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Parasympathetic N S

Nagendra Madan Singh, T N Sathyaprabha, Kashyap Malthish, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: Studies have examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on human cardiac electrophysiology. However, no study has so far examined whether these effects vary with the magnitude of the electrical dose used to elicit the seizure. Because the benefits and adverse effects of the ECT seizure are dose-dependent, we examined the effects of different electrical doses of electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) on cardiac electrophysiology in an animal model with a view to determine whether cardiac electrophysiology could be a useful proxy to evaluate the quality of the ECT seizure...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
N J C Stapelberg, R Pratt, D L Neumann, D H K Shum, S Brandis, V Muthukkumarasamy, B Stantic, M Blumenstein, J P Headrick
BACKGROUND: Biological pathways underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) can be viewed as systems biology networks. The psycho-immune-neuroendocrine (PINE) network comprises central nervous, immune, endocrine and autonomic systems, integrating biological mechanisms of MDD. Such networks exhibit recurrent motifs with specific functions, including positive and negative feedback loops, and are subject to critical transitions, influenced by feedback loop transitions (FLTs). AIMS: We aim to identify critical feedback loops and their FLTs, as well sentinel network nodes (SNNs), key network nodes that drive FLTs, within the PINE network...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
M А Boldyreva, I V Bondar, I S Stafeev, P I Makarevich, I B Beloglazova, E S Zubkova, E K Shevchenko, Y D Molokotina, M N Karagyaur, Е I Rаtner, Ye V Parfyonova
Peripheral nerve injury remains a common clinical problem with no satisfactory treatment options. Numerous studies have shown that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exerts neurotrophic effect in motor, sensory, and parasympathetic neurons in addition to mitogenic, morphogenic, angiogenic, antiapoptotic, antifibrotic, and anti-inflammatory effect on various tissues and cells. In our study we examined efficacy of gene therapy with HGF-bearing plasmid (pC4W-hHGF) to improve consequences of traumatic nerve injury in mice...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kiavash R Koko, Brian D McCauley, John P Gaughan, Marc W Fromer, Ryan S Nolan, Ashleigh L Hagaman, Spencer A Brown, Joshua P Hazelton
BACKGROUND: Spectral analysis of continuous blood pressure and heart rate variability provides a quantitative assessment of autonomic response to hemorrhage. This may reveal markers of mortality as well as endpoints of resuscitation. METHODS: Fourteen male Yorkshire pigs, ranging in weight from 33 to 36 kg, were included in the analysis. All pigs underwent laparotomy and then sustained a standardized retrohepatic inferior vena cava injury. Animals were then allowed to progress to class 3 hemorrhagic shock and where then treated with abdominal sponge packing followed by 6 h of crystalloid resuscitation...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
E Avetisyan, A Petrosyan, L Avanesyan, S Shogheryan, N Saakyan
In this fragment of the study, the change in the ratio of low (LF) and high frequency (HF) waves to the heart rhythmogram during prolonged immobilization (5 hours) of sexually mature white non-linear rats was studied by spectral analysis of heart rate variability, which causes psychoemotional stress and the accompanying vegetative equilibrium shift, indicating on the dysregulation of the sympatho-parasympathetic balance without and against the background of daily intraperitoneal injection of taurine (50 mg/kg) and its participation in the mechanisms of adaptive processes in the early poststress period (from 1 to 14 days)...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Monika Zawadka-Kunikowskaa, Krzysztof Słomiński, Joanna Słomko, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Jacek J Klawe, Łukasz Sokołowski, Julia L Newton, Paweł Zalewski
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to comprehensively determine haemodynamic and autonomic responses during-head up tilt test (HUT) in the acute and recovery phase of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Cardiovascular parameters, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), spectral- indices of heart rate (HRV), systolic (sBPV) and diastolic blood pressure variability (dBPV) were measured at rest in ischaemic stroke patients (n=17) and control group (n=34). Dynamic cardiac autonomic function was assessed using HUT (Delta [rest-tilt]...
