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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717853/radiation-related-heart-disease-after-breast-cancer-radiation-therapy-in-korean-women
#1
Jee Suk Chang, Byung Kyun Ko, Jeoung Won Bae, Jong-Han Yu, Min Ho Park, Yongsik Jung, Ye Won Jeon, Kyung Hwan Kim, Jaeyong Shin, Chang-Ok Suh, Yong Bae Kim
PURPOSE: To study the late cardiac toxicity of breast radiation therapy (RT) in Asian women. METHODS: Female breast cancer patients in Korea who underwent breast conservation surgery followed by RT from 1990-2012 were identified from two large registries at institution and population levels. Cumulative incidences of acute coronary events (ACE) or cardiac mortality were estimated in relation to the laterality of breast cancer using a competing risks analysis. RESULTS: In an analysis of 2577 women from a single institution, 3...
July 17, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717432/multiple-sclerosis-a-disease-on-a-dramatically-rising-trend-in-iran-review-of-possible-reasons
#2
REVIEW
Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mohammad Sahebkar, Rouhullah Dehghani, Milad Derakhshan-Jazari, Vahid Kazami-Moghaddam, Ebrahim Kouchaki
There has been a global rising trend in recent years in the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite being an MS low-risk region, this disease has also been recently on the rise in the Middle East. As part of the Middle East, Iran has not been spared either; however, the cause of this dramatic increase remains to be discovered. This study reviews possible reasons for this increase in Iran. Although many factors such as the increased rate of smoking, lifestyle changes, modernization, and contact with toxic solvents can be proposed as reasons for this sudden rise in the prevalence of MS in Iran, these factors cannot be taken as definite causes and further studies are required to prove their impact...
January 5, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716263/exogenous-acrolein-intensifies-sensory-hypersensitivity-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#3
Breanne Butler, Glen Acosta, Riyi Shi
Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde associated with oxidative stress, is also a major toxic component of tobacco cigarette smoke, which has been reported in the clinic to coincide with the exacerbation of neuropathic pain after SCI. Previous reports have shown that acrolein involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI) is crucial to the development and persistence of neuropathic pain. Through the activation and upregulation of the transient receptor protein ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) cation channel, acrolein is capable of sensitizing the central nervous system in the acute and chronic stages of SCI...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715260/does-adding-information-on-toxic-constituents-to-cigarette-pack-warnings-increase-smokers-perceptions-about-the-health-risks-of-smoking-a-longitudinal-study-in-australia-canada-mexico-and-the-united-states
#4
Yoo Jin Cho, James F Thrasher, Kamala Swayampakala, Isaac Lipkus, David Hammond, Kenneth Michael Cummings, Ron Borland, Hua-Hie Yong, James W Hardin
BACKGROUND: Health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the United States include varying information about toxic cigarette smoke constituents and smoking-related health risks. HWL information changed more recently in Australia, Canada, and Mexico than in the United States. AIMS: To investigate whether smokers' knowledge of toxic constituents and perceived smoking-related risks increased after adding this information to HWLs and how knowledge of toxic constituents is associated with perceptions of smoking-related risks...
June 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714930/environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-during-pregnancy-and-child-neurodevelopment
#5
Kinga Polanska, Anna Krol, Dorota Merecz-Kot, Danuta Ligocka, Karolina Mikolajewska, Fiorino Mirabella, Flavia Chiarotti, Gemma Calamandrei, Wojciech Hanke
The developing fetus is especially vulnerable to environmental toxicants, including tobacco constituents. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment within the first two years of life. The study population consisted of 461 non-smoking pregnant women (saliva cotinine level <10 ng/mL). Maternal passive smoking was assessed based on the cotinine level in saliva analyzed by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS) and by questionnaire data...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710994/toxic-compounds-from-tobacco-in-placenta-samples-analyzed-by-uplc-qtof-ms
#6
Somayeh Mohammadi, Celia Domeno, Isabel Nerin, Margarita Aznar, Pilar Samper, Gholamreza Khayatian, Cristina Nerin
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) and aromatic amines are carcinogens present in cigarette smoke. These compounds are distributed in the human body and they could be transferred to the foetus during the pregnancy. Placenta is the main barrier to these toxic compounds and its study is the objective of this work. A method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) has been examined and optimized for the analysis of 9 target analytes (4 tobacco-specific nitrosamines and some of their metabolites, 3 aromatic amines, nicotine and cotinine) in 26 placenta samples from smoking and non-smoking women...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702772/a-phase-ii-trial-of-erlotinib-monotherapy-in-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-as-a-first-or-second-line-agent
#7
Christos Fountzilas, Ravi Chhatrala, Nikhil Khushalani, Wei Tan, Charles LeVea, Alan Hutson, Chris Tucker, Wen Wee Ma, Graham Warren, Patrick Boland, Renuka Iyer
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma carries a grim prognosis. In 2007, gemcitabine with erlotinib emerged as an appropriate treatment option for patients with advanced inoperable or metastatic disease (APC). In this phase II trial we sought to evaluate the efficacy of erlotinib monotherapy in patients with APC who had disease refractory to or ineligibility for gemcitabine-based therapy. METHODS: Eligible patients who had received 0 or 1 non-EGFR inhibitor containing gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for APC were recruited prospectively and treated with erlotinib 150 mg orally daily until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression...
