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CNS Anatomy

Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
Functional MRI studies have helped to elucidate underlying mechanisms in complex neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease processes often involve complex large-scale network interactions, extending beyond the presumed main disease focus. Given both the complexity of the clinical phenotype and the underlying dysfunctional brain circuits, so called pharmaco-fMRI (ph-MRI) studies probe pharmacological effects on functional neuro-anatomy, and can help to determine early treatment response, mechanisms of drug efficacy and side effects, and potentially advance CNS drug development...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Daniel A Wolf, Jacob Y Hesterman, Jenna M Sullivan, Kelly D Orcutt, Matthew D Silva, Merryl Lobo, Tyler Wellman, Jack Hoppin, Ajay Verma
The intrathecal (IT) dosing route offers a seemingly obvious solution for delivering drugs directly to the central nervous system. However, gaps in understanding drug molecule behavior within the anatomically and kinetically unique environment of the mammalian IT space have impeded the establishment of pharmacokinetic principles for optimizing regional drug exposure along the neuraxis. Here, we have utilized high-resolution single-photon emission tomography with X-ray computed tomography to study the behavior of multiple molecular imaging tracers following an IT bolus injection, with supporting histology, autoradiography, block-face tomography, and MRI...
February 25, 2016: JCI Insight
Dasfne Lee-Liu, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Rosana Muñoz, Juan Larraín
While an injury to the central nervous system (CNS) in humans and mammals is irreversible, amphibians and teleost fish have the capacity to fully regenerate after severe injury to the CNS. Xenopus laevis has a high potential to regenerate the brain and spinal cord during larval stages (47-54), and loses this capacity during metamorphosis. The optic nerve has the capacity to regenerate throughout the frog's lifespan. Here, we review CNS regeneration in frogs, with a focus in X. laevis, but also provide some information about X...
September 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Keith Rubin, Steven Glazer
While a number of endogenous risk factors including age and genetics are established for Alzheimer's disease (AD), identification of acquired, potentially preventable or treatable causes, remains limited. In this paper, we review three epidemiologic case studies and present extensive biologic, immunologic and anatomic evidence to support a novel hypothesis that Bordetella pertussis (BP), the bacterium better known to cause whooping cough, is an important potential cause of AD. Cross-cultural documentation of nasopharyngeal subclinical BP colonization reflecting BP-specific mucosal immunodeficiency, proximate anatomy of intranasal mucosal surfaces to central nervous system (CNS) olfactory pathways, and mechanisms by which BP and BP toxin account for all hallmark pathology of AD are reviewed, substantiating biologic plausibility...
September 28, 2016: Immunobiology
Aaron D Skolnik, Laurie A Loevner, Deepak M Sampathu, Jason G Newman, John Y Lee, Linda J Bagley, Kim O Learned
Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors that may arise along the complex course of the cranial nerves (CNs), anywhere in the head and neck. Sound knowledge of the CN anatomy and imaging features of schwannomas is paramount for making the correct diagnosis. In this article, we review approaches to diagnosing CN schwannomas by describing their imaging characteristics and the associated clinical presentations. Relevant anatomic considerations are highlighted by using illustrative examples and key differential diagnoses categorized according to regions, which include the anterior skull base, orbit, cavernous sinus, basal cisterns, and neck...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Nathan W Kong, William R Gibb, Matthew C Tate
Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to reorganize itself during normal development and in response to illness. Recent advances in neuroimaging and direct cortical stimulation in human subjects have given neuroscientists a window into the timing and functional anatomy of brain networks underlying this dynamic process. This review will discuss the current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity, with a particular emphasis on reorganization following CNS pathology. First, traditional mechanisms of neuroplasticity, most relevant to learning and memory, will be addressed, followed by a review of adaptive mechanisms in response to pathology, particularly the recruitment of perilesional cortical regions and unmasking of latent connections...
