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Parasympathetic N S

V I Kirpatovskii, I S Mudraya, S V Revenko, A Yu Bablumyan, N K Adamyan, V P Ivanov
The therapeutic effect of doxazosin (40 μg/kg/day over one month) on urinary bladder was examined in female rats with modeled chronic infravesical obstruction (IVO) produced by graduated mechanical constriction of the proximal urethral segment. In one month, IVO induced a pronounced vesical hypertrophy both in treated and untreated rats that manifested in increased bladder weight and capacity, the latter increment being pronouncedly greater in treated rats. In untreated IVO rats, infusion cystometry revealed elevated basal intravesical pressure of void bladder P0, markedly increased maximal (premicturitional) pressure Pmax, and increased amplitude of spontaneous oscillations of intravesical pressure ΔPdet in filled bladder...
September 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A Joles, Sarah McMullen, Simon C Langley-Evans
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex hormones affect blood pressure via the autonomic nervous system and that the late development of hypertension in females is due to protective effects of ovarian steroids in females rather than due to detrimental effects of testosterone in males...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michelle B Rissling, Paul A Dennis, Lana L Watkins, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham, Junichiro Hayano, Christi S Ulmer
Prior research has demonstrated that individuals exposed to trauma have shown impaired autonomic function. We sought to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of impaired autonomic function, differed across periods of wake, rest, and sleep as a function of the level of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A sample of young adults (N = 209), 95 of whom met full criteria for current PTSD based on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1995), were evaluated for ≈ 24 hr using actigraphy and electrocardiogram...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Christopher B Miller, Delwyn J Bartlett, Anna E Mullins, Kirsty L Dodds, Christopher J Gordon, Simon D Kyle, Jong Won Kim, Angela L D'Rozario, Rico S C Lee, Maria Comas, Nathaniel S Marshall, Brendon J Yee, Colin A Espie, Ronald R Grunstein
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To empirically derive and evaluate potential clusters of Insomnia Disorder through cluster analysis from polysomnography (PSG). We hypothesized that clusters would differ on neurocognitive performance, sleep-onset measures of quantitative (q)-EEG and heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: Research volunteers with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-V) completed a neurocognitive assessment and overnight PSG measures of total sleep time (TST), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) were used to determine clusters...
August 19, 2016: Sleep
R I Zhdanov, A N Doinikova, S I Zhdanova, Yu V Chernokhvostov, E S Gadzhieva, V G Dvoenosov
The work is aimed to an assessment of the correlation between of autonomic nervous system tone and the level of reactivity of the students' cardiovascular system and hemostasis system under examination stress. It was found that the students under exam stress are characterized with high values of respiration rate and with lower ones of tidal volume. The value of respiratory minute volume decreases in male students due to the bronchoconstrictor effects of stress at the tracheobronchial tree. This finding confirms a statistically significant reduction in the flow of small, medium and large bronchi, indicating an increased parasympathetic nervous system tone...
March 2016: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
Jyotsana R Bharshankar, Archana D Mandape, Mrunal S Phatak, Rajay N Bharshankar
Stress, an inevitable and constant feature throughout the lifetime, induces autonomic dysfunctions, for which meditation is considered to be an antidote. So the case control study was planned including 50 Raja-yoga meditators practicing meditation for 5 years and 50 age matched non-meditators. Autonomic function tests were performed and results were compared using the Student-t test. Mean values of resting HR, SBP and DBP were less in meditators. Galvanic Skin Response in meditators was significantly more (p < 0...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Mercedes D Martínez-Jaimes, Mario García-Lorenzana, Martin H Muñoz-Ortega, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Manuel E Ávila-Blanco, Carlos E García-Agueda, Javier Ventura-Juárez
The parasympathetic nervous system has a crucial role in immunomodulation of the vagus nerve, its structure provides a pathogen detection system, and a negative feedback to the immune system after the pathogenic agent has been eliminated. Amebiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, considered the third leading cause of death in the world. The rats are used as a natural resistance model to amoebic liver infection. The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of Entamoeba histolytica with neutrophils, macrophages, and NK cells in livers of intact and vagotomized rats...