February 1, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
J-H Huang, H-A Chang, W-H Fang, P-S Ho, Y-P Liu, F-J Wan, N-S Tzeng, J-F Shyu, C-C Chang
OBJECTIVE: The G-allele of the -1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of the serotonin receptor 1A (HTR1A) gene has been implicated in anxiety; however, the underlying neurophysiological processes are still not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that low parasympathetic (vagal) tone is predictive of anxiety. We thus conducted a structural equation model (SEM) to examine whether the HTR1A rs6295 variant can affect anxiety by altering parasympathetic nervous activity. METHOD: A sample of 1141 drug-free healthy Han Chinese was recruited for HTR1A genotyping...
March 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Navita Choudhary, Kishore K Deepak, Poodipedi S Chandra, Shalini Bhatia, Rajesh Sagar, Ashok K Jaryal, Ravindra M Pandey, Manjari Tripathi
Background and Purpose: Refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is commonly associated with imbalances in cardiovascular (CV) parasympathetic and sympathetic functions, which are treated using TLE surgery. We investigated the effect of hemispheric lateralization of seizure foci on autonomic CV functions before and after TLE surgery. Methods: The study was conducted on patients with left TLE (LTLE, n = 23) and right TLE (RTLE, n = 30) undergoing unilateral TLE surgery...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
D P Williams, N Joseph, E Sones, S Chetluru, T K Hillecke, J F Thayer, J Koenig
Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), defined as the beat-to-beat fluctuations in a heart series mediated by the vagus nerve, serves as a non-invasive index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Lower resting state vmHRV is associated with greater body mass index (BMI), providing a psychophysiological pathway linking obesity with health and disease. However little research has been conducted to examine how BMI may influence PNS reactivity to orthostatic stress. The present study sought to explore this in a sample of 59 individuals (44 females, mean age = 24...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Denielli da Silva Gonçalves Bós, Cathelijne E E Van Der Bruggen, Kondababu Kurakula, Xiao-Qing Sun, Karina R Casali, Adenauer G Casali, Nina Rol, Robert Szulcek, Cris Dos Remedios, Christophe Guignabert, Ly Tu, Peter Dorfmüller, Marc Humbert, Paul J M Wijnker, Diederik W D Kuster, Jolanda van der Velden, Marie-José Goumans, Harm-Jan Bogaard, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Frances S de Man, M Louis Handoko
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of parasympathetic stimulation have been reported in left heart failure, but whether it would be beneficial for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains to be explored. Here, we investigated the relationship between parasympathetic activity and right ventricular (RV) function in patients with PAH, and the potential therapeutic effects of pyridostigmine (PYR), an oral drug stimulating the parasympathetic activity through acetylcholinesterase inhibition, in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
February 27, 2018: Circulation
G Chanques, T Tarri, A Ride, A Prades, A De Jong, J Carr, N Molinari, S Jaber
Background: Behavioural pain tools are used in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients unable to self-report their pain-intensity but need sustained efforts to educate and train the ICU team because of the subjective nature of these clinical tools. This study measured the validity and performance of an electrophysiological monitoring tool based on the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, the Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) which varies from 0 (minimal parasympathetic tone, maximal stress-response and pain) to 100 (maximal parasympathetic tone, minimal stress-response and pain)...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
G Valenza, A Duggento, L Passamonti, S Diciotti, C Tessa, R Barbieri, N Toschi
A prominent pathway of brain-heart interaction is represented by autonomic nervous system (ANS) heartbeat modulation. While within-brain resting state networks have been the object of intense functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) research, technological and methodological limitations have hampered research on the central correlates of cardiovascular control dynamics. Here we combine the high temporal and spatial resolution as well as data volume afforded by the Human Connectome Project with a probabilistic model of heartbeat dynamics to characterize central correlates of sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS activity at rest...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
G Valenza, A Duggento, L Passamonti, S Diciotti, C Tessa, N Toschi, R Barbieri
While estimates of complex heartbeat dynamics have provided effective prognostic and diagnostic markers for a wide range of pathologies, brain correlates of complex cardiac measures in general and of complex sympatho-vagal dynamics in particular are still unknown. In this study we combine resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and physiological signal acquisition from 34 healthy subjects selected from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) repository with inhomogeneous point-process approximate and sample heartbeat entropy measures (ipApEn and ipSampEn) to investigate brain areas involved in complex cardiovascular control...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Marc van Bilsen, Hitesh C Patel, Johann Bauersachs, Michael Böhm, Martin Borggrefe, Dirk Brutsaert, Andrew J S Coats, Rudolf A de Boer, Gilles W de Keulenaer, Gerasimos S Filippatos, John Floras, Guido Grassi, Ewa A Jankowska, Lilian Kornet, Ida G Lunde, Christoph Maack, Felix Mahfoud, Piero Pollesello, Piotr Ponikowski, Frank Ruschitzka, Hani N Sabbah, Harold D Schultz, Petar Seferovic, Riemer H J A Slart, Peter Taggart, Carlo G Tocchetti, Linda W Van Laake, Faiez Zannad, Stephane Heymans, Alexander R Lyon
