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Smoke toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087951/a-phase-ii-study-of-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy-and-erlotinib-for-inoperable-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Chuanhua Zhao, Li Lin, Jianzhi Liu, Rongrui Liu, Yuling Chen, Feijiao Ge, Ru Jia, Yang Jin, Yan Wang, Jianming Xu
Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy for patients with unresectable, locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is associated with significant toxicities that are often intolerable. Prognosis for this subgroup of patients remains poor, and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We investigated the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel combined with erlotinib and concurrent radiotherapy in patients with inoperable ESCC. Erlotinib (150 mg) was administered daily for 60 days beginning at the start of radiotherapy, and paclitaxel (45 mg/m²) was administered weekly along with intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy (60 Gy in 30 fractions)...
August 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079158/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-dependent-regulation-of-pulmonary-mirna-by-chronic-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#2
Sarah Rogers, Angela Rico de Souza, Michela Zago, Matthew Iu, Necola Guerrina, Alvin Gomez, Jason Matthews, Carolyn J Baglole
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor historically known for its toxic responses to man-made pollutants such as dioxin. More recently, the AhR has emerged as a suppressor of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis from cigarette smoke by mechanisms that may involve the regulation of microRNA. However, little is known about the AhR regulation of miRNA expression in the lung in response to inhaled toxicants. Therefore, we exposed Ahr(-/-) and Ahr(+/-) mice to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks and evaluated lung miRNA expression by PCR array...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077626/low-dose-or-low-dose-rate-ionizing-radiation-induced-bioeffects-in-animal-models
#3
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Animal experimental studies indicate that acute or chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) (≤100 mSv) or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation (LDRIR) (<6 mSv/h) exposures may be harmful. It induces genetic and epigenetic changes and is associated with a range of physiological disturbances that includes altered immune system, abnormal brain development with resultant cognitive impairment, cataractogenesis, abnormal embryonic development, circulatory diseases, weight gain, premature menopause in female animals, tumorigenesis and shortened lifespan...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069259/sex-differences-in-hazard-ratio-during-drug-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-major-clinical-trials-a-focused-data-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Lishi Wang, Yanhong Cao, Mingji Ren, Amei Chen, Jinglin Cui, DiaJun Sun, Weikuan Gu
PURPOSE: Understanding how sex impacts the efficacy of anticancer agents is a crucial step toward personalized and precision medicine. This review and meta-analysis evaluated sex differences in hazard ratios (HRs) of progression-free survival and overall survival in representative Phase III clinical trials of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Data were extracted from 24 large-scale clinical trials that included 12,000 male and 7000 female patients. The data were examined for HR differences between subgroups by sex, smoking status, and age, and for potential sex-smoking status, sex-age, and sex-drug interactions, during cancer treatment...
January 6, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065790/comparison-of-cellular-and-transcriptomic-effects-between-electronic-cigarette-vapor-and-cigarette-smoke-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#5
Sébastien Anthérieu, Anne Garat, Nicolas Beauval, Mélissa Soyez, Delphine Allorge, Guillaume Garçon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice
The use of electronic cigarette (e-cig) can be considered as an alternative to smoking. However, due to a lack of thorough toxicological studies, absolute safety of these products cannot be guaranteed. The aim of this in vitro work was to investigate the potential toxicity of e-vapors generated by a smoking machine in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells cultured at air-liquid interface, in comparison to cigarette smoke (CS). Although CS decreased strongly cell viability from 48min exposure, e-vapors induced no cytotoxicity up to 288min exposure...
January 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065424/associations-between-urinary-biomarkers-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-exposure-and-reproductive-function-during-menstrual-cycles-in-women
#6
Ulrike Luderer, Fletcher Christensen, Wesley O Johnson, Jianwen She, Ho Sai Simon Ip, Junqiang Zhou, Josephine Alvaran, Edward F Krieg, James S Kesner
Essentially all women are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials, including fossil fuels, wood, foods, and tobacco. PAHs are ovarian toxicants in rodents, and cigarette smoking is associated with reproductive abnormalities in women. Biomonitoring of hydroxylated PAH (OH-PAH) metabolites in urine provides an integrated measure of exposure to PAHs via multiple routes and has been used to characterize exposure to PAHs in humans. We hypothesized that concentrations of OH-PAHs in urine are associated with reproductive function in women...
