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Parasympathetic N S

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408652/premature-ventricular-contraction-coupling-interval-variability-destabilizes-cardiac-neuronal-and-electrophysiological-control-insights-from-simultaneous-cardioneural-mapping
#1
David Hamon, Pradeep S Rajendran, Ray W Chui, Olujimi A Ajijola, Tadanobu Irie, Ramin Talebi, Siamak Salavatian, Marmar Vaseghi, Jason S Bradfield, J Andrew Armour, Jeffrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
BACKGROUND: Variability in premature ventricular contraction (PVC) coupling interval (CI) increases the risk of cardiomyopathy and sudden death. The autonomic nervous system regulates cardiac electrical and mechanical indices, and its dysregulation plays an important role in cardiac disease pathogenesis. The impact of PVCs on the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, a neural network on the heart, remains unknown. The objective was to determine the effect of PVCs and CI on intrinsic cardiac nervous system function in generating cardiac neuronal and electric instability using a novel cardioneural mapping approach...
April 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261792/parasympathetic-reactivity-and-disruptive-behavior-problems-in-young-children-during-interactions-with-their-mothers-and-other-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#2
Christine E Cooper-Vince, Mariah DeSerisy, Danielle Cornacchio, Amanda Sanchez, Katie A McLaughlin, Jonathan S Comer
Parasympathetic nervous system influences on cardiac functions-commonly indexed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-are central to self-regulation. RSA suppression during challenging emotional and cognitive tasks is often associated with better emotional and behavioral functioning in preschoolers. However, the links between RSA suppression and child behavior across various challenging interpersonal contexts remains unclear. The present study experimentally evaluated the relationship between child RSA reactivity to adult (mother vs...
March 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149088/autonomic-dysfunction-a-comparative-study-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-and-frontotemporal-dementia-a-pilot-study
#3
Thomas Gregor Issac, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Neelesh Gupta, Malligurki Raghurama Rukmani, S Deepika, T N Sathyaprabha
INTRODUCTION: In frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), central autonomic structures get affected early. An insight into autonomic functions in these patients is likely to be of diagnostic importance and thus help in prognosticating and also probably explain unexplained sudden death in some of these patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to identify autonomic dysfunction prevailing in patients. Then, if there is dysfunction, is the pattern same or different in these two conditions...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131974/autonomic-cardiac-regulation-blood-pressure-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-responses-to-different-training-doses-over-a-12-week-group-program-in-the-elderly
#4
A J McKune, B Peters, S S Ramklass, J van Heerden, C Roberts, J Krejčí, M Botek
AIM: The study assessed the effects of different weekly training frequencies performed over a 12 week exercise programme (strength, endurance, balance) on autonomic cardiac activity, blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in elderly individuals. METHODS: Fifty-eight individuals participated in the study: 2TG (N=24, 71.1±6.4 yrs; 19 females, 5 males) performing two, 60min sessions/week; and 3TG (N=34, 72.3±7.9 yrs; 25 females, 9 males) performing three, 60min sessions/week...
May 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051823/lumbar-sympathetic-chain-anatomical-variation-and-clinical-perspectives
#5
P Jain, K Raza, S Singh, C Kumari, S Kaler, N Rani
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems constitute the autonomic nervous system which controls the entropy of the body and maintain the equilibrium. The sympathetic chain forms a definitive anatomic entity which is quite variable with respect to its position and the number of ganglia. The sympathetic nervous system causes vasoconstriction and thus forms the basis of Lumbar sympathetic surgeries being performed in patients with peripheral vascular diseases. The anatomic variations in this region hence gains immense importance for the operating surgeons and consulting radiologists...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045306/examining-the-association-between-perceived-discrimination-and-heart-rate-variability-in-african-americans
#6
LaBarron K Hill, Lori S Hoggard, Ashley S Richmond, DeLeon L Gray, Dewayne P Williams, Julian F Thayer
OBJECTIVE: Previous research attempting to delineate the role of discrimination in racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension has focused largely on blood pressure, which is chiefly governed by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. Consequently, few studies have considered the role of the parasympathetic branch and particularly its regulation of the heart via the vagus nerve. METHOD: In the present cross-sectional study, we employed hierarchical linear regressions to examine associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and resting heart rate variability (HRV), an important biomarker of parasympathetic cardiac modulation and overall health, in a sample (N = 103) of young, healthy African American participants (58% female, Mage = 19...
