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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908385/the-mutagenic-assessment-of-an-electronic-cigarette-and-reference-cigarette-smoke-using-the-ames-assay-in-strains-ta98-and-ta100
#1
D Thorne, I Crooks, M Hollings, A Seymour, C Meredith, M Gaca
Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used to assess the mutagenic potential of the aerosol from a commercially available, rechargeable, closed system electronic-cigarette. Results obtained were compared to those for the mainstream smoke from a Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette. Two different test matrices were assessed. Aerosol generated from the e-cigarette was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad, eluted in DMSO and compared to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), which was generated in the same manner for mutagenicity assessment in the Salmonella assay...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904031/variant-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-aldh2-2-in-east-asians-interactively-exacerbates-tobacco-smoking-risk-for-coronary-spasm%C3%A3-possible-role-of-reactive-aldehydes
#2
Yuji Mizuno, Seiji Hokimoto, Eisaku Harada, Kenji Kinoshita, Michihiro Yoshimura, Hirofumi Yasue
BACKGROUND: Coronary spastic angina (CSA) is common among East Asians and tobacco smoking (TS) is an established risk factor for CSA. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) plays a key role in removing reactive toxic aldehydes and a deficient variant ALDH2 genotype (ALDH2*2) is prevalent among East Asians. We examined the interaction between TS andALDH2*2as a risk factor for CSA to better understand the disease pathogenesis.Methods and Results:The study subjects comprised 410 patients (258 men, 152 women; mean age, 66...
November 29, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897119/glaucoma-hot-topics-in-pharmacology
#3
Shiama I Balendra, Parth Arvind Shah, Mishank Jain, Andrzej Grzybowski, Francesca M Cordeiro
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma comprises a group of neurodegenerative diseases resulting in retinal ganglion cell death within the optic nerve head. It is projected to affect almost 80 million people worldwide by 2020. The condition's asymptomatic nature translates to over half of glaucoma sufferers being unaware of their condition. By the time of diagnosis, irreversible blindness is likely to have occurred. Prime areas of glaucoma research therefore include identification and optimization of risk factors for the disease, accurate and early diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic methods...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892872/fern-synthesized-silver-nanocrystals-towards-a-new-class-of-mosquito-oviposition-deterrents
#4
Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Kadarkarai Murugan, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Sudalaimani Jayashanthini, Al Thbiani Aziz, Mathath Roni, Udaiyan Suresh, Subrata Trivedi, Hasibur Rehman, Akon Higuchi, Marcello Nicoletti, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes act as vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, representing a key threat for millions of humans and animals worldwide. Eco-friendly control tools are urgently required. We proposed a novel method of fern-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Dicranopteris linearis, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential and particle size analysis...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891370/trace-elements-in-chronic-haemodialysis-patients-and-healthy-individuals-a-comparative-study
#5
Lokesh Shanmugam, Siva Ranganathan Green, Hemachandar Radhakrishnan, Tony Mathew Kadavanu, Arunkumar Ramachandrappa, Shashank Rakesh Tiwari, Amirtha Lakshmi Rajkumar, Ezhumalai Govindasamy
INTRODUCTION: End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients despite receiving adequate Haemodialysis (HD) develop significant risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Abnormality in levels of trace elements may potentiate vascular injury by producing sustained inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the levels of trace elements in patients receiving HD. AIM: To study the blood levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, barium, cobalt, caesium and selenium among ESRD patients undergoing HD and compare it with healthy individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891067/are-healthy-smokers-really-healthy
#6
REVIEW
Zijing Zhou, Ping Chen, Hong Peng
Cigarette smoke contains more than 4500 chemicals which have toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Strong evidences have shown that current smokers take a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer than nonsmokers. However, less attention has been paid to the smoking induced abnormalities in the individuals defined as healthy smokers who are normal with spirometry, radiographic images, routine physical exam and categorized as healthy control group in many researches...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890689/developmental-toxicity-of-nicotine-a-transdisciplinary-synthesis-and-implications-for-emerging-tobacco-products
#7
REVIEW
Lucinda J England, Kjersti Aagaard, Michele Bloch, Kevin Conway, Kelly Cosgrove, Rachel Grana, Thomas J Gould, Dorothy Hatsukami, Frances Jensen, Denise Kandel, Bruce Lanphear, Frances Leslie, James R Pauly, Jenae Neiderhiser, Mark Rubinstein, Theodore A Slotkin, Eliot Spindel, Laura Stroud, Lauren Wakschlag
While the health risks associated with adult cigarette smoking have been well described, effects of nicotine exposure during periods of developmental vulnerability are often overlooked. Using MEDLINE and PubMed literature searches, books, reports and expert opinion, a transdisciplinary group of scientists reviewed human and animal research on the health effects of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy and adolescence. A synthesis of this research supports that nicotine contributes critically to adverse effects of gestational tobacco exposure, including reduced pulmonary function, auditory processing defects, impaired infant cardiorespiratory function, and may contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits in later life...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873337/age-related-common-mirna-polymorphism-associated-with-severe-toxicity-in-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#8
Chao Fang, Xiang-Ping Li, Wei-Jing Gong, Na-Yiyuan Wu, Jie Tang, Ji-Ye Yin, Xi Li, Wei Zhang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu
Platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity severely impedes successful treatment in lung cancer patients. MicroRNAs (miRs) have a significant impact on the occurrence and survival rate of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between common miRNA variants and platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity in lung cancer patients. A total of 8 functional SNPs of miRNA were genotyped in 408 lung cancer patients by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. All the patients were histologically confirmed as lung cancer, and were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy for at least two cycles...
