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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218577/street-foods-exacerbate-effects-of-the-environmental-burden-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-nigeria
#1
Osazuwa Clinton Ekhator, Nnaemeka Arinze Udowelle, Sorbari Igbiri, Rose Ngozi Asomugha, Chiara Frazzoli, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of well-known toxicants with carcinogenic potential and other health effects including on the immune system. The high health risks of non-communicable diseases and relevant comorbidities in Africa, particularly in contaminated areas like e-waste and crude oil and gas exploration areas and for high consumers of food commodity groupings which are most critical for PAH exposure, are exacerbated by dietary exposure due to unsafe practices in commonly consumed foods, like those street vended...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217756/light-focusing-human-micro-lenses-derived-from-zebrafish-like-lens-cell-masses-model-lens-development-and-drug-induced-cataract-in-vitro
#2
Patricia Murphy, Md Humayun Kabir, Tarini Srivastava, Michele E Mason, Chitra Umala Dewi, Seakcheng Lim, Andrian Yang, Djordje Djordjevic, Murray C Killingsworth, Joshua W K Ho, David G Harman, Michael D O'Connor
Cataracts cause vision loss and blindness by impairing the ability of the ocular lens to focus light onto the retina. Various cataract risk factors have been identified including drug treatments, age, smoking, and diabetes. However, the molecular events responsible for these different forms of cataract are ill-defined, and the advent of modern cataract surgery in the 1960s virtually eliminated access to human lenses for research. Here we demonstrate large-scale production of light-focusing human micro-lenses from spheroidal masses of human lens epithelial cells purified from differentiating pluripotent stem cells...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216422/distinguishing-petroleum-crude-oil-and-fuel-from-smoke-exposure-within-populations-based-on-the-relative-blood-levels-of-benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-and-xylenes-btex-styrene-and-2-5-dimethylfuran-by-pattern-recognition-using-artificial-neural-networks
#3
David Michael Chambers, Christopher Mark Reese, Lydia Grace Thornburg, Eduardo Sanchez, Jessica Patricia Rafson, Benjamin C Blount, John Russell Erskine Ruhl, Victor Raul De Jesus
Studies of exposure to petroleum (crude oil/fuel) often involve monitoring benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) and styrene (BTEXS) because of their toxicity and gas-phase prevalence, where exposure is typically by inhalation. However, BTEXS levels in the general U.S. population are primarily from exposure to tobacco smoke, where smokers have blood levels on average up to eight times higher than nonsmokers. This work describes a method using partition theory and artificial neural network (ANN) pattern recognition to classify exposure source based on relative BTEXS and 2,5-dimethylfuran blood levels...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215738/electronic-cigarette-a-recent-update-of-its-toxic-effects-on-humans
#4
REVIEW
Shu-Jie Huang, Yan-Ming Xu, Andy T Y Lau
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered and liquid-vaporizing devices, were invented to replace the conventional cigarette (c-cigarette) smoking for the sake of reducing the adverse effects on multiple organ systems that c-cigarettes have induced. Although some of the identified harmful components in e-cigarettes were alleged to be measured in lower quantity than those in c-cigarettes, researchers unveiled that the toxic effects of e-cigarettes should not be understated. This review is sought for an attempt to throw light on several typical types of e-cigarette components (tobacco-specific nitrosamines, carbonyl compounds, and volatile organic compounds) by revealing their possible impacts on human bodies through different action mechanisms characterized by alteration of specific biomarkers on cellular and molecular levels...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209916/carcinogens-that-induce-the-a-t-t-a-nucleotide-substitutions-in-the-genome
#5
Guangbiao Zhou, Xinchun Zhao
Recently, Ng et al. reported that the A:T > T:A substitutions, proposed to be a signature of aristolochic acid (AA) exposure, were detected in 76/98 (78%) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from the Taiwan Province of China, and 47% to 1.7% of HCCs from the Chinese mainland and other countries harbored the nucleotide changes. However, other carcinogens, e.g., tobacco carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl and 1,3-butadiene, air toxic vinyl chloride and its reactive metabolites chloroethylene oxide, melphalan and chlorambucil, also cause this signature in the genome...
December 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199694/retrospective-analysis-of-icotinib-neoadjuvant-therapy-of-63-lung-cancer-patients
#6
T Wang, Y Liu, B Zhou, S Hao, Z Wang, N Liang, J Liu, S Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the feasibility of icotinib neoadjuvant therapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the clinical data for 63 NSCLC patients (61 cases of adenocarcinoma and two cases of squamous cell carcinoma) receiving surgical resection of lung lesions after oral intake of icotinib from December 2011 to November 2013 in the PLA General Hospital. Preoperative oral intake of the patients was icotinib 125 mg tid, drug side effects were evaluated according to the American National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Version 4...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196503/sphingolipid-regulation-of-lung-epithelial-cell-mitophagy-and-necroptosis-during-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#7
Kenji Mizumura, Matthew J Justice, Kelly S Schweitzer, Sheila Krishnan, Irina Bronova, Evgeny V Berdyshev, Walter C Hubbard, Yael Pewzner-Jung, Anthony H Futerman, Augustine M K Choi, Irina Petrache
The mechanisms by which lung structural cells survive toxic exposures to cigarette smoke (CS) are not well defined but may involve proper disposal of damaged mitochondria by macro-autophagy (mitophagy), processes that may be influenced by pro-apoptotic ceramide (Cer) or its precursor dihydroceramide (DHC). Human lung epithelial and endothelial cells exposed to CS exhibited mitochondrial damage, signaled by phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) phosphorylation, autophagy, and necroptosis...
