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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468936/copd-as-an-endothelial-disorder-endothelial-injury-linking-lesions-in-the-lungs-and-other-organs-2017-grover-conference-series
#1
Francesca Polverino, Bartolome R Celli, Caroline A Owen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic expiratory airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD patients develop varying degrees of emphysema, small and large airway disease, and various co-morbidities. It has not been clear whether these co-morbidities share common underlying pathogenic processes with the pulmonary lesions. Early research into the pathogenesis of COPD focused on the contributions of injury to the extracellular matrix and pulmonary epithelial cells...
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461288/carbon-monoxide-and-cyanide-poisoning-in-the-burned-pregnant-patient-an-indication-for-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#2
Derek M Culnan, Beretta Craft-Coffman, Genevieve H Bitz, Karel D Capek, Yiji Tu, William C Lineaweaver, Maggie J Kuhlmann-Capek
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a small molecule poison released as a product of incomplete combustion. Carbon monoxide binds hemoglobin, reducing oxygen delivery. This effect is exacerbated in the burned pregnant patient by fetal hemoglobin that binds CO 2.5- to 3-fold stronger than maternal hemoglobin. With no signature clinical symptom, diagnosis depends on patient injury history, elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels, and alterations in mental status. The standard of care for treatment of CO intoxication is 100% normobaric oxygen, which decreases the half-life of CO in the bloodstream from 5 hours to 1 hour...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459183/transcriptional-differences-between-smokers-and-non-smokers-and-variance-by-obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-human-sensitivity-to-environmental-exposures
#3
Maria Nikodemova, Jeremiah Yee, Patrick R Carney, Christopher A Bradfield, Kristen Mc Malecki
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been shown to alter response to air pollution and smoking but underlying biological mechanisms are largely unknown and few studies have explored mechanisms by which obesity increases human sensitivity to environmental exposures. OBJECTIVE: Overall study goals were to investigate whole blood gene expression in smokers and non-smokers to examine associations between cigarette smoke and changes in gene expression by obesity status and test for effect modification...
February 16, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458307/influence-of-environmental-tobacco-smoke-on-morphology-and-functions-of-cardiovascular-system-assessed-using-diagnostic-imaging
#4
Paweł Gać, Małgorzata Poręba, Krystyna Pawlas, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska, Rafał Poręba
Exposure to tobacco smoke is a significant problem of environmental medicine. Tobacco smoke contains over one thousand identified chemicals including numerous toxicants. Cardiovascular system diseases are the major cause of general mortality. The recent development of diagnostic imaging provided methods which enable faster and more precise diagnosis of numerous diseases, also those of cardiovascular system. This paper reviews the most significant scientific research concerning relationship between environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and the morphology and function of cardiovascular system carried out using diagnostic imaging methods, i...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439490/chemical-sensor-systems-and-associated-algorithms-for-fire-detection-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Jordi Fonollosa, Ana Solórzano, Santiago Marco
Indoor fire detection using gas chemical sensing has been a subject of investigation since the early nineties. This approach leverages the fact that, for certain types of fire, chemical volatiles appear before smoke particles do. Hence, systems based on chemical sensing can provide faster fire alarm responses than conventional smoke-based fire detectors. Moreover, since it is known that most casualties in fires are produced from toxic emissions rather than actual burns, gas-based fire detection could provide an additional level of safety to building occupants...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439207/a-casino-goes-smoke-free-a-longitudinal-study-of-secondhand-and-thirdhand-smoke-pollution-and-exposure
#6
Georg E Matt, Penelope J E Quintana, Eunha Hoh, Joy M Zakarian, Zohir Chowdhury, Melbourne F Hovell, Peyton Jacob, Kayo Watanabe, Teaba S Theweny, Victoria Flores, Anh Nguyen, Narinder Dhaliwal, Gary Hayward
BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke (THS). We examined SHS and THS pollution and exposure before and during a casino smoking ban and after smoking resumed. METHODS: A casino was visited nine times over a 15-month period to collect dust, surface and air samples in eight locations. Finger wipe and urine samples were collected from non-smoking confederates before and after a 4-hour casino visit...