October 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Daniel S Busso, Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan
OBJECTIVE: Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is a putative intermediate phenotype linking childhood adversity (CA) with later psychopathology. However, associations of CAs with autonomic nervous system and HPA-axis function vary widely across studies. Here, we test a novel conceptual model discriminating between distinct forms of CA (deprivation and threat) and examine their independent associations with physiological reactivity and psychopathology...
July 15, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Mark W Chapleau, Diane L Rotella, John J Reho, Kamal Rahmouni, Harald M Stauss
Parasympathetic activity is often reduced in hypertension and can elicit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus we hypothesized that chronic vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) may alleviate cardiovascular end-organ damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Vagal nerve stimulators were implanted, a high-salt diet initiated, and the stimulators turned on (VNS, n = 10) or left off (sham, n = 14) for 4 wk. Arterial pressure increased equally in both groups. After 4 wk, endothelial function, assessed by in vivo imaging of the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) after stimulation (pilocarpine) and inhibition (N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), had significantly declined (-2...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Xin Cao, Yuji Nakamura, Takeshi Wada, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Bingmei Zhu, Bin Xu, Akira Takahara, Masaki Saitoh, Atsushi Sugiyama
We assessed the anti-anginal effects of cilnidipine in comparison with those of nicardipine and nifedipine (1 and 10 µg/kg, n = 6 for each drug) or vehicle (n = 6) by using the vasopressin-induced angina model of rats. The administration of vasopressin (0.5 IU/kg, i.v.) to the rats depressed the S-wave level of the electrocardiogram reflecting the presence of subendocardial ischemia, whereas it significantly increased the mean blood pressure, resulting in the decrease of the heart rate and the prolongation of the PR interval possibly through a reflex-mediated increase in vagal tone...
May 18, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Laura S Redwine, Brook L Henry, Meredith A Pung, Kathleen Wilson, Kelly Chinh, Brian Knight, Shamini Jain, Thomas Rutledge, Barry Greenberg, Alan Maisel, Paul J Mills
OBJECTIVE: Stage B, asymptomatic heart failure (HF) presents a therapeutic window for attenuating disease progression and development of HF symptoms, and improving quality of life. Gratitude, the practice of appreciating positive life features, is highly related to quality of life, leading to development of promising clinical interventions. However, few gratitude studies have investigated objective measures of physical health; most relied on self-report measures. We conducted a pilot study in Stage B HF patients to examine whether gratitude journaling improved biomarkers related to HF prognosis...
July 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Anne C Kraima, Marloes Derks, Noeska N Smit, Cornelis J H van de Velde, Gemma G Kenter, Marco C DeRuiter
OBJECTIVE: Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHL) is the preferred treatment for early-stage cervical cancer. Although oncological outcome is good with regard to recurrence and survival rates, it is well known that RHL might result in postoperative bladder impairments due to autonomic nerve disruption. The pelvic autonomic network has been extensively studied, but the anatomy of nerve fibers branching off the inferior hypogastric plexus to innervate the bladder is less known...
June 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Aaron J Fisher, Jonathan W Reeves, Cyrus Chi
Expanding on recently published methods, the current study presents an approach to estimating the dynamic, regulatory effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on heart period on a moment-to-moment basis. We estimated second-to-second variation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in order to estimate the contemporaneous and time-lagged relationships among RSA, interbeat interval (IBI), and respiration rate via vector autoregression. Moreover, we modeled these relationships at lags of 1 s to 10 s, in order to evaluate the optimal latency for estimating dynamic RSA effects...