January 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987071/parasympathetic-nervous-system-reactivity-moderates-associations-between-children-s-executive-functioning-and-social-and-academic-competence
#7
Julia D McQuade, Taylor E Penzel, Jennifer S Silk, Kyung Hwa Lee
This study examined whether children with poor executive functioning (EF) evidenced less social and academic impairments, compared to other children, if they demonstrated adaptive parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) regulation during experiences of failure. Participants with and without clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms (N = 61; 9-13 years; 48% male; 85% Caucasian) were administered a battery of EF tests and completed manipulated social and cognitive failure tasks. While participants completed failure tasks, respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) was measured as an indicator of PNS reactivity...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965972/a-hybrid-signal-processing-of-rr-intervals-from-qtc-variation-searching-arrhythmia-and-improving-heart-rate-variability-assessment-in-acute-large-artery-ischemic-stroke
#8
S Rangsungnoen, P Chanbenjapipu, N Mathuradavong, K Suwanprasert
Sudden death caused by abnormal QTc and atrial fibrillation (AF) has been reported in stroke. Heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced with missing beats of RRI during arrhythmic episode and abnormal QTc variation during acute stroke. In this study, we develop a hybrid signal processing by Pan Tompkins QRS detection and Kalman filter estimator for meaningful missing beats and searching AF with prolonged QTc. We use this hybrid model to investigate RRIs of Lead II ECG in thirty acute stroke patients with long QTc and AF (LQTc-AF) and normal QTc without AF (NQTc-nonAF) and then assess them by HRV...
2016: Journal of Medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935325/decreased-baroreflex-sensitivity-is-linked-to-sympathovagal-imbalance-low-grade-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-pregnancy-induced-hypertension
#9
M Subha, Pravati Pal, G K Pal, S Habeebullah, C Adithan, M G Sridhar
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) has been reported as a cardiovascular (CV) risk. We assessed the sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) and the association of inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) with CV risks in PIH. A total of 125 pregnant women having a risk factor for PIH were followed till term and the incidence of PIH was observed. Retrospectively, they were divided into two groups: Group I (those who did not develop PIH, n = 82) and Group II (those who developed PIH, n = 43). Blood pressure variability (BPV) parameters including baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), spectral heart rate variability (HRV), autonomic function tests (AFTs), inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, TNF-α, interferon-γ), and OS markers were measured in both the groups...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753971/os-11-04-impact-of-gonadectomy-on-sympatho-vagal-balance-in-male-and-female-normotensive-rat
#10
Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A Joles, Sarah McMullen, Simon C Langley-Evans
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex hormones affect blood pressure via the autonomic nervous system and that the late development of hypertension in females is due to protective effects of ovarian steroids in females rather than due to detrimental effects of testosterone in males...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709382/effect-of-doxazosin-on-autonomic-nervous-control-and-urodynamics-of-rat-urinary-bladder-during-modeled-infravesical-obstruction
#11
V I Kirpatovskii, I S Mudraya, S V Revenko, A Yu Bablumyan, N K Adamyan, V P Ivanov
The therapeutic effect of doxazosin (40 μg/kg/day over one month) on urinary bladder was examined in female rats with modeled chronic infravesical obstruction (IVO) produced by graduated mechanical constriction of the proximal urethral segment. In one month, IVO induced a pronounced vesical hypertrophy both in treated and untreated rats that manifested in increased bladder weight and capacity, the latter increment being pronouncedly greater in treated rats. In untreated IVO rats, infusion cystometry revealed elevated basal intravesical pressure of void bladder P0, markedly increased maximal (premicturitional) pressure Pmax, and increased amplitude of spontaneous oscillations of intravesical pressure ΔPdet in filled bladder...
September 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643368/os-11-04-impact-of-gonadectomy-on-sympatho-vagal-balance-in-male-and-female-normotensive-rat
#12
Wioletta Pijacka, Bethan Clifford, Dawid Walas, Chantal Tilburgs, Jaap A Joles, Sarah McMullen, Simon C Langley-Evans
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex hormones affect blood pressure via the autonomic nervous system and that the late development of hypertension in females is due to protective effects of ovarian steroids in females rather than due to detrimental effects of testosterone in males...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603025/circadian-contrasts-in-heart-rate-variability-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-a-young-adult-cohort
#13
Michelle B Rissling, Paul A Dennis, Lana L Watkins, Patrick S Calhoun, Michelle F Dennis, Jean C Beckham, Junichiro Hayano, Christi S Ulmer
Prior research has demonstrated that individuals exposed to trauma have shown impaired autonomic function. We sought to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of impaired autonomic function, differed across periods of wake, rest, and sleep as a function of the level of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A sample of young adults (N = 209), 95 of whom met full criteria for current PTSD based on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; Blake et al., 1995), were evaluated for ≈ 24 hr using actigraphy and electrocardiogram...