2016: Neural Plasticity
K Tangen, N S Narasimhan, K Sierzega, T Preden, A Alaraj, A A Linninger
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) mostly occurs following the rupture of cerebral aneurysm causing blood to leak into the cranial subarachnoid space (SAS). Hemorrhage volume has been linked to the development of secondary vasospasm. Therefore, eliminating blood contaminants from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space after the initial hemorrhage could improve patient outcomes and prevent the development of vasospasm. A number of clinical trials demonstrate that lumbar drainage effectively clears hemorrhagic debris from the cranial compartment...
July 6, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Ricardo A Valenzuela, Kristina D Micheva, Marianna Kiraly, Dong Li, Daniel V Madison
BACKGROUND: The ability to correlate plastic changes in synaptic physiology with changes in synaptic anatomy has been very limited in the central nervous system because of shortcomings in existing methods for recording the activity of specific CNS synapses and then identifying and studying the same individual synapses on an anatomical level. NEW METHOD: We introduce here a novel approach that combines two existing methods: paired neuron electrophysiological recording and array tomography, allowing for the detailed molecular and anatomical study of synapses with known physiological properties...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Sarah E MacNamee, Kendra E Liu, Stephan Gerhard, Cathy T Tran, Richard D Fetter, Albert Cardona, Leslie P Tolbert, Lynne A Oland
Anatomical, molecular, and physiological interactions between astrocytes and neuronal synapses regulate information processing in the brain. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become a valuable experimental system for genetic manipulation of the nervous system and has enormous potential for elucidating mechanisms that mediate neuron-glia interactions. Here, we show the first electrophysiological recordings from Drosophila astrocytes and characterize their spatial and physiological relationship with particular synapses...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Andrei Brînzeu, Marc Sindou
OBJECTIVE Classically the 11th cranial nerve (CN XI, or accessory nerve) is described as having a cranial and a spinal root, the latter arising from the upper segments of the spinal cord through a number of very fine rootlets. According to classical knowledge, the cranial root gives motor innervation to the vocal cords, whereas the spinal root provides the motor innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and of the upper portions of the trapezius muscle (TZ). The specific function of each of the rootlets of the spinal component is not well known...
April 8, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Stephen P Hunger
With the increased survival of pediatric cancer patients the interest in the late effects of treatments is rapidly increasing. Long-term survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) now approach 90%. Treatment for ALL includes intensified central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy, which is associated with risks for long-term neurocognitive effects. It is becoming clear that current therapies can have not only a detrimental effect on IQ, processing speed, and memory, but also on structural changes that lead to permanent alterations of the organization of the CNS...
October 2013: Translational pediatrics
Andreu Viader, Daisuke Ogasawara, Christopher M Joslyn, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Simone Mori, William Nguyen, Bruno Conti, Benjamin F Cravatt
Metabolic specialization among major brain cell types is central to nervous system function and determined in large part by the cellular distribution of enzymes. Serine hydrolases are a diverse enzyme class that plays fundamental roles in CNS metabolism and signaling. Here, we perform an activity-based proteomic analysis of primary mouse neurons, astrocytes, and microglia to furnish a global portrait of the cellular anatomy of serine hydrolases in the brain. We uncover compelling evidence for the cellular compartmentalization of key chemical transmission pathways, including the functional segregation of endocannabinoid (eCB) biosynthetic enzymes diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGLα) and -beta (DAGLβ) to neurons and microglia, respectively...
2016: ELife
Andre Broggin Dutra Rodrigues, Vera Lucia Jornada Krebs, Hamilton Matushita, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
PURPOSE: Patients with myelomeningocele have a high mortality and neurological disabilities that are correlated with the anatomical characteristics of the defect and with the development of acquired complications. The challenge in the postnatal management of myelomeningocele (MMC) is the early recognition of cases at risk for complications in order to establish individualized treatment strategies. This study aims to identify short-term prognostic markers for newborns with MMC. Anatomical characteristics of the spinal defect and technical aspects of the neurosurgical correction were analyzed for this purpose...
