phantoms-for-dose-reconstruction-in-retrospective-epidemiological-studies-of-second-cancer-risks-in-radiotherapy-patients
#13
G Kuzmin, C Lee, C Lee, C Pelletier, J Jung
PURPOSE: Recent advances in cancer treatments have greatly increased the likelihood of post-treatment patient survival. Secondary malignancies, however, have become a growing concern. Epidemiological studies determining secondary effects in radiotherapy patients require assessment of organ-specific dose both inside and outside the treatment field. An essential input for Monte Carlo modeling of particle transport is radiological images showing full patient anatomy. However, in retrospective studies it is typical to only have partial anatomy from CT scans used during treatment planning...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046024/chest-fat-quantification-via-ct-based-on-standardized-anatomy-space-in-adult-lung-transplant-candidates
#14
Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Drew A Torigian, Dewey Odhner, Caiyun Wu, Gargi Pednekar, Scott Palmer, Anna Rozenshtein, Melissa A Shirk, John D Newell, Mary Porteous, Joshua M Diamond, Jason D Christie, David J Lederer
PURPOSE: Overweight and underweight conditions are considered relative contraindications to lung transplantation due to their association with excess mortality. Yet, recent work suggests that body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect adipose tissue mass in adults with advanced lung diseases. Alternative and more accurate measures of adiposity are needed. Chest fat estimation by routine computed tomography (CT) imaging may therefore be important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009797/what-s-new-in-congenital-scoliosis
#15
Joshua M Pahys, James T Guille
BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis is a failure of vertebral formation, segmentation, or a combination of the 2 arising from abnormal vertebral development during weeks 4 to 6 of gestation. The associated spinal deformity can be of varying severity and result in a stable or progressive deformity based on the type and location of the anomalous vertebra(e). Bracing for congenital scoliosis is rarely indicated, while recent reports have demonstrated the utility of serial derotational casting for longer curves with multiple anomalous vertebrae as an effective "time buying strategy" to delay the need for surgery...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991695/application-of-extended-bi-pedicle-anterolateral-thigh-free-flaps-for-reconstruction-of-large-defects-a-case-series
#16
Michele Maruccia, Georgios Orfaniotis, Pedro Ciudad, Fabio Nicoli, Emanuele Cigna, Giuseppe Giudice, Kidakorn Kiranantawat, Diego Ribuffo, Hung-Chi Chen
BACKGROUND: The anterolateral thigh flap is a workforce flap in reconstructive surgery, however, variations in it is vascular anatomy are not uncommon. These variations may affect flap design and survival, especially when large flaps are required. In some anatomical variants the anterolateral thigh flap is supplied by two separate dominant pedicles, and in these cases a bi-pedicle modification may be necessary to ensure complete flap viability. The aim of this report is to evaluate the outcomes, and present our approach in using bi-pedicle anterolateral thigh flaps as a method to reduce the risk of partial flap necrosis when reconstructing sizeable soft tissue defects...
December 19, 2016: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990701/maintained-right-ventricular-pressure-overload-induces-ventricular-arterial-decoupling-in-mice
#17
Mario Boehm, Allan Lawrie, Jochen Wilhelm, Hossein A Ghofrani, Friedrich Grimminger, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, Ralph T Schermuly, Baktybek Kojonazarov
What is the central question of this study? The aim was to investigate whether complementary assessment of non-invasive ultrasound imaging together with closed chest-derived intracardiac pressure-volume catheterization is applicable to mice for an in-depth characterization of right ventricular (RV) function even upon maintained pressure overload. What is the main finding and its importance? Characterization of RV function by the complementary use of echocardiographic imaging together with pressure-volume catheterization reveals ventricular-arterial decoupling upon maintained pressure overload, where RV systolic function correlates with ventricular-arterial coupling rather than contractility, whereas diastolic function correlates well with RV diastolic pressure...
February 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989256/junctional-tachycardia-in-a-child-with-non-rheumatic-fever-streptococcal-pharyngitis
#18
Neha Bansal, Peter P Karpawich, Chenni S Sriram
Accelerated junctional rhythm has been reported in children in the setting of acute rheumatic fever; however, we describe a hitherto unreported case of isolated junctional tachycardia in a child with streptococcal pharyngitis, not meeting revised Jones criteria for rheumatic fever. A previously healthy, 9-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with complaints of sore throat, low-grade fever, and intermittent chest pain. She was found to have a positive rapid streptococcal antigen test. The initial electrocardiogram showed junctional tachycardia with atrioventricular dissociation in addition to prolonged and aberrant atrioventricular conduction...
December 19, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986379/lung-nodule-classification-using-deep-feature-fusion-in-chest-radiography
#19
Changmiao Wang, Ahmed Elazab, Jianhuang Wu, Qingmao Hu
Lung nodules are small, round, or oval-shaped masses of tissue in the lung region. Early diagnosis and treatment of lung nodules can significantly improve the quality of patients' lives. Because of their small size and the interlaced nature of chest anatomy, detection of lung nodules using different medical imaging techniques becomes challenging. Recently, several methods for computer aided diagnosis (CAD) were proposed to improve the detection of lung nodules with good performances. However, the current methods are unable to achieve high sensitivity and high specificity...
November 12, 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984449/operative-treatment-of-rib-fractures-in-flail-chest-injuries-a-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#20
Eric Swart, Joseph Laratta, Gerard Slobogean, Samir Mehta
OBJECTIVES: Flail chest is a common injury sustained by patients who experience high-energy blunt chest trauma and results in severe respiratory compromise because of altered mechanics of respiration. There has been increased interest in operative fixation of these injuries with the intention of restoring the mechanical integrity of the chest wall, and several studies have shown that ventilation requirements and pulmonary complications may be decreased with operative intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fixation of rib fractures in flail chest injuries using cost-effectiveness analysis, supported by systematic review and meta-analysis...
February 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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