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CNS Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659185/the-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-the-auditory-portion-of-the-viii-nerve
#1
Francisco Carricondo, Bárbara Romero-Gómez
The VIII nerve is formed by sensory neurons that innervate the inner ear, i.e. the vestibular and the auditory receptors. Neurons of the auditory portion, the cochlear afferent fibers that innervate the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti, have their somas in the cochlear spiral ganglion where two types of neurons can be distinguished. Afferent type-I neurons are the 95% of the total population. Bipolar and myelinated fibers, each one innervates only one cochlear inner hair cell (IHC). In contrast, afferent type-II neurons are only the 5% of the spiral ganglion population...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658509/-experimental-approaches-to-the-investigation-of-behavioral-disorders-associated-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#2
E V Razumkina, P K Anokhin, T V Proskuryakova, I Yu Shamakina
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term which covers a wide range of deficits in prenatal and postnatal growth, anatomy and CNS functions produced by prenatal alcohol exposure. The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) characterized by additional specific craniofacial and brain malformations. Despite a high prevalence and extensive clinical studies, the fundamental mechanisms of FASD are still poorly understood. Thereby, experimental models, which allow better control for both socio-environmental and genetic factors, are critical to our understanding of FASD...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537481/in-search-for-a-gold-standard-procedure-to-count-motor-neurons-in-the-spinal-cord
#3
REVIEW
Michela Ferrucci, Gloria Lazzeri, Marina Flaibani, Francesca Biagioni, Federica Cantini, Michele Madonna, Domenico Bucci, Fiona Limanaqi, Paola Soldani, Francesco Fornai
Counting motor neurons within the spinal cord and brainstem represents a seminal step to comprehend the anatomy and physiology of the final common pathway sourcing from the CNS. Motor neuron loss allows to assess the severity of motor neuron disorders while providing a tool to assess disease modifying effects. Counting motor neurons at first implies gold standard identification methods. In fact, motor neurons may occur within mixed nuclei housing a considerable amount of neurons other than motor neurons. In the present review, we analyse various approaches to count motor neurons emphasizing both the benefits and bias of each protocol...
March 14, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489402/abnormalities-associated-with-the-cavum-septi-pellucidi-on-fetal-mri-what-radiologists-need-to-know
#4
Usha D Nagaraj, Maria A Calvo-Garcia, Beth M Kline-Fath
OBJECTIVE: Screening the cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), more commonly referred to as the "cavum septum pellucidum," is a required component of the fetal anatomic survey during second-trimester ultrasound (US). The inability to identify the normal appearance of this structure warrants further evaluation because septal insufficiency is associated with multiple brain malformations. In this article, we discuss embryology, normal anatomy, and prenatal evaluation of the CSP as well as the differential diagnosis of associated abnormalities...
May 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380260/long-term-follow-up-in-the-endovascular-treatment-of-intracranial-aneurysms-with-flow-diverter-stents-update-of-a-single-centre-experience
#5
Giuseppe Guzzardi, Carmelo Stanca, Paolo Cerini, Bruno Del Sette, Ignazio Divenuto, Emanuele Malatesta, Alessandro Carriero, Alessandro Stecco
INTRODUCTION: Flow-diverter stents are becoming a useful tool in treating patients with intracranial aneurysms with suitable anatomical feature. Purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and safety of endovascular treatment with flow-diverting stents (FD) in unruptured intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: From May 2009 and May 2014, we treated 49 patients with a total of 58 aneurysms, with FD technique. All patients were treated electively, under general anesthesia and were administered single antiplatelet drug 5 days before the procedure and double antiplatelet therapy for 3 months afterwards...