November 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871044/now-is-the-time-to-advocate-for-interventions-designed-specifically-to-prevent-and-control-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking
#9
REVIEW
A A Lopez, T Eissenberg, M Jaafar, R Afifi
Waterpipe tobacco usage is spreading rapidly worldwide, with reports of more youth being waterpipe users compared to adults. In many areas of the world, waterpipe usage surpasses cigarette smoking. Waterpipes and cigarettes are both mechanisms for inhalation of tobacco smoke and therefore have serious health consequences. However, because of the many differences between the two products, prevention and control strategies that have proven effective for cigarettes may not transfer readily to waterpipe. This report highlights the differences between waterpipes and cigarettes in toxicant exposure and physiologic effects, patterns of use, social norms, the extent of evidence, and the policy environment...
November 11, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865847/functional-characterisation-and-application-of-an-ex-vivo-perfusion-superfusion-system-in-murine-airways
#10
Esther Y Cheah, Tracy S Mann, Philip C Burcham, Peter J Henry
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to develop two dynamic ex vivo airway explant systems, a perfusion-superfusion system and a ventilation-superfusion system, for the study of toxic airborne substances, such as the prevalent smoke constituent acrolein. METHODS: Mouse isolated tracheal segments were perfused with physiological media or ventilated with humidified air at 37°C to mimic dynamic flow conditions, and superfused with media over the exterior surface...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851714/preexposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-large-integrated-health-care-system-adherence-renal-safety-and-discontinuation
#11
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Charles Bradley Hare, Dong Phuong Nguyen, Tony Phengrasamy, Michael J Silverberg, Juliet E Stoltey, Jonathan E Volk
BACKGROUND: Placebo-controlled and open-label studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection, but data are limited on real-world PrEP use. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study from July 2012 through June 2015 of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members initiating PrEP. We assessed pharmacy refill adherence and discontinuation, decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV incidence...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844152/adherence-to-a-prophylactic-swallowing-therapy-program-during-chemo-radiotherapy-impact-of-service-delivery-model-and-patient-factors
#12
Laurelie R Wall, Elizabeth C Ward, Bena Cartmill, Anne J Hill, Sandro V Porceddu
Intensive, prophylactic swallowing therapy programs have been developed to improve dysphagia outcomes for patients with head/neck cancer (HNC) receiving (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT). Across studies, variable therapy adherence rates have been reported. Preliminary research suggests that service-delivery mode and demographic factors may influence adherence. This study examined patient adherence to a prophylactic swallowing therapy protocol across three service-delivery models: (1) clinician-directed face-to-face therapy, (2) technology-assisted therapy using the telepractice application, SwallowIT and (3) independent patient-directed therapy...
November 14, 2016: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842552/circulating-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Elisabetta Zinellu, Angelo Zinellu, Alessandro Giuseppe Fois, Ciriaco Carru, Pietro Pirina
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive condition characterized by airflow limitation associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases, caused primarily by cigarette smoking. Increased oxidative burden plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. There is a delicate balance between the toxicity of oxidants and the protective function of the intracellular and extracellular antioxidant defense systems, which is critically important for the maintenance of normal pulmonary functions...