January 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048167/su-f-i-66-the-effects-of-nicotinic-agonists-on-rat-hippocampal-glutamatergic-fluctuation-by-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-at-9-4t
#7
S-I Lim, K-H Song, C-H Yoo, D-C Woo, B-Y Choe
PURPOSE: Nicotine exerts its effects through the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Varenicline, a smoking cessation aid, is a partial agonist acting at the α4β2 nAChRs. Although nicotine and varenicline contribute to the reward system at the same time, the influence of the substances on hippocampal neurochemical changes has not been investigated yet. We therefore studied the effects of repeated nicotine exposure and varenicline administration on hippocampus of rats by using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 9...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045798/the-association-between-toxic-exposures-and-chronic-multisymptom-illness-in-veterans-of-the-wars-of-iraq-and-afghanistan
#8
Bryann B DeBeer, Dena Davidson, Eric C Meyer, Nathan A Kimbrel, Suzy B Gulliver, Sandra B Morissette
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if post-9/11 veterans deployed to the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts experienced toxic exposures and whether they are related to symptoms of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI). METHODS: Data from 224 post-9/11 veterans who self-reported exposure to hazards in theater were analyzed using hierarchical regression. RESULTS: Of the sample, 97.2% endorsed experiencing one or more potentially toxic exposure...
January 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043524/in-vitro-effects-of-water-pipe-smoke-condensate-on-the-endocytic-activity-of-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cells-a549-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#9
Ian M Adcock, Esmaeil Mortaz, Shamila D Alipoor, Johan Garssen, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and poses immense threats to many populations. The association between tobacco smoke and TB has already been studied. Water-pipe smoking has become an increasing problem not only in Middle Eastern countries but also globally as it is considered by users as being safer than cigarettes. The presence of high levels of toxic substances in water-pipe smoke may be predisposing factors that enhance the incidence of pulmonary disorders in water-pipe smokers...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040275/serum-levels-of-nitric-oxide-and-cytokines-in-smokers-at-the-beginning-and-after-4months-of-treatment-for-smoking-cessation
#10
H V Van Keulen, A S Gomes, M C F Toffolo, E E Oliveira, L C Silva, C C S Alves, C S Almeida, S C P L Dutra, A S Aguiar, A P Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Nitric oxide (NO) modulates inflammatory reactions, having beneficial or toxic effects depending on the concentration. Its elevation can cause proinflammatory effects amplifying the inflammatory process with the participation of cytokines. Smoking has a negative impact on health and is considered one of the risk factors that influence disease development facilitating inflammatory processes. AIM: To compare the serum concentration of NO and cytokines in smokers at baseline and after 4months of abstinence treatment...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039826/indoor-airborne-particle-sources-and-outdoor-haze-days-effect-in-urban-office-areas-in-guangzhou
#11
Manwen Zhang, Sukun Zhang, Guixian Feng, Hui Su, Fengzhi Zhu, Mingzhong Ren, Zongwei Cai
To identify the sources of PM2.5 pollutants in work environments and determine whether the air quality inside an office was affected by a change in outdoor pollution status, concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements of PM2.5 were conducted at five different office spaces in the urban center of Guangzhou on low pollution days (non-episode days, NEDs), and high pollution days (haze episode days, EDs). Indoor-outdoor relationships between the PM2.5 mass and its chemical constituents, which included water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species, and metal elements, were investigated...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029303/e1308-phase-ii-trial-of-induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-reduced-dose-radiation-and-weekly-cetuximab-in-patients-with-hpv-associated-resectable-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oropharynx-ecog-acrin-cancer-research-group
