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CNS Anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521670/intranasal-drug-delivery-a-non-invasive-approach-for-the-better-delivery-of-neurotherapeutics
#1
Umesh Gupta, Hitesh Kumar, Gaurav Mishra, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Avinash Gothwal, Prashant Kesharwani
BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo, to overcome this barrier intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain...
May 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509324/three-dimensional-neurosonography-a-novel-field-in-fetal-medicine
#2
Michał Lipa, Ritsuko Kimata Pooh, Mirosław Wielgoś
Neurosonography is a promising technique for prenatal diagnosis, combining features of ultrasound imaging with fetal neurology. The brain is a three-dimensional structure, therefore observing brain structure in the three basic planes (sagittal, coronal and axial) is mandatory. The anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture may serve as acoustic ultrasound windows in the transvaginal brain scan, allowing to obtain high-resolution neuroimages of the intracranial structures. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound combined with the transvaginal brain approach provides detailed and sophisticated neuroimages...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377283/the-combined-transpetrosal-approach-anatomic-study-and-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
M Burhan Janjua, James P Caruso, Jeffrey P Greenfield, Mark M Souweidane, Theodore H Schwartz
The combined petrosal approach is an essential technique for the skull base neurosurgeon. In this manuscript, the authors provide a brief history of the development of this approach, technical instruction with consideration of important landmarks, and a literature review of the broad range of clinical applications for this approach. The combined petrosal approach was performed bilaterally in 6 cadaveric injected specimens. The relationship of middle and posterior fossa dura, venous sinuses, cranial nerves (CNs), and the vascular anatomy were studied...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146061/the-glia-response-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-a-comparison-between-schwann-cells-and-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-and-their-uses-for-neural-regenerative-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Matthew J Barton, James St John, Mary Clarke, Alison Wright, Jenny Ekberg
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) exhibits a much larger capacity for regeneration than the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this difference is the difference in glial cell types between the two systems. PNS glia respond rapidly to nerve injury by clearing debris from the injury site, supplying essential growth factors and providing structural support; all of which enhances neuronal regeneration. Thus, transplantation of glial cells from the PNS is a very promising therapy for injuries to both the PNS and the CNS...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092374/the-movers-and-shapers-in-immune-privilege-of-the-cns
#5
REVIEW
Britta Engelhardt, Peter Vajkoczy, Roy O Weller
Discoveries leading to an improved understanding of immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) have repeatedly provoked dismissal of the existence of immune privilege of the CNS. Recent rediscoveries of lymphatic vessels within the dura mater surrounding the brain, made possible by modern live-cell imaging technologies, have revived this discussion. This review emphasizes the fact that understanding immune privilege of the CNS requires intimate knowledge of its unique anatomy. Endothelial, epithelial and glial brain barriers establish compartments in the CNS that differ strikingly with regard to their accessibility to immune-cell subsets...
February 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056123/the-interface-of-mechanics-and-nociception-in-joint-pathophysiology-insights-from-the-facet-and-temporomandibular-joints
#6
Megan M Sperry, Meagan E Ita, Sonia Kartha, Sijia Zhang, Ya-Hsin Yu, Beth Winkelstein
Chronic joint pain is a widespread problem that frequently occurs with aging and trauma. Pain occurs most often in synovial joints, the body's load bearing joints. The mechanical and molecular mechanisms contributing to synovial joint pain are reviewed using two examples, the cervical spinal facet joints and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Although much work has focused on the macroscale mechanics of joints in health and disease, the combined influence of tissue mechanics, molecular processes, and nociception in joint pain has only recently become a focus...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030474/therapeutic-benefits-of-the-methyl-donor-s-adenosylmethionine-on-nerve-injury-induced-mechanical-hypersensitivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#7
Stéphanie Grégoire, Magali Millecamps, Lina Naso, Sonia Do Carmo, A Claudio Cuello, Moshe Szyf, Laura S Stone
Despite considerable advances in understanding mechanisms involved in chronic pain, effective treatment remains elusive. Comorbid conditions including anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment further impact quality of life. Chronic pain is associated with reversible changes in brain anatomy and function and with long-term changes in gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, contribute to wide-spread and long-lasting reprogramming of gene expression. We previously reported decreases in global DNA methylation in the mouse frontal cortex 6 months after induction of neuropathic pain using the spared nerve injury (SNI) model...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957611/barrier-function-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-a-review
#8
REVIEW
A K Reinhold, H L Rittner
The peripheral (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) are delicate structures, highly sensitive to homeostatic changes-and crucial for basic vital functions. Thus, a selection of barriers ensures the protection of the nervous system from noxious blood-borne or surrounding stimuli. In this chapter, anatomy and functioning of the blood-nerve (BNB), the blood-brain (BBB), and the blood-spinal cord barriers (BSCB) are presented and the key tight junction (TJ) proteins described: claudin-1, claudin-3, claudin-5, claudin-11, claudin-12, claudin-19, occludin, Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1), and tricellulin are by now identified as relevant for nerval barriers...