December 1, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191599/limited-mutagenicity-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-mouse-or-human-cells-in-vitro
#8
Stella Tommasi, Steven E Bates, Rachel Z Behar, Prue Talbot, Ahmad Besaratinia
OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (e-cig), which are promoted as safe alternatives to tobacco cigarettes or as aides to smoking cessation, are becoming increasingly popular among adult chronic smokers and adolescents experimenting with tobacco products. Despite the known presence of toxicants and carcinogens in e-cig liquid and vapor, the possible carcinogenic effects of e-cig use in humans are unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have utilized two validated in vitro model systems to investigate whether e-cig vapor induces mutation in mouse or human cells...
October 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185369/cellular-effects-of-thirdhand-tobacco-smoke-from-smokers-homes
#9
Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Rafael Linden, Ana Luiza Ziulkoski, Denise Conceição Mesquita Dantas
After the cigarette is extinguished, many toxic compounds remain in the environment and accumulate in the air or on surfaces. This exposure is termed Thirdhand Smoke (THS) and its risks are poorly known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cellular effects of THS from smokers' homes. Papers were placed in nine smoker's home and three nonsmoker's homes. An area equivalent to the paper size was cleaned with a cotton wipe. A549, Hep-2, and 3T3 cells were exposed to THS for 24 hours and cellular functions were assessed by MTT, Neutral Red reuptake (NR) and Trypan blue exclusion assays...
November 29, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183043/benzo-e-pyrene-inhibits-endothelium-dependent-no-mediated-dilation-of-retinal-arterioles-via-superoxide-production-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Takayuki Kamiya, Taiji Nagaoka, Tsuneaki Omae, Shinji Ono, Shinichi Otani, Akitoshi Yoshida
Purpose: To investigate whether benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), a toxicant in cigarette smoke, affects the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-induced vasodilation of the retinal arterioles, and whether oxidative stress, distinct protein kinase signaling pathways, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are associated with the B(e)P-induced effect on the retinal arterioles. Methods: In this in vitro study, porcine retinal arterioles were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized without flow...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182761/sugar-and-aldehyde-content-in-flavored-electronic-cigarette-liquids
#11
Pebbles Fagan, Pallav Pokhrel, Thaddeus A Herzog, Eric T Moolchan, Kevin D Cassel, Adrian A Franke, Xingnan Li, Ian Pagano, Dennis R Trinidad, Kari-Lyn K Sakuma, Kymberle Sterling, Dorothy Jorgensen, Tania Lynch, Crissy Kawamoto, Mignonne C Guy, Ian Lagua, Sarah Hanes, Linda A Alexander, Mark S Clanton, Camonia Graham-Tutt, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction: Sugars are major constituents and additives in traditional tobacco products, but little is known about their content or related toxins (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids. This study quantified levels of sugars and aldehydes in e-cigarette liquids across brands, flavors, and nicotine concentrations (n = 66). Methods: Unheated e-cigarette liquids were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and enzymatic test kits...
November 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180936/osimertinib-effective-treatment-of-nsclc-with-activating-egfr-mutations-after-progression-on-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#12
Marcin Skrzypski, Amelia Szymanowska-Narloch, Rafał Dziadziuszko
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) driven by activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) constitutes up to 10% of NSCLC cases. According to the NCCN recommendations, all patients (with the exception of smoking patients with squamous cell lung cancer) should be screened for the presence of activating EGFR mutations, i.e. deletion in exon 19 or point mutation L858R in exon 21, in order to select the group that benefits from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) treatment. Among approved agents there are the 1st generation reversible EGFR TKIs, erlotinib and gefitinib, and the 2nd generation irreversible EGFR TKI, afatinib...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177562/toxicity-and-efficacy-of-autologous-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-elderly-patients-with-aggressive-lymphoma-a-historical-prospective-study
#13
Marina Davidov, Chava Perry, Yair Herishanu, Nadav Sarid, Esti Rom, Odelia Amit, Rinat Eshel, Ella Naparstek, Irit Avivi, Ron Ram
High-dose therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) prolongs overall survival in patients under 65 years old with relapsed aggressive lymphoma. We aimed to explore the toxicity and efficacy of HCT in patients over 65 years with aggressive lymphoma compared with younger patients. We compared the transplantation outcomes between patients ≥ 65 years (n = 58) and 55-64 years (n = 44) with chemosensitive aggressive lymphoma (DLBCL, MCL and TCL) that underwent HCT between 1999 and 2016 in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center...