November 14, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824869/maternal-smoking-and-the-risk-of-cancer-in-early-life-a-meta-analysis
#14
Isabell Katharina Rumrich, Matti Viluksela, Kirsi Vähäkangas, Mika Gissler, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Otto Hänninen
BACKGROUND: In spite of the well-known harmful effects on the fetus, many women continue smoking during pregnancy. Smoking as an important source of toxic chemicals may contribute to the developmental origin of diseases. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to pursue the possible association between maternal smoking and cancer in early life. Specifically, we wanted to identify the associated early life cancer types, and to quantify the associations. METHODS: In a systematic literature search 825 articles were identified in PubMed and Web of Science, and 55 more through the reference lists...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821595/cannabis-exposure-as-an-interactive-cardiovascular-risk-factor-and-accelerant-of-organismal-ageing-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Albert Stuart Reece, Amanda Norman, Gary Kenneth Hulse
OBJECTIVES: Many reports exist of the cardiovascular toxicity of smoked cannabis but none of arterial stiffness measures or vascular age (VA). In view of its diverse toxicology, the possibility that cannabis-exposed patients may be ageing more quickly requires investigation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal, observational. Prospective. SETTING: Single primary care addiction clinic in Brisbane, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 11 cannabis-only smokers, 504 tobacco-only smokers, 114 tobacco and cannabis smokers and 534 non-smokers...
November 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820947/effect-of-temporal-changes-in-therapeutic-exposure-on-self-reported-health-status-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#16
Kirsten K Ness, Melissa M Hudson, Kendra E Jones, Wendy Leisenring, Yutaka Yasui, Yan Chen, Marilyn Stovall, Todd M Gibson, Daniel M Green, Joseph P Neglia, Tara O Henderson, Jacqueline Casillas, Jennifer S Ford, Karen E Effinger, Kevin R Krull, Gregory T Armstrong, Leslie L Robison, Kevin C Oeffinger, Paul C Nathan
Background: The effect of temporal changes in cancer therapy on health status among childhood cancer survivors has not been evaluated. Objective: To compare proportions of self-reported adverse health status outcomes among childhood cancer survivors across 3 decades. Design: Cross-sectional. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01120353). Setting: 27 North American institutions. Participants: 14 566 adults, who survived for 5 or more years after initial diagnosis (median age, 27 years; range, 18 to 48 years), treated from 1970 to 1999...
November 8, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818348/evaluation-of-the-tobacco-heating-system-2-2-part-6-90-day-oecd-413-rat-inhalation-study-with-systems-toxicology-endpoints-demonstrates-reduced-exposure-effects-of-a-mentholated-version-compared-with-mentholated-and-non-mentholated-cigarette-smoke
#17
Alberto Oviedo, Stefan Lebrun, Ulrike Kogel, Jenny Ho, Wei Teck Tan, Bjoern Titz, Patrice Leroy, Gregory Vuillaume, Monali Bera, Florian Martin, Gregory Rodrigo, Marco Esposito, Ruth Dempsey, Nikolai V Ivanov, Julia Hoeng, Manuel C Peitsch, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck
The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l)...
November 3, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816694/diverse-neurotoxicants-target-the-differentiation-of-embryonic-neural-stem-cells-into-neuronal-and-glial-phenotypes
#18
Theodore A Slotkin, Samantha Skavicus, Jennifer Card, Edward D Levin, Frederic J Seidler
The large number of compounds that needs to be tested for developmental neurotoxicity drives the need to establish in vitro models to evaluate specific neurotoxic endpoints. We used neural stem cells derived from rat neuroepithelium on embryonic day 14 to evaluate the impact of diverse toxicants on their ability to differentiate into glia and neurons: a glucocorticoid (dexamethasone), organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, parathion), insecticides targeting the GABAA receptor (dieldrin, fipronil), heavy metals (Ni(2+), Ag(+)), nicotine and tobacco smoke extract...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816504/nadph-oxidase-nox-1-mediates-cigarette-smoke-induced-superoxide-generation-in-rat-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#19
Kyung-Hwa Chang, Jung-Min Park, Chang Hoon Lee, Bumseok Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi, Seong-Jin Choi, Kyuhong Lee, Moo-Yeol Lee
Smoking is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress is one of the common etiological factors, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been suggested as a potential mediator of oxidative stress. In this study, cigarette smoke (CS)-induced superoxide production was characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). CS was prepared in forms of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and total particulate matter (TPM). Several molecular probes for reactive oxygen species were trialed, and dihydroethidium (DHE) and WST-1 were chosen for superoxide detection considering the autofluorescence, light absorbance, and peroxidase inhibitory activity of CS...
November 3, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813628/quercetin-attenuates-indomethacin-induced-acute-gastric-ulcer-in-rats
#20
Abdullah Glil Rada Alkushi, Naser Ahmed Mahmoud Elsawy
BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer diseases are common and are induced by many factors, including stress, smoking, and ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quercetin is considered to be an anti-oxidant with healing effects on many experimental toxic injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study aimed to explore the possible effect of quercetin on acute gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin in rats. Three groups received indomethacin (30mg/kg body weight) orally by orogastric gavage on two consecutive days...
November 4, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
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