January 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921154/peripheral-stent-thrombosis-leading-to-acute-limb-ischemia-and-major-amputation-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-the-aortoiliac-and-femoropopliteal-arteries
#9
Konstantinos Katsanos, Said A M Al-Lamki, Aneeta Parthipun, Stavros Spiliopoulos, Sanjay Dhanji Patel, Ioannis Paraskevopoulos, Hany Zayed, Athanasios Diamantopoulos
PURPOSE: To report the real-world incidence and risk factors of stent thrombosis in the aortoiliac and femoropopliteal arteries in case of bare nitinol stent (BNS) or covered nitinol stent (CNS) placement from a single-centre retrospective audit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients treated with peripheral stent placement for claudication or critical limb ischemia were audited for definite stent thrombosis defined as imaging confirmed stent thrombosis that presented as acute limb-threatening ischemia...
March 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917786/structural-changes-in-the-cerebrum-cerebellum-and-corpus-callosum-in-migraine-patients
#10
Berin T Demir, Nezihe A Bayram, Zübeyde Ayturk, Hüsamettin Erdamar, Pelin Seven, Ayşegül Calp, Merve Sazak, Hatice G Ceylan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship among the cerebrum, cerebellum and corpus callosum in migraine patients. METHODS: This work was conducted with cooperation of the Turgut Özal Medical Faculty, Department of Anatomy and Neurology. Migraine patients were divided into four groups: new patients; 1-5 years; 5-10 years; and, more than 10 years. All patients (n=75) and control subjects (n=20) underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and brain images were processed by ONIS and Image J...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845202/the-synganglion-of-the-jumping-spider-marpissa-muscosa-arachnida-salticidae-insights-from-histology-immunohistochemistry-and-microct-analysis
#11
Philip O M Steinhoff, Andy Sombke, Jannis Liedtke, Jutta M Schneider, Steffen Harzsch, Gabriele Uhl
Jumping spiders are known for their extraordinary cognitive abilities. The underlying nervous system structures, however, are largely unknown. Here, we explore and describe the anatomy of the brain in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1757) by means of paraffin histology, X-ray microCT analysis and immunohistochemistry as well as three-dimensional reconstruction. In the prosoma, the CNS is a clearly demarcated mass that surrounds the esophagus. The anteriormost neuromere, the protocerebrum, comprises nine bilaterally paired neuropils, including the mushroom bodies and one unpaired midline neuropil, the arcuate body...
March 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811921/keeping-it-in-check-chronic-viral-infection-and-antiviral-immunity-in-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Katelyn D Miller, Matthias J Schnell, Glenn F Rall
It is becoming clear that the manner by which the immune response resolves or contains infection by a pathogen varies according to the tissue that is affected. Unlike many peripheral cell types, CNS neurons are generally non-renewable. Thus, the cytolytic and inflammatory strategies that are effective in controlling infections in the periphery could be damaging if deployed in the CNS. Perhaps for this reason, the immune response to some CNS viral infections favours maintenance of neuronal integrity and non-neurolytic viral control...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791521/perpetuation-of-errors-in-illustrations-of-cranial-nerve-anatomy
#13
C Eduardo Corrales, Albert Mudry, Robert K Jackler
For more than 230 years, anatomical illustrations have faithfully reproduced the German medical student Thomas Soemmerring's cranial nerve (CN) arrangement. Virtually all contemporary atlases show the abducens, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves (CNs VI-VIII) all emerging from the pontomedullary groove, as originally depicted by Soemmerring in 1778. Direct observation at microsurgery of the cerebellopontine angle reveals that CN VII emerges caudal to the CN VIII root from the lower lateral pons rather than the pontomedullary groove...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766202/pharmaco-fmri-determining-the-functional-anatomy-of-the-effects-of-medication
#14
Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
Functional MRI studies have helped to elucidate underlying mechanisms in complex neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease processes often involve complex large-scale network interactions, extending beyond the presumed main disease focus. Given both the complexity of the clinical phenotype and the underlying dysfunctional brain circuits, so called pharmaco-fMRI (ph-MRI) studies probe pharmacological effects on functional neuro-anatomy, and can help to determine early treatment response, mechanisms of drug efficacy and side effects, and potentially advance CNS drug development...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699254/dynamic-dual-isotope-molecular-imaging-elucidates-principles-for-optimizing-intrathecal-drug-delivery
#15
Daniel A Wolf, Jacob Y Hesterman, Jenna M Sullivan, Kelly D Orcutt, Matthew D Silva, Merryl Lobo, Tyler Wellman, Jack Hoppin, Ajay Verma
The intrathecal (IT) dosing route offers a seemingly obvious solution for delivering drugs directly to the central nervous system. However, gaps in understanding drug molecule behavior within the anatomically and kinetically unique environment of the mammalian IT space have impeded the establishment of pharmacokinetic principles for optimizing regional drug exposure along the neuraxis. Here, we have utilized high-resolution single-photon emission tomography with X-ray computed tomography to study the behavior of multiple molecular imaging tracers following an IT bolus injection, with supporting histology, autoradiography, block-face tomography, and MRI...
