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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327896/a-randomised-phase-iii-study-of-72%C3%A2-hour-infusional-versus-bolus-bleomycin-in-bep-bleomycin-etoposide-and-cisplatin-chemotherapy-to-treat-igcccg-good-prognosis-metastatic-germ-cell-tumours-te-3
#1
J Shamash, S-J Sarker, R Huddart, S Harland, J K Joffe, D Mazhar, A Birtle, J White, K Chowdhury, P Wilson, M R Marshall, S Vinnicombe
Background: Bleomycin is an integral part of combination chemotherapy in germ cell tumours. Pulmonary toxicity often necessitates drug cessation and death occurs in 1-2% of patients. A continuous infusion of bleomycin might reduce lung toxicity when compared to the conventional weekly boluses given as part of standard BEP chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: A phase 3 trial was conducted based on 212 men with IGCCCG good prognosis metastatic germ cell tumours with 1:1 randomisation...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324711/fire-hazard-reduction-of-hollow-glass-microspheres-in-thermoplastic-polyurethane-composites
#2
Chuanmei Jiao, Hongzhi Wang, Shaoxiang Li, Xilei Chen
Nowadays, reducing the fire hazard of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is an important research direction in the fields of fire safety materials. In this article, hollow glass microsphere (HGM) was used to reduce the fire hazard of TPU in combustion process. The fire characteristics including smoke and heat production of TPU composites were evaluated using smoke density test (SDT) and cone calorimeter test (CCT). And the thermal decomposition and flammable properties were further studied using thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) and limiting oxygen index (LOI), etc...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319432/effects-of-smoking-on-late-toxicity-from-breast-radiation
#3
Simona F Shaitelman, Rebecca M Howell, Benjamin D Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301833/persistent-environmental-toxicants-in-breast-milk-and-rapid-infant-growth
#4
Rachel Criswell, Virissa Lenters, Siddhartha Mandal, Hein Stigum, Nina Iszatt, Merete Eggesbø
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may confound results. We investigated levels of 26 toxicants in breast milk and their associations with rapid infant growth, a risk factor for later obesity. METHODS: We used data from the Norwegian HUMIS study, a multi-center cohort of 2,606 mothers and newborns enrolled between 2002 and 2008...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300622/influence-of-measurement-uncertainty-on-the-world-health-organization-recommended-regulation-for-mainstream-cigarette-smoke-constituents
#5
Huimin Deng, Zhonghao Li, Zhaoyang Bian, Fei Yang, Shanshan Liu, Ziyan Fan, Ying Wang, Gangling Tang
The World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (WHO TobReg) proposed mandated ceilings on 9 prioritized mainstream cigarette smoke constituents determined from the market-specific median of nicotine-normalized yield distributions. Considering the requirements for assessing and reporting of compliance with ceilings, it is of great importance to estimate the measurement uncertainty. To have a better understanding of influence of measurement uncertainty on the WHO recommended regulation for cigarette smoke constituents, in the present study, the measurement uncertainties were evaluated systematically based on series of collaborative studies reported by three different authorities over the years from 2012 to 2016, according to the approaches guided in ISO/TS 21748...
March 11, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285017/effects-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonist-3-methylcholanthrene-on-the-17%C3%AE-estradiol-regulated-mrna-transcriptome-of-the-rat-uterus
#6
Janina Helle, Annekathrin M Keiler, Oliver Zierau, Peggy Dörfelt, Günter Vollmer, Leane Lehmann, Sridar V Chittur, Martin Tenniswood, JoEllen Welsh, Georg Kretzschmar
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are products of incomplete combustion of organic compounds, abundant in exhaust fumes and cigarette smoke. They act by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) which induces expression of phase 1 and phase 2 enzymes in the liver. PAH induced AHR activation may also lead to adverse effects by modulating other pathways, for example estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in the female reproductive tract. We have investigated the effects of the PAH 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) on 17β-estradiol (E2) dependent signaling in the uterus of ovariectomized rats to characterize the cross talk between AHR and ER on an mRNA transcriptome wide scale...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284711/impact-assessment-of-who-tobreg-proposals-for-mandated-lowering-of-selected-mainstream-cigarette-smoke-toxicants
#7
Alison C Eldridge, Kevin G McAdam, Tatiana R Betson, Marcos V Gama, Christopher J Proctor
The WHO Tobacco Product Regulation Study Group (TobReg) has proposed three regulatory models for cigarettes, each creating mandatory limits for emissions of nine smoke toxicants. One approach proposes country-specific limits, using median or 1.25× median toxicant/nicotine emission ratios. A second model provides fixed toxicant-ratio limits. The third model limits were three times the lowest toxicant emission on a market. Currently, the practical implications of these models are largely unknown. An impact assessment was conducted using cigarette data from 79 countries to identify four diverse test markets...