#12
Shanthi Marur, Shuli Li, Anthony J Cmelak, Maura L Gillison, Weiqiang J Zhao, Robert L Ferris, William H Westra, Jill Gilbert, Julie E Bauman, Lynne I Wagner, David R Trevarthen, Jahagirdar Balkrishna, Barbara A Murphy, Nishant Agrawal, A Dimitrios Colevas, Christine H Chung, Barbara Burtness
Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is treatment-responsive. Definitive chemoradiation results in high cure rates but causes long-term toxicity and may represent overtreatment of some patients. This phase II trial evaluated whether complete clinical response (cCR) to induction chemotherapy (IC) could select patients with HPV-associated OPSCC for reduced radiation dose as a means of sparing late sequelae. Methods Patients with HPV16 and/or p16-positive, stage III-IV OPSCC received three cycles of IC with cisplatin, paclitaxel, and cetuximab...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025779/correlation-of-ki-67-proliferative-antigen-expression-and-tumor-response-to-induction-chemotherapy-containing-cell-cycle-specific-agents-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Jonathan Chatzkel, James S Lewis, Jessica C Ley, Tanya M Wildes, Wade Thorstad, Hiram Gay, Mackenzie Daly, Ryan Jackson, Jason Rich, Randal Paniello, Brian Nussenbaum, Jingxia Liu, Barry A Siegel, Farrokh Dehdashti, Douglas Adkins
Determine if highly proliferative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, assessed by pretreatment Ki-67 expression, respond more robustly to induction chemotherapy (IC) that is selectively toxic to cycling cells. Retrospective analysis of 59 patients treated with IC and chemoradiation. IC included either nab-paclitaxel, cisplatin, 5-FU and cetuximab (APF-C, n = 27) or docetaxel, cisplatin, 5-FU +/- cetuximab (TPF+/-C, n = 32). Ki-67 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Tumor response (complete/partial/stable/progressive) at the primary site after two IC cycles was evaluated by visual examination in all patients...
December 26, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003511/tobacco-consumption-and-toxicant-exposure-of-cigarette-smokers-using-electronic-cigarettes
#14
Kim Pulvers, Ashley S Emami, Nicole L Nollen, Devan R Romero, David R Strong, Neal L Benowitz, Jasjit S Ahluwalia
BACKGROUND: There is considerable debate about the benefits and risks of electronic cigarettes (ECs). To better understand the risk-benefit ratio of ECs, more information is needed about net nicotine consumption and toxicant exposure of cigarette smokers switching to ECs. METHODS: Forty cigarette smokers (>1 year of smoking) interested in switching to ECs but not necessarily quitting smoking were enrolled in a four-week observational study and provided an e-Go C non-variable battery and refillable atomizers and choice of 8 flavors in 12 or 24 mg nicotine dosage...
December 21, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000892/non%C3%A2-infective-occupational-risk-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-review-review
#15
Caterina Ledda, Carla Loreto, Christian Zammit, Andrea Marconi, Lucrezia Fago, Serena Matera, Valentina Costanzo, Giovanni Fuccio Sanzà, Stefano Palmucci, Margherita Ferrante, Chiara Costa, Concettina Fenga, Antonio Biondi, Cristoforo Pomara, Venerando Rapisarda
Liver cancer is the second leading worldwide cause of cancer‑associated mortalities. Hepatocellular carcinoma, which accounts for the majority of liver tumors, ranks fifth among types of human cancer. Well‑established risk factors for liver cancer include the hepatitis B and C viruses, aflatoxins, alcohol consumption, and oral contraceptives. Tobacco smoking, androgenic steroids, and diabetes mellitus are suspected risk factors. Current knowledge regarding non‑infective occupational risk factors for liver cancer is inconclusive...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999217/a-survey-on-lifestyle-and-level-of-biomarkers-of-environmental-exposure-in-residents-in-civitavecchia-italy
#16