February 25, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693567/the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis-a-model-organism-to-study-regeneration-of-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Dasfne Lee-Liu, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Rosana Muñoz, Juan Larraín
While an injury to the central nervous system (CNS) in humans and mammals is irreversible, amphibians and teleost fish have the capacity to fully regenerate after severe injury to the CNS. Xenopus laevis has a high potential to regenerate the brain and spinal cord during larval stages (47-54), and loses this capacity during metamorphosis. The optic nerve has the capacity to regenerate throughout the frog's lifespan. Here, we review CNS regeneration in frogs, with a focus in X. laevis, but also provide some information about X...
September 29, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692981/the-pertussis-hypothesis-bordetella-pertussis-colonization-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Keith Rubin, Steven Glazer
While a number of endogenous risk factors including age and genetics are established for Alzheimer's disease (AD), identification of acquired, potentially preventable or treatable causes, remains limited. In this paper, we review three epidemiologic case studies and present extensive biologic, immunologic and anatomic evidence to support a novel hypothesis that Bordetella pertussis (BP), the bacterium better known to cause whooping cough, is an important potential cause of AD. Cross-cultural documentation of nasopharyngeal subclinical BP colonization reflecting BP-specific mucosal immunodeficiency, proximate anatomy of intranasal mucosal surfaces to central nervous system (CNS) olfactory pathways, and mechanisms by which BP and BP toxin account for all hallmark pathology of AD are reviewed, substantiating biologic plausibility...
February 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541436/cranial-nerve-schwannomas-diagnostic-imaging-approach
#18
Aaron D Skolnik, Laurie A Loevner, Deepak M Sampathu, Jason G Newman, John Y Lee, Linda J Bagley, Kim O Learned
Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors that may arise along the complex course of the cranial nerves (CNs), anywhere in the head and neck. Sound knowledge of the CN anatomy and imaging features of schwannomas is paramount for making the correct diagnosis. In this article, we review approaches to diagnosing CN schwannomas by describing their imaging characteristics and the associated clinical presentations. Relevant anatomic considerations are highlighted by using illustrative examples and key differential diagnoses categorized according to regions, which include the anterior skull base, orbit, cavernous sinus, basal cisterns, and neck...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478645/neuroplasticity-insights-from-patients-harboring-gliomas
#19
REVIEW
Nathan W Kong, William R Gibb, Matthew C Tate
Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to reorganize itself during normal development and in response to illness. Recent advances in neuroimaging and direct cortical stimulation in human subjects have given neuroscientists a window into the timing and functional anatomy of brain networks underlying this dynamic process. This review will discuss the current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity, with a particular emphasis on reorganization following CNS pathology. First, traditional mechanisms of neuroplasticity, most relevant to learning and memory, will be addressed, followed by a review of adaptive mechanisms in response to pathology, particularly the recruitment of perilesional cortical regions and unmasking of latent connections...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384938/clearance-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-from-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-computational-and-in-vitro-models
#20
K Tangen, N S Narasimhan, K Sierzega, T Preden, A Alaraj, A A Linninger
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) mostly occurs following the rupture of cerebral aneurysm causing blood to leak into the cranial subarachnoid space (SAS). Hemorrhage volume has been linked to the development of secondary vasospasm. Therefore, eliminating blood contaminants from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space after the initial hemorrhage could improve patient outcomes and prevent the development of vasospasm. A number of clinical trials demonstrate that lumbar drainage effectively clears hemorrhagic debris from the cranial compartment...
December 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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