November 25, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173474/metallothionein-2a-gene-polymorphism-and-trace-elements-in-mother-newborn-pairs-in-the-croatian-population
#14
Ankica Sekovanić, Jasna Jurasović, Martina Piasek, Daria Pašalić, Tatjana Orct, Antonija Sulimanec Grgec, Sandra Stasenko, Karmen Branović Čakanić, Anamarija Jazbec
The main source of exposure for all essential and toxic elements in the general population is diet. In smokers, the main route for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) intake is the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Besides gender, age, nutrition, lifestyle, and physiological conditions such as pregnancy, specific genetic characteristics also influence individual element uptake. Metallothionein MT2 is a cysteine-rich low-weight protein found ubiquitously throughout the body. Specific gene polymorphism may influence MT2 expression and subsequent binding, transfer and organ accumulation of metals, though data on these influences are lacking, especially in human mother-newborn pairs...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168740/dietary-intake-of-cadmium-lead-and-mercury-and-its-association-with-bone-health-in-healthy-premenopausal-women
#15
Jesus M Lavado-García, Luis M Puerto-Parejo, Raul Roncero-Martín, Jose M Moran, Juan D Pedrera-Zamorano, Ignacio J Aliaga, Olga Leal-Hernández, Maria L Canal-Macias
The bone is one of the relevant target organs of heavy metals, and heavy metal toxicity is associated with several degenerative processes, such osteoporosis and bone mineral alterations, that could lead to fractures. We aimed to study a presumed relationship between bone density, evaluated by quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and the dietary intake of cadmium, lead and mercury in healthy premenopausal women. A total of 158 healthy, non-smoking, premenopausal women were incorporated into the study...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167002/-efficacy-and-toxicity-of-metronomic-oral-vinorelbinen-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-after-failure-to-multiple-lines-treatments
#16
Shuyang Yao, Yanfei Gu, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND: The development of new treatments beyond first-line in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) contributed to the increase in overall survival. Metronomic chemotherapy involves several mechanisms of anti-tumor with less toxicity. Oral vinorelbine has paved the way for innovative treatment strategies through metronomic regimens. Therefore, this study assessed the efficacy and safety of metronomic oral vinorelbinen in advanced NSCLC after failure to multiple-lines treatments...
November 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158705/melatonin-attenuates-thiocyanate-induced-vasoconstriction-in-aortic-rings
#17
Alexander M Prusa, Christian A Plass
Cigarette smoking not only has a carcinogenic effect but also leads to an increase in arterial blood pressure. Besides its main components, i.e. nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide, cigarette smoke also contains thiocyanate. Thiocyanate anions (SCN(-)) arise from the detoxification of hydrogen cyanide and its plasma concentrations were found to correlate significantly with cigarette consumption. There is also evidence that atherosclerotic disease progression is much more rapid when serum SCN(-) levels are increased...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158044/chemical-analysis-and-in-vitro-toxicological-evaluation-of-aerosol-from-a-novel-tobacco-vapor-product-a-comparison-with-cigarette-smoke
#18
Yasunori Takahashi, Yuki Kanemaru, Toshiro Fukushima, Kentaro Eguchi, Shinya Yoshida, Jacqueline Miller-Holt, Ian Jones
The recent rapid increase in the prevalence of emerging tobacco- and nicotine-containing products, such as e-cigarettes, is being driven in part by their reduced-risk potential compared to tobacco smoking. In this study, we examined emission levels for selected cigarette smoke constituents, so-called "Hoffmann analytes", and in vitro toxicity of aerosol from a novel tobacco vapor product (NTV). The NTV thermally vaporizes a nicotine-free carrier liquid to form an aerosol which then passes through tobacco, where it absorbs tobacco-derived flavors and nicotine...
November 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149889/electronic-cigarette-vapor-alters-the-lateral-structure-but-not-tensiometric-properties-of-calf-lung-surfactant
#19
Rebecca J Przybyla, Jason Wright, Rajan Parthiban, Saeed Nazemidashtarjandi, Savas Kaya, Amir M Farnoud
BACKGROUND: Despite their growing popularity, the potential respiratory toxicity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) remains largely unknown. One potential aspect of e-cigarette toxicity is the effect of e-cigarette vapor on lung surfactant function. Lung surfactant is a mixture of lipids and proteins that lines the alveolar region. The surfactant layer reduces the surface tension of the alveolar fluid, thereby playing a crucial role in lung stability. Due to their small size, particulates in e-cigarette vapor can penetrate the deep lungs and come into contact with the lung surfactant...
November 17, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147576/erlotinib-intercalating-pemetrexed-cisplatin-versus-erlotinib-alone-in-chinese-patients-with-brain-metastases-from-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-prospective-non-randomised-concurrent-controlled-trial-nct01578668
#20
Haihong Yang, Qiuhua Deng, Yuan Qiu, Jun Huang, Yubao Guan, Fengnan Wang, Xin Xu, Xinyun Yang
Objective: Erlotinib has a synergistic effect with pemetrexed for treating non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. We investigated the efficacy and safety of erlotinib (E) in combination with pemetrexed/cisplatin (E-P) in Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma with brain metastases. Design: Patients who were erlotinib-naïve or pemetrexed-naïve were assigned in parallel to receive either E or E-P. The primary endpoint was the intracranial overall response rate (ORRi)...
2017: ESMO Open
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