July 2016: Psychophysiology
S Yu Zhilyaev, A N Moskvin, T F Platonova, I T Demchenko
The activation of autonomic afferents (achieved through the vagus nerve (VN) electrical stimulation) on CNS O2 toxicity and cardiovascular function was investigated. In conscious rabbits at 5 ATA 02, prodromal signs of CNS O2 toxicity and convulsion latency were determined with and without vagus nerve (VN) stimulation. EEG, ECG and respiration were also recorded. In rabbits at 5 ATA, sympathetic overdrive and specific patterns on the EEG (synchronization of slow-waves), ECG (tachycardia) and respiration (respiratory minute volume increase) preceded motor convulsions...
November 2015: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
Kristin J Horsley, Codie R Rouleau, Sheila N Garland, Charles Samuels, Sandeep G Aggarwal, James A Stone, Ross Arena, Tavis S Campbell
Insomnia symptoms (i.e., difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and early morning awakenings) are common among people with cardiovascular disease, and have been linked to adverse cardiovascular health outcomes. Reduced parasympathetic tone is one pathway through which risk may be conferred. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether insomnia symptoms are associated with lower parasympathetic tone in cardiac rehabilitation patients with suspected insomnia. Participants (N = 121) completed a self-report measure of insomnia severity...
August 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Yu V Shelekhova, N A Hramtsova, E V Onuchina, S G Kuklin
AIM OF INVESTIGATION: To estimate the Heart rate variability (HRV), by the method of daily kholterovskogo monitoring in the workers of rail transport (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 93 persons working in the East Siberian Railway. The main group (CG) consisted of 27 patients with gastric ulcer (GU) and duodenal ulcer (DU) contamination without Helicobacter infection. The first group of clinical comparison (GCS 1) included 36 patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal with contamination of infection H...
2015: Experimental & Clinical Gastroenterology
Joshua F Wiley, Tara L Gruenewald, Arun S Karlamangla, Teresa E Seeman
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to compare the relative fit of two alternative factor models of allostatic load (AL) and physiological systems, and to test factor invariance across age and sex. METHODS: Data were from the Midlife in the United States II Biomarker Project, a large (n = 1255) multisite study of adults aged 34 to 84 years (56.8% women). Specifically, 23 biomarkers were included, representing seven physiological systems: metabolic lipids, metabolic glucose, blood pressure, parasympathetic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and inflammation...
April 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
M F Pengo, S Higgins, P Drakatos, K Martin, N Gall, G P Rossi, G Leschziner
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (PoTS) has been frequently associated with sleep disturbances but objective sleep data are lacking. In addition, although regional autonomic denervation has been described, less is known about autonomic nervous activity overnight in these patients. PATIENTS/METHODS: A full polysomnography and heart rate variability were performed on 37 patients diagnosed with PoTS . In addition, a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) was conducted on a subgroup of patients with excessive daytime sleepiness...
December 2015: Sleep Medicine
M S Golovin, N V Balioz, R I Aizman, S G Krivoschekov
We studied the psychophysiological status (cognitive, psychoemotional and neurodynamic parameters), the power spectrum of EEG and heart rate variability of 18-23-year-old athletes, before and after a course of audiovisual stimulation (AVS) (experimental group) in comparison with sportsmen who did not receive AVS (control group). It was shown that a course of AVS (experimental group) has positive effect on psycho-emotional parameters (the levels of anxiety and neuroticism decreased; motivation to make progress and the level of hardiness increased), cognitive and neurodynamic parameters (the capacity of mechanical memory, the speed of attention switching and of a simple sensor-motor response increase; the range of fluctuation of reactions to a moving object is reduced)...
September 2015: Fiziologiia Cheloveka
Su Young Han, Chris P Bolter
Heart rate slowing produced by cardiac parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation is thought to be the result of modulation of the acetylcholine-activated K(+) current (IK,ACh) and the pacemaker current (If) in sinoatrial (SAN) pacemaker cells. However, the contribution of these and other ion currents to vagal slowing is controversial. Here, we examined the contributions of IK,ACh and If to vagal slowing in 15 isolated, vagal-innervated preparations of guinea-pig atria, using 300 nM tertiapin-Q (TQ) and 2 μM ZD7288 to obtain full and substantial block of these currents, respectively...
December 2015: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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