July 12, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702205/association-of-arsenobetaine-with-beta-cell-function-assessed-by-homeostasis-model-assessment-homa-in-nondiabetic-koreans-data-from-the-fourth-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-2008-2009
#8
Kiook Baek, Namhoon Lee, Insung Chung
BACKGROUND: Arsenic is known as an endocrine disruptor that people are exposed to through various sources such as drinking water and indigestion of marine products. Although some epidemiological and animal studies have reported a correlation between arsenic exposure and diabetes development, there are limited studies regarding the toxic effects of organic arsenic including arsenobetaine on the human body. Here, we analyzed the association between urine arsenobetaine and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β), which is an index for predicting diabetes development and reflecting the function of pancreatic β-cells...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694198/survival-with-smog-and-smoke-precision-intervention
#9
Hua Linda Cai, Chen Wang
Despite continuous efforts of regional government agencies, air pollution remains a major threat to public health worldwide. In the January of 2017, a severe episode of smog similar to the London Fog in 1952, appeared in London. A longest episode of Chinese Haze also developed in Beijing, during which the PM2.5 (particular matter sized less than 2.5 micrometers) levels rose up to 500 μg/m(3). The European smog and the Chinese Haze are associated with large numbers of premature deaths each year, at 400,000 and 1...
July 7, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691127/selenium-nanoparticles-with-low-level-ionizing-radiation-exposure-ameliorate-nicotine-induced-inflammatory-impairment-in-rat-kidney
#10
Walid E Zahran, Sawsan M Elsonbaty, Fatma S M Moawed
Occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation (<1 Gy) was shown to enhance cell protection via attenuating an established inflammatory process. Nicotine, a major toxic component of cigarette smoke, is responsible for smoking-mediated renal dysfunction. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective impact of ginger Zingiber officinale selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with whole-body low-dose gamma radiation (γ-R) against nicotine-induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rats. Nicotine intoxication was induced with 0...
July 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689036/enhanced-vasculotoxic-metal-excretion-in-post-myocardial-infarction-patients-following-a-single-edetate-disodium-based-infusion
#11
Ivan A Arenas, Ana Navas-Acien, Ian Ergui, Gervasio A Lamas
Toxic metals have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We have hypothesized that enhanced excretion of vasculotoxic metals might explain the positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single infusion of the edetate disodium- based infusion used in TACT led to enhanced excretion of toxic metals known to be associated with cardiovascular events. METHODS: Twenty six patients (post-MI, age > 50 years, serum creatinine ≤ 2...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685136/bilateral-renal-cortical-necrosis-associated-with-smoking-synthetic-cannabinoids
#12
Kanaan Mansoor, Ashley Zawodniak, Tibor Nadasdy, Zeid J Khitan
Synthetic cannabinoids have become a common drug of abuse in recent years and their toxicities have come to light as well. They are known to be notorious for the kidneys, with acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis and rhabdomyolysis induced renal injury being the frequent nephrotoxic outcomes in users. We report a case of bilateral renal cortical necrosis, leading to irreversible renal damage and lifelong dialysis dependency.
June 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683775/alk-rearranged-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-responding-to-alectinib-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Nobuaki Mamesaya, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Tateaki Naito, Takashi Nakajima, Masahiro Endo, Toshiaki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Although anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion genes are generally identified in lung adenocarcinoma patients, they are relatively rare in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). Metastatic ALK-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with ALK inhibitors demonstrate higher response rates, improved progression-free survival, and reduced toxicity relative to those treated with conventional chemotherapy regimens. However, the efficacy of treatment with ALK inhibitors in patients with ALK-rearranged lung SqCC remains unknown...