March 8, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282928/oxidative-stress-a-new-target-for-pancreatic-cancer-prognosis-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Javier Martinez-Useros, Weiyao Li, Marticela Cabeza-Morales, Jesus Garcia-Foncillas
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal types of tumors, and its incidence is rising worldwide. Survival can be improved when tumors are detected at an early stage; however, this cancer is usually asymptomatic, and the disease only becomes apparent after metastasis. Several risk factors are associated to this disease. Chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and some infectious disease are the most relevant risk factors. Incidence of PDAC has increased in the last decades. It is hypothesized it could be due to other acquired risk habits, like smoking, high alcohol intake, and obesity...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282101/chitosan-nanostructures-by-in-situ-electrospinning-for-high-efficiency-pm2-5-capture
#9
Bin Zhang, Zhi-Guang Zhang, Xu Yan, Xiao-Xiong Wang, Hui Zhao, Jia Guo, Ji-Yong Feng, Yun-Ze Long
Nanofiber-based air filters and electrostatic precipitation have stimulated considerable interest because of their high-efficiency for PM2.5 capture. In this paper, we introduce a new method of in situ electrospinning (e-spinning) of nanostructures into a polluted enclosed space to efficiently clean the air. From the comparisons of different polymer precursors and different PM2.5 capture techniques, it can be seen that in situ e-spinning of chitosan aqueous solution into the air exhibits the best PM2.5 capture efficiency, which may be attributed to the stronger polarity of chitosan and the synergistic effect of the strong electrostatic adsorption and surface adhesion of the electrospun (e-spun) nanofibers...
March 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280984/treatment-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-molecular-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Motonobu Saito, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Koji Kono, Seiichi Takenoshita, Takashi Kohno
Lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) is a cancer treatable using targeted therapies against driver gene aberrations. EGFR mutations and ALK fusions are frequent gene aberrations in LADC, and personalized therapies against those aberrations have become a standard therapy. These targeted therapies have shown significant positive efficacy and tolerable toxicity compared to conventional chemotherapy, so it is necessary to identify additional druggable genetic aberrations. Other than EGFR mutations and ALK fusions, mutations in KRAS, HER2, and BRAF, and driver fusions involving RET and ROS1, have also been identified in LADC...
March 9, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276883/statistical-evaluation-of-essential-toxic-metal-levels-in-the-blood-of-valvular-heart-disease-patients-in-comparison-with-controls
#11
Asim Ilyas, Munir H Shah
The present study was designed to investigate the role of selected essential and toxic metals in the onset/prognosis of valvular heart disease (VHD). Nitric acid-perchloric acid based wet digestion procedure was used for the quantification of the metals by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Comparative appraisal of the data revealed that average levels of Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Li, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in blood of VHD patients, while the average concentration of Ca was found at elevated level in controls (P < 0...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276466/conditional-survival-analysis-of-patients-with-locally-advanced-laryngeal-cancer-construction-of-a-dynamic-risk-model-and-clinical-nomogram
#12
(no author information available yet)
Conditional survival (CS), the survival beyond a pre-defined time interval, can identify periods of higher mortality risk for patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer who face treatment-related toxicity and comorbidities related to alcohol and smoking in the survivorship setting. Using Weibull regression modeling, we analyzed retrospectively abstracted data from 638 records of patients who received radiation to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) for the first 3 years of survival and for OS conditional upon 3 years of survival...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274800/a-screening-tool-to-detect-clinical-manganese-neurotoxicity
#13
Brad A Racette, Anat Gross, Susan R Criswell, Harvey Checkoway, Susan Searles Nielsen
Manganese (Mn) over-exposure in occupational settings is associated with basal ganglia toxicity and a movement disorder characterized by parkinsonism (i.e., the signs and symptoms of Parkinson disease). A simple test to help non-neurologists identify workers with clinical Mn neurotoxicity represents an unmet need. In a cohort of Mn-exposed workers from welding worksites, with extensive clinical data, we developed a linear regression model to predict the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) score...