Carla Ancona, Lisa Bauleo, Giovanni Biscotti, Beatrice Bocca, Stefano Caimi, Fabio Cruciani, Sabrina Di Lorenzo, Morena Petrolati, Anna Pino, Giovanna Piras, Augusto Pizzabiocca, Silvia Rabbiosi, Flavia Ruggieri, Chelo Salatino, Alessandro Alimonti, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: The assessment of individual exposure to toxicants in industrially contaminated areas is difficult when multiple productions are active close to residential areas. Two thermoelectric power plants and a large harbor have been operating since the '60s in the area of Civitavecchia (North of Rome). METHODS: The ABC (Ambiente e Biomonitoraggio nell'area di Civitavecchia, Environment and Biomonitoring in Civitavecchia) program involved, in the period 2013-2014, residents in Civitavecchia and in the nearby municipalities (Santa Marinella, Allumiere, Tolfa and Tarquinia)...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998141/space-confined-growth-of-defect-rich-molybdenum-disulfide-nanosheets-within-graphene-application-in-the-removal-of-smoke-particles-and-toxic-volatiles
#17
Dong Wang, Weiyi Xing, Lei Song, Yuan Hu
In this work, molybdenum disulfide/reduced graphene oxide (MoS2/RGO) hybrids are synthesized by a spatially confined reaction to insert the growth of defect-rich MoS2 nanosheets within graphene to enable incorporation into the polymer matrix for the application in the removal of smoke particles and toxic volatiles. The steady-state tube furnace result demonstrates that MoS2/RGO hybrid could considerably reduce the yield of CO and smoke particles. The TG-IR coupling technique was utilized to identify species of toxic volatiles including aromatic compounds, CO, and hydrocarbons and to investigate the removal effect of MoS2/RGO hybrids on reducing toxic volatiles...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994808/effects-of-benzo-e-pyrene-on-reactive-oxygen-nitrogen-species-and-inflammatory-cytokines-induction-in-human-rpe-cells-and-attenuation-by-mitochondrial-involved-mechanism
#18
M Fernanda Estrago-Franco, M Tarek Moustafa, Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani, Ashish U Sapkal, Rhina Piche-Lopez, A Jayaprakash Patil, Ashish Sharma, Payam Falatoonzadeh, Marilyn Chwa, Georgia Luczy-Bachman, Baruch D Kuppermann, M Cristina Kenney
PURPOSE: To identify inhibitors that could effectively lower reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), complement and inflammatory cytokine levels induced by Benzo(e)pyrene [B(e)p], an element of cigarette smoke, in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) in vitro. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were treated for 24 hours with 200 μM, 100 μM, and 50 μM B(e)p or DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide)-equivalent concentrations. Some cultures were pre-treated with ROS/RNS inhibitors (NG nitro-L-arginine, inhibits nitric oxide synthase; Apocynin, inhibits NADPH oxidase; Rotenone, inhibits mitochondrial complex I; Antimycin A, inhibits mitochondria complex III) and ROS/RNS levels were measured with a fluorescent H2 DCFDA assay...
October 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993944/effects-of-airborne-toxicants-on-pulmonary-function-and-mitochondrial-dna-damage-in-rodent-lungs
#19
William L Rumsey, Brian Bolognese, Alicia B Davis, Pearl L Flamberg, Joseph P Foley, Steven R Katchur, Charles J Kotzer, Ruth R Osborn, Patricia L Podolin
Inhalation of airborne toxicants such as cigarette smoke and ozone is a shared health risk among the world's populations. The use of toxic herbicides like paraquat (PQ) is restricted by many countries, yet in the developing world PQ has demonstrable ill effects. The present study examined changes in pulmonary function, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity and markers of DNA repair induced by acute or repeated exposure of PQ to rats. Similar to cigarette smoke and ozone, PQ promotes oxidative stress, and the impact of PQ on mtDNA was compared with that obtained with these agents...
December 18, 2016: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989134/stability-and-application-of-reactive-nitrogen-and-oxygen-species-induced-hemoglobin-modifications-in-dry-blood-spots-as-analyzed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Hauh-Jyun Candy Chen, Chih-Huang Fan, Ya-Fen Yang
Dried blood spot (DBS) is an emerging microsampling technique for the bioanalysis of small molecules, including fatty acids, metabolites, drugs, and toxicants. DBS offers many advantages as a sample format including easy sample collection and cheap sample shipment. Hemoglobin adducts have been recognized as a suitable biomarker for monitoring chemical exposure. We previously reported that certain modified peptides in hemoglobin derived from reactive chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen species are associated with factors including smoking, diabetes mellitus, and aging...
December 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
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