Despite improvements in medical therapy and device-based treatment, heart failure (HF) continues to impose enormous burdens on patients and health care systems worldwide. Alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity contribute to cardiac disease progression, and the recent development of invasive techniques and electrical stimulation devices has opened new avenues for specific targeting of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS. The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology recently organized an expert workshop which brought together clinicians, trialists and basic scientists to discuss the ANS as a therapeutic target in HF...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
Erika Lunkenheimer, Stacey S Tiberio, Amanda M Skoranski, Kristin A Buss, Pamela M Cole
The parasympathetic nervous system supports social interaction and varies in relation to psychopathology. However, we know little about parasympathetic processes from a dyadic framework, nor in early childhood when parent-child social interactions become more complex and child psychopathology first emerges. We hypothesized that higher risk for psychopathology (maternal psychopathology symptoms and child problem behavior) would be related to weaker concordance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) between mothers and children (M = 3½ years old; N = 47) and that these relations could vary by social contextual demands, comparing unstructured free play, semistructured cleanup, and structured teaching tasks...
August 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
Rebecca S Lipschutz, Sarah A O Gray, Carl F Weems, Michael S Scheeringa
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, but the effect of CBT on physiological indicators is largely unknown. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is an established parasympathetic marker of self-regulatory capacity and stress responsivity. The present study tested if and how resting RSA and RSA reactivity changed following treatment among a sample of children (n = 48) who experienced at least one traumatic event and presented with PTSD symptoms...
December 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Lucas R B E Silva, Antonio R Zamunér, Paulo Gentil, Fagner M Alves, Acácia G F Leal, Viviane Soares, Maria S Silva, Marcus F Vieira, Karina Simões, Gustavo R Pedrino, Ana C S Rebelo
Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS) have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses. Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35-55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19) and a control group (CG, n = 17). R-R intervals (RRi) and heart rate variability (HRV) were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR) at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
J Suurland, K B van der Heijden, S C J Huijbregts, S H M van Goozen, H Swaab
Nonreciprocal action of the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems, increases susceptibility to emotional and behavioral problems in children exposed to adversity. Little is known about the PNS and SNS in interaction with early adversity during infancy. Yet this is when the physiological systems involved in emotion regulation are emerging and presumably most responsive to environmental influences. We examined whether parasympathetic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and sympathetic pre-ejection period (PEP) response and recovery at six months, moderate the association between cumulative prenatal risk and physical aggression at 20 months (N=113)...
September 2017: Biological Psychology
Lynn S Walker, Amanda L Stone, Craig A Smith, Stephen Bruehl, Judy Garber, Martina Puzanovova, André Diedrich
Considerable research links chronic pain to autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, specifically low heart rate variability (HRV) mediated by reduced parasympathetic activity. However, little is known about factors that influence ANS function in chronic pain. The ANS is the primary pathway for brain-gut communication, making it of particular interest in gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, characterized by functional abdominal pain (FAP). We evaluated the relation of sex, pain severity, and psychological stress to ANS function in adolescents/young adults from a database of pediatric FAP and control participants enrolled 8 years earlier in a prospective study of pain...
August 2017: Pain
C Brock, N Jessen, B Brock, P E Jakobsen, T K Hansen, J M Rantanen, S Riahi, Y K Dimitrova, A Dons-Jensen, Q Aziz, A M Drewes, A D Farmer
AIMS: To compare a novel index of parasympathetic tone, cardiac vagal tone, with established autonomic variables and to test the hypotheses that (1) cardiac vagal tone would be associated with established time and frequency domain measures of heart rate and (2) cardiac vagal tone would be lower in people with Type 1 diabetes than in a matched healthy cohort and lower still in people with established neuropathy. METHODS: Cardiac vagal tone is a validated cardiometrically derived index of parasympathetic tone...
July 13, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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