March 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265620/glycine-functionalized-copper-ii-hydroxide-nanoparticles-with-high-intrinsic-superoxide-dismutase-activity
#14
Karsten Korschelt, Ruben Ragg, Carmen S Metzger, Martin Kluenker, Michael Oster, Bastian Barton, Martin Panthöfer, Dennis Strand, Ute Kolb, Mihail Mondeshki, Susanne Strand, Jürgen Brieger, M Nawaz Tahir, Wolfgang Tremel
Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide (O2(-)) radicals into molecular oxygen (O2) and H2O2 as a first line of defense against oxidative stress. Here, we show that glycine-functionalized copper(ii) hydroxide nanoparticles (Gly-Cu(OH)2 NPs) are functional SOD mimics, whereas bulk Cu(OH)2 is insoluble in water and catalytically inactive. In contrast, Gly-Cu(OH)2 NPs form water-dispersible mesocrystals with a SOD-like activity that is larger than that of their natural CuZn enzyme counterpart...
March 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260599/peritonsillar-abscess-clinical-aspects-of-microbiology-risk-factors-and-the-association-with-parapharyngeal-abscess
#15
REVIEW
Tejs Ehlers Klug
PTA is a collection of pus located between the tonsillar capsule and the pharyngeal constrictor muscle. It is considered a complication of acute tonsillitis and is the most prevalent deep neck infection (approximately 2000 cases annually in Denmark) and cause of acute admission to Danish ENT departments. Teenagers and young adults are most commonly affected and males may predominate over females. However, no studies of age- and gender-stratified incidence rates have previously been published. Furthermore, smoking may be associated with increased risk of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) development, although the magnitude of the association has not been estimated...
March 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259887/hiv-associated-lung-cancer
#16
Til R Kiderlen, Jan Siehl, Marcus Hentrich
Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most common non-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)-defining malignancies. It occurs more frequently in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) than in the HIV-negative population. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, patients are usually younger and diagnosed at more advanced stages. The pathogenesis of LC in PLWHIV is not fully understood, but immunosuppression in combination with chronic infection and the oncogenic effects of smoking and HIV itself all seem to play a role...
2017: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257627/blood-mercury-concentrations-are-associated-with-decline-in-liver-function-in-an-elderly-population-a-panel-study
#17
Mee-Ri Lee, Youn-Hee Lim, Bo-Eun Lee, Yun-Chul Hong
BACKGROUND: Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and is known to affect many diseases. However, few studies have examined the effects of mercury exposure on liver function in the general population. We examined the association between blood mercury concentrations and liver enzyme levels in the elderly. METHODS: We included 560 elderly participants (60 years or older) who were recruited from 2008 to 2010 and followed up to 2014. Subjects visited a community welfare center and underwent a medical examination and measurement of mercury levels up to five times...
March 4, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255437/effects-of-a-smoking-ban-on-clozapine-plasma-concentrations-in-a-nonsecure-psychiatric-unit
#18
Siobhan H Gee, David M Taylor, Sukhwinder S Shergill, Robert Flanagan, James H MacCabe
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke is known to affect plasma levels of some drugs, including the antipsychotic clozapine. The effects of suddenly stopping smoking on patients who take clozapine can be severe, as plasma concentrations are expected to rapidly rise, potentially leading to toxicity. A ban on smoking at South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) was implemented in 2014, and this was expected to affect the plasma concentrations of clozapine for inpatients at the time...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253270/sbrt-for-early-stage-glottic-larynx-cancer-initial-clinical-outcomes-from-a-phase-i-clinical-trial
#19
David L Schwartz, Alan Sosa, Stephen G Chun, Chiuxiong Ding, Xian-Jin Xie, Lucien A Nedzi, Robert D Timmerman, Baran D Sumer
PURPOSE: To confirm safety and feasibility of hypofractionated SBRT for early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with cTis-T2N0M0 carcinoma of glottic larynx were enrolled. Patients entered dose-fractionation cohorts of incrementally shorter bio-equivalent schedules starting with 50 Gy in 15 fractions (fx), followed by 45 Gy/10 fx and, finally, 42.5 Gy/5 fx. Maximum combined CTV-PTV expansion was limited to 5 mm. Patients were treated on a Model G5 Cyberknife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252546/electronic-cigarettes-are-as-toxic-to-skin-flap-survival-as-tobacco-cigarettes
#20
Aline Sabrina Rau, Viktorija Reinikovaite, Eric P Schmidt, Laima Taraseviciene-Stewart, Frederic White-Brown Deleyiannis
PURPOSE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular. However, information about the health risks associated with e-cigarette use is sparse. Currently, no published studies examine the effects of chronic e-cigarette exposure on microcirculation or perfusion. Using a rat skin flap model, we examined the toxic microcirculatory effects e-cigarettes may have in comparison with tobacco cigarettes. METHODS: Fifty-eight rats were randomized to either exposure to room air, tobacco cigarette smoke, medium-nicotine content (1...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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