January 30, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371167/making-anatomic-preparations-of-the-human-brain-using-colored-silicone-for-vascular-perfusion-staining-technical-description
#6
Mikhail A Shkarubo, Alexey N Shkarubo, Georgiy F Dobrovolsky, Georgiy A Polev, Ilia V Chernov, Dmitry N Andreev, Vasiliy V Karnaukhov, Konstantin V Koval
BACKGROUND: A thorough understanding of the central nervous system anatomy is a fundamental part of a neurosurgeon's training. Development of novel neurosurgical approaches and optimization of existing ones directly depend on the comprehensive study of topographic anatomy of the head and neck using cadaveric specimens. Staining the vessels of the arterial and venous systems of a cadaveric specimen aids a detailed study of the vascularization of anatomic structures of the brain. Here we describe an alternative expedited method for creating anatomic preparations of the human brain using colored silicone for vascular perfusion staining...
April 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368213/molecular-anatomy-and-functions-of-the-choroidal-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Nathalie Strazielle, Martin Catala, Violeta Silva-Vargas, Fiona Doetsch, Britta Engelhardt
The barrier between the blood and the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is located at the choroid plexuses. At the interface between two circulating fluids, these richly vascularized veil-like structures display a peculiar morphology explained by their developmental origin, and fulfill several functions essential for CNS homeostasis. They form a neuroprotective barrier preventing the accumulation of noxious compounds into the CSF and brain, and secrete CSF, which participates in the maintenance of a stable CNS internal environment...
January 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220864/the-nature-of-catecholamine-containing-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-relationship-with-organogenesis-normal-human-anatomy-and-neurodegeneration
#8
G Natale, L Ryskalin, C L Busceti, F Biagioni, F Fornai
The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150310/zika-virus-in-french-polynesia-2013-14-anatomy-of-a-completed-outbreak
#9
REVIEW
Didier Musso, Hervé Bossin, Henri Pierre Mallet, Marianne Besnard, Julien Broult, Laure Baudouin, José Eduardo Levi, Ester C Sabino, Frederic Ghawche, Marion C Lanteri, David Baud
The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays...
November 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111178/dose-dependent-neurocognitive-deficits-following-postnatal-day-10-hiv-1-viral-protein-exposure-relationship-to-hippocampal-anatomy-parameters
#10
Sylvia Fitting, Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylactic treatment, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to be a significant risk factor in the post-cART era. The time of infection (i.e., during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding) may play a role in the development of neurocognitive deficits in pediatric HIV-1. HIV-1 viral protein exposure on postnatal day (P)1, preceding the postnatal brain growth spurt in rats, had deleterious effects on neurocognitive development and anatomical parameters of the hippocampus (Fitting et al...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945198/mutations-in-the-netrin-1-gene-cause-congenital-mirror-movements
#11
Aurélie Méneret, Elizabeth A Franz, Oriane Trouillard, Thomas C Oliver, Yvrick Zagar, Stephen P Robertson, Quentin Welniarz, R J MacKinlay Gardner, Cécile Gallea, Myriam Srour, Christel Depienne, Christine L Jasoni, Caroline Dubacq, Florence Riant, Jean-Charles Lamy, Marie-Pierre Morel, Raphael Guérois, Jessica Andreani, Coralie Fouquet, Mohamed Doulazmi, Marie Vidailhet, Guy A Rouleau, Alexis Brice, Alain Chédotal, Isabelle Dusart, Emmanuel Roze, David Markie
Netrin-1 is a secreted protein that was first identified 20 years ago as an axon guidance molecule that regulates midline crossing in the CNS. It plays critical roles in various tissues throughout development and is implicated in tumorigenesis and inflammation in adulthood. Despite extensive studies, no inherited human disease has been directly associated with mutations in NTN1, the gene coding for netrin-1. Here, we have identified 3 mutations in exon 7 of NTN1 in 2 unrelated families and 1 sporadic case with isolated congenital mirror movements (CMM), a disorder characterized by involuntary movements of one hand that mirror intentional movements of the opposite hand...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817239/novel-dissection-of-the-central-nervous-system-to-bridge-gross-anatomy-and-neuroscience-for-an-integrated-medical-curriculum
#12
Rebecca J Hlavac, Rachel Klaus, Kourtney Betts, Shilo M Smith, Maureen E Stabio
Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an opportunity to bridge gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and clinical neurology. In this dissection, the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cauda equina, optic nerve/tract, and eyes are removed in one piece so that the entire CNS and its gateway to the periphery through the spinal roots can be appreciated...