July 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681280/elevated-nicotine-dependence-scores-among-electronic-cigarette-users-at-an-electronic-cigarette-convention
#14
Jona M Johnson, Jessica L Muilenburg, Stephen L Rathbun, Xiaozhong Yu, Luke P Naeher, Jia-Sheng Wang
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) conventions are trade shows held across the globe to promote e-cigarette products and provide a venue for users to socialize. E-cigarette users that attend these events likely represent the most intensive e-cigarette user group. No study has characterized addiction and behavior characteristics in this population. We surveyed 131 e-cigarette users attending a large Southeastern e-cigarette convention in Fall 2015. All questions from the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), select questions from the Penn State Electronic Cigarette Dependence Index, and novel user behavior questions were included...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668855/slow-release-l-cysteine-acetium%C3%A2-lozenge-is-an-effective-new-method-in-smoking-cessation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-intervention
#15
Kari Syrjänen, Katja Eronen, Panu Hendolin, Lea Paloheimo, Carita Eklund, Anna Bäckström, Osmo Suovaniemi
BACKGROUND/AIM: Because of the major health problems and annual economic burden caused by cigarette smoking, effective new tools for smoking intervention are urgently needed. Our previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) provided promising results on the efficacy of slow-release L-cysteine lozenge in smoking intervention, but the study was not adequately powered. To confirm in an adequately-powered study the results of the previous RCT implicating that effective elimination of acetaldehyde in saliva by slow-release L-cysteine (Acetium® lozenge, Biohit Oyj, Helsinki), would assist in smoking cessation by reducing acetaldehyde-enhanced nicotine addiction...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667909/graphical-review-the-redox-dark-side-of-e-cigarettes-exposure-to-oxidants-and-public-health-concerns
#16
REVIEW
Hua Cai, Chen Wang
Since the initial marketing in 2005, the use of e-cigarettes has increased exponentially. Nonetheless, accumulating evidence has demonstrated the ineffectiveness of e-cigarettes in leading to smoking cessation, and decreasing the adverse health impacts of cigarette smoking. The number of adolescents adapted to e-cigarettes has been increasing substantially each year, and this adaptation has promoted openness to tobacco smoking. The present review discusses controversies regarding the smoking cessation effects of e-cigarettes, recent governmental policies and regulations of e-cigarette use, toxic components and vaporization products of e-cigarettes, and the novel molecular mechanisms underlying the adverse health impacts of e-cigarettes leading to oxidative stress in target tissues, and consequent development of cardiopulmonary diseases (i...
May 25, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661938/age-at-pubertal-onset-in-girls-and-tobacco-smoke-exposure-during-pre-and-post-natal-susceptibility-windows
#17
Gayle C Windham, Raymond Lum, Robert Voss, Mary Wolff, Susan M Pinney, Susan L Teteilbaum, Connie S Sosnoff, Dina Dobraca, Frank Biro, Robert A Hiatt, Louise C Greenspan, Maida Galvez, Lawrence H Kushi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke contains known hormonally active chemicals and reproductive toxicants. Several studies have examined prenatal maternal smoking and offspring age at menarche, but few examined earlier pubertal markers, nor accounted for exposure during childhood. Our objective was to examine pre- and post-natal smoke exposure in relation to timing of early pubertal events. METHODS: An ethnically diverse cohort of 1239 girls was enrolled at age 6-8 years for a longitudinal study of puberty at three U...
June 28, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658941/comparing-smoking-topography-and-subjective-measures-of-usual-brand-cigarettes-between-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-smokers
#18
Cecilia L Bergeria, Sarah H Heil, Janice Y Bunn, Stacey C Sigmon, Stephen T Higgins
Introduction: Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD...
June 27, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655148/genetic-variants-in-the-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-2-gene-and-in-the-catalase-gene-are-not-associated-with-alcoholic-chronic-pancreatitis
#19
Alexander Schneider, Jonas Rosendahl, Peter Bugert, Christel Weiss, Heike Unterschütz, Marja-Leena Kylanpää-Bäck, Marko Lempinen, Esko Kemppainen, Brindusa L Diaconu, Matthias P Ebert, Roland H Pfützer
Aims: Oxidative stress may contribute to the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). The enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD, SOD2) and catalase (CAT) counteract free radical activity within the mitochondria and the cytosol. Moreover, CAT activity contributes to the transformation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, a toxic intermediate product of ethanol metabolism, which has been associated with pancreatic damage. Common functional polymorphisms have been described in the MnSOD gene [rs4880, NM_000636...
June 26, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649482/the-impact-of-tobacco-use-on-outcomes-and-toxicity-in-a-predominantly-minority-population-of-males-with-prostate-cancer-receiving-external-beam-radiation
#20
Anna Lee, Meng S Shao, David Schwartz, Joseph Safdieh, Virginia W Osborn, David Schreiber
INTRODUCTION: To investigate whether current or prior smoking history had any impact on prostate cancer outcomes and toxicity in our predominantly minority population of males receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). METHODS: Of the 500 patients treated with EBRT between 2003-2011, 444 had smoking histories recorded. Patients were classified as current smoker, former smoker, or never smoker. Biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) and distant metastatic-free survival (DMFS) endpoints were analyzed...
May 18, 2017: Curēus
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