October 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568796/clusters-of-insomnia-disorder-an-exploratory-cluster-analysis-of-objective-sleep-parameters-reveals-differences-in-neurocognitive-functioning-quantitative-eeg-and-heart-rate-variability
#14
Christopher B Miller, Delwyn J Bartlett, Anna E Mullins, Kirsty L Dodds, Christopher J Gordon, Simon D Kyle, Jong Won Kim, Angela L D'Rozario, Rico S C Lee, Maria Comas, Nathaniel S Marshall, Brendon J Yee, Colin A Espie, Ronald R Grunstein
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To empirically derive and evaluate potential clusters of Insomnia Disorder through cluster analysis from polysomnography (PSG). We hypothesized that clusters would differ on neurocognitive performance, sleep-onset measures of quantitative (q)-EEG and heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: Research volunteers with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) completed a neurocognitive assessment and overnight PSG measures of total sleep time (TST), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) were used to determine clusters...
November 1, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538283/-correlation-between-haemostatic-and-vegetate-nervous-system-parameters-under-examination-stress
#15
R I Zhdanov, A N Doinikova, S I Zhdanova, Yu V Chernokhvostov, E S Gadzhieva, V G Dvoenosov
The work is aimed to an assessment of the correlation between of autonomic nervous system tone and the level of reactivity of the students' cardiovascular system and hemostasis system under examination stress. It was found that the students under exam stress are characterized with high values of respiration rate and with lower ones of tidal volume. The value of respiratory minute volume decreases in male students due to the bronchoconstrictor effects of stress at the tracheobronchial tree. This finding confirms a statistically significant reduction in the flow of small, medium and large bronchi, indicating an increased parasympathetic nervous system tone...
March 2016: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530006/autonomic-functions-in-raja-yoga-meditators
#16
Jyotsana R Bharshankar, Archana D Mandape, Mrunal S Phatak, Rajay N Bharshankar
Stress, an inevitable and constant feature throughout the lifetime, induces autonomic dysfunctions, for which meditation is considered to be an antidote. So the case control study was planned including 50 Raja-yoga meditators practicing meditation for 5 years and 50 age matched non-meditators. Autonomic function tests were performed and results were compared using the Student-t test. Mean values of resting HR, SBP and DBP were less in meditators. Galvanic Skin Response in meditators was significantly more (p < 0...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466057/modulation-of-innate-immune-response-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-experimental-hepatic-amebiasis-in-rats
#17
Mercedes D Martínez-Jaimes, Mario García-Lorenzana, Martin H Muñoz-Ortega, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Manuel E Ávila-Blanco, Carlos E García-Agueda, Javier Ventura-Juárez
The parasympathetic nervous system has a crucial role in immunomodulation of the vagus nerve, its structure provides a pathogen detection system, and a negative feedback to the immune system after the pathogenic agent has been eliminated. Amebiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, considered the third leading cause of death in the world. The rats are used as a natural resistance model to amoebic liver infection. The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of Entamoeba histolytica with neutrophils, macrophages, and NK cells in livers of intact and vagotomized rats...
October 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428857/dimensions-of-adversity-physiological-reactivity-and-externalizing-psychopathology-in-adolescence-deprivation-and-threat
#18
Daniel S Busso, Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan
OBJECTIVE: Dysregulation of autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function is a putative intermediate phenotype linking childhood adversity (CA) with later psychopathology. However, associations of CAs with autonomic nervous system and HPA-axis function vary widely across studies. Here, we test a novel conceptual model discriminating between distinct forms of CA (deprivation and threat) and examine their independent associations with physiological reactivity and psychopathology...
February 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208157/chronic-vagal-nerve-stimulation-prevents-high-salt-diet-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-and-aortic-stiffening-in-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#19
Mark W Chapleau, Diane L Rotella, John J Reho, Kamal Rahmouni, Harald M Stauss
Parasympathetic activity is often reduced in hypertension and can elicit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus we hypothesized that chronic vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) may alleviate cardiovascular end-organ damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Vagal nerve stimulators were implanted, a high-salt diet initiated, and the stimulators turned on (VNS, n = 10) or left off (sham, n = 14) for 4 wk. Arterial pressure increased equally in both groups. After 4 wk, endothelial function, assessed by in vivo imaging of the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) after stimulation (pilocarpine) and inhibition (N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), had significantly declined (-2...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194426/comparison-of-anti-anginal-effect-of-cilnidipine-with-those-of-nicardipine-and-nifedipine-in-the-vasopressin-induced-angina-model-of-rats
#20
Xin Cao, Yuji Nakamura, Takeshi Wada, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Bingmei Zhu, Bin Xu, Akira Takahara, Masaki Saitoh, Atsushi Sugiyama
We assessed the anti-anginal effects of cilnidipine in comparison with those of nicardipine and nifedipine (1 and 10 µg/kg, n = 6 for each drug) or vehicle (n = 6) by using the vasopressin-induced angina model of rats. The administration of vasopressin (0.5 IU/kg, i.v.) to the rats depressed the S-wave level of the electrocardiogram reflecting the presence of subendocardial ischemia, whereas it significantly increased the mean blood pressure, resulting in the decrease of the heart rate and the prolongation of the PR interval possibly through a reflex-mediated increase in vagal tone...
December 2016: Heart and Vessels
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