March 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761752/cecog-educational-illustrations-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-its-relevance-for-targeted-cancer-therapies-and-immuno-oncology
#13
Matthias Preusser, Anna S Berghoff, Christiane Thallinger, Christoph Zielinski
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the central nervous system (CNS) from potentially harmful substances and molecules by limiting their influx from the blood stream into the brain parenchyma. Understanding the structure and functioning of the BBB is of major importance for the development of effective medical treatments for primary and secondary brain tumours. Therefore, we provide here a concise and illustrated educational description of the anatomy and physiology of the BBB and current concepts on its role for targeted cancer therapies and immuno-oncology...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641242/arrhythmia-mechanism-and-scaling-effect-on-the-spectral-properties-of-electroanatomical-maps-with-manifold-harmonics
#14
Margarita Sanroman-Junquera, Inmaculada Mora-Jimenez, Arcadi Garcia-Alberola, Antonio J Caamano, Beatriz Trenor, Jose Luis Rojo-Alvarez
Spatial and temporal processing of intracardiac electrograms provides relevant information to support the arrhythmia ablation during electrophysiological studies. Current Cardiac Navigation Systems (CNS) and Electrocardiographic Imaging (ECGI) build detailed three-dimensional electroanatomical maps (EAM), which represent the spatial anatomical distribution of bioelectrical features, such as activation time or voltage. We present a principled methodology for spectral analysis of both EAM geometry and bioelectrical feature in CNS or ECGI, including their spectral representation, cut-off frequency, or spatial sampling rate (SSR)...
June 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#15
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521670/intranasal-drug-delivery-a-non-invasive-approach-for-the-better-delivery-of-neurotherapeutics
#16
Hitesh Kumar, Gaurav Mishra, Ashok K Sharma, Avinash Gothwal, Prashant Kesharwani, Umesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo; to overcome this barrier, intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain...
2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509324/three-dimensional-neurosonography-a-novel-field-in-fetal-medicine
#17
Michał Lipa, Ritsuko Kimata Pooh, Mirosław Wielgoś
Neurosonography is a promising technique for prenatal diagnosis, combining features of ultrasound imaging with fetal neurology. The brain is a three-dimensional structure, therefore observing brain structure in the three basic planes (sagittal, coronal and axial) is mandatory. The anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture may serve as acoustic ultrasound windows in the transvaginal brain scan, allowing to obtain high-resolution neuroimages of the intracranial structures. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound combined with the transvaginal brain approach provides detailed and sophisticated neuroimages...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377283/the-combined-transpetrosal-approach-anatomic-study-and-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
M Burhan Janjua, James P Caruso, Jeffrey P Greenfield, Mark M Souweidane, Theodore H Schwartz
The combined petrosal approach is an essential technique for the skull base neurosurgeon. In this manuscript, the authors provide a brief history of the development of this approach, technical instruction with consideration of important landmarks, and a literature review of the broad range of clinical applications for this approach. The combined petrosal approach was performed bilaterally in 6 cadaveric injected specimens. The relationship of middle and posterior fossa dura, venous sinuses, cranial nerves (CNs), and the vascular anatomy were studied...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146061/the-glia-response-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-a-comparison-between-schwann-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-and-their-uses-for-neural-regenerative-therapies
#19
REVIEW
Matthew J Barton, James St John, Mary Clarke, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092374/the-movers-and-shapers-in-immune-privilege-of-the-cns
#20
REVIEW
Britta Engelhardt, Peter Vajkoczy, Roy O Weller
Discoveries leading to an improved understanding of immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) have repeatedly provoked dismissal of the existence of immune privilege of the CNS. Recent rediscoveries of lymphatic vessels within the dura mater surrounding the brain, made possible by modern live-cell imaging technologies, have revived this discussion. This review emphasizes the fact that understanding immune privilege of the CNS requires intimate knowledge of its unique anatomy. Endothelial, epithelial and glial brain barriers establish compartments in the CNS that differ strikingly with regard to their accessibility to immune-cell subsets...
February 2017: Nature Immunology
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