April 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Kevin Fidelin, Lydia Djenoune, Caleb Stokes, Andrew Prendergast, Johanna Gomez, Audrey Baradel, Filippo Del Bene, Claire Wyart
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constitutes an interface through which chemical cues can reach and modulate the activity of neurons located at the epithelial boundary within the entire nervous system. Here, we investigate the role and functional connectivity of a class of GABAergic sensory neurons contacting the CSF in the vertebrate spinal cord and referred to as CSF-cNs. The remote activation of CSF-cNs was shown to trigger delayed slow locomotion in the zebrafish larva, suggesting that these cells modulate components of locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs)...
December 7, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Osama A Raslan, Razi Muzaffar, Vilaas Shetty, Medhat M Osman
This article aims to increase awareness about the utility of (18)F -FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of cranial nerve (CN) pathology. We discuss the clinical implication of detecting perineural tumor spread, emphasize the primary and secondary (18)F -FDG-PET/CT findings of CN pathology, and illustrate the individual (18)F -FDG-PET/CT CN anatomy and pathology of 11 of the 12 CNs.
2015: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Kathren L Fink, Stephen M Strittmatter, William B J Cafferty
UNLABELLED: Spinal cord injury interrupts descending motor tracts and creates persistent functional deficits due to the absence of spontaneous axon regeneration. Of descending pathways, the corticospinal tract (CST) is thought to be the most critical for voluntary function in primates. Even with multiple tracer injections and genetic tools, the CST is visualized to only a minor degree in experimental studies. Here, we identify and validate the mu-crystallin (crym) gene as a high-fidelity marker of the CST...
November 18, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Andreas Hejnol, Christopher J Lowe
Molecular biology has provided a rich dataset to develop hypotheses of nervous system evolution. The startling patterning similarities between distantly related animals during the development of their central nervous system (CNS) have resulted in the hypothesis that a CNS with a single centralized medullary cord and a partitioned brain is homologous across bilaterians. However, the ability to precisely reconstruct ancestral neural architectures from molecular genetic information requires that these gene networks specifically map with particular neural anatomies...
December 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Xiaoya Ma, Gregory D Edgecombe, Xianguang Hou, Tomasz Goral, Nicholas J Strausfeld
The record of arthropod body fossils is traceable back to the "Cambrian explosion," marked by the appearance of most major animal phyla. Exceptional preservation provides crucial evidence for panarthropod early radiation. However, due to limited representation in the fossil record of internal anatomy, particularly the CNS, studies usually rely on exoskeletal and appendicular morphology. Recent studiesshow that despite extreme morphological disparities, euarthropod CNS evolution appears to have been remarkably conservative...
November 16, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Simone Altobelli, Nicola Toschi, Raffaele Mancino, Carlo Nucci, Orazio Schillaci, Roberto Floris, Francesco Garaci
Recent advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology have brought new insight in central nervous system (CNS) manifestation of glaucoma. New MR techniques allowed to identify in vivo and noninvasively alterations along all the visual pathway in both early and late stages of the disease. Conventional neuroimaging still plays an important role, mostly in the anatomy description and in the differential diagnosis with space occupying lesions but it should be supported by other advanced MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging, functional imaging (BOLD-ASL), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which offer the possibility to investigate deep white matter tracts integrity and cortical gray matter changes...
2015: Progress in Brain Research
Impreet Gill, Andrew G Parrent, David A Steven
Cranial nerve (CN) deficits following anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) are an uncommon but well-recognized complication. The usual CNs implicated in post-ATL complications include the oculomotor, trochlear, and facial nerves. To the authors' knowledge, injury to the trigeminal nerve leading to neuropathic pain has not been previously described in the literature. This paper presents 2 cases of trigeminal neuropathic pain following temporal lobe resections for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed and the microsurgical anatomy of surgically relevant structures is reviewed...
April 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
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