February 8, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438954/dietary-intake-and-urinary-metals-among-pregnant-women-in-the-pacific-northwest
#7
Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez, Bizu Gelaye, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Chunfang Qiu, Michelle A Williams
Pregnancy is a period when the mother and her offspring are susceptible to the toxic effects of metals. We investigated associations of intake of frequently consumed foods with urinary metals concentrations among pregnant women in the Pacific Northwest. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd), arsenic (U-As) and molybdenum (U-Mo) concentrations from spot urine samples in early pregnancy (15 weeks of gestation, on average) among 558 women from Seattle and Tacoma, Washington. We assessed periconceptional dietary intake using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434680/predictors-of-anti-vegf-drug-induced-hypertension-using-different-hypertension-criteria-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-comparz-study
#8
Arduino A Mangoni, Ganessan Kichenadasse, Andrew Rowland, Michael J Sorich
Background: There is inconsistency in the criteria used to define anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug-induced hypertension (AVEGF-HT) in published studies. It is unknown whether specific patient characteristics similarly predict AVEGF-HT using different criteria. Methods: We assessed the associations between clinical and demographic factors (n = 22) and AVEGF-HT, using six criteria based on predefined on-treatment blood pressure (BP) thresholds or absolute BP elevations versus baseline, in a post hoc analysis of a phase III trial of 1102 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) randomized to pazopanib or sunitinib (COMPARZ study)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431696/e-cigarette-report-reveals-research-gaps
#9
(no author information available yet)
In a comprehensive analysis of existing studies, the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concluded that electronic cigarettes are addictive, though less toxic than conventional cigarettes. The report also identified key areas for future research, including smoking cessation, adolescent use, and long-term health effects.
February 5, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428304/suitability-of-biomarkers-of-biological-effects-bobes-for-assessing-the-likelihood-of-reducing-the-tobacco-related-disease-risk-by-new-and-innovative-tobacco-products-a-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Gerhard Scherer
The health risk of tobacco smoking can best be avoided or reduced by not taking up or quitting the habit. The use of new and innovative tobacco (NTPs, e.g. electronic cigarettes) can either be an aid for smoking cessation or, for those who are not able or willing to quit, an alternative for smoking conventional tobacco products. Before the use of an NTP can be regarded as an effective approach in tobacco harm reduction (THR), the implicated risk has to be evaluated by suitable toxicological methods such as the analysis of the chemical composition as well as assessment of detrimental effects in animal and in vitro studies...
February 8, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423456/unraveling-mechanisms-of-toxicant-induced-oxidative-stress-in-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Tammy R Dugas
To date, numerous clinical studies examining correlations between oxidative stress biomarkers and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have repeatedly suggested a role for oxidant injury in the pathogenesis of diseases such as atherosclerosis. Despite this, antioxidant supplementation trials have not demonstrated a reduction in disease progression. Nevertheless, small animal and epidemiological studies have linked exposures to certain toxicants with increased CVD risk involving putative oxidative stress mechanisms...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422903/autoantibodies-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Lifang Wen, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Frank Petersen, Xinhua Yu
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation based on obstructive bronchiolitis, emphysema, and chronic pulmonary inflammation. Inhaled toxic gases and particles, e.g., cigarette smoke, are major etiologic factors for COPD, while the pathogenesis of the disease is only partially understood. Over the past decade, an increasing body of evidence has been accumulated for a link between COPD and autoimmunity. Studies with clinical samples have demonstrated that autoantibodies are present in sera of COPD patients and some of these antibodies correlate with specific disease phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417853/challenges-in-the-diagnosis-of-acute-cyanide-poisoning
#13
J L Parker-Cote, J Rizer, J P Vakkalanka, S V Rege, C P Holstege
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to identify isolated acute cyanide poison cases and to identify reported signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Web of Science case reports and series using a number of MeSH descriptors pertaining to cyanide, toxicity, and poisonings. We excluded studies on plants, laboratory analyses, smoke inhalation poisonings, animals as well as non-English language articles and those in which data were not available...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417753/strain-and-sex-dependent-pulmonary-toxicity-of-waterpipe-smoke-in-mouse
#14
Naushad Ahmad Khan, Isaac Kirubakaran Sundar, Irfan Rahman
Waterpipe smoking is emerging as a form of tobacco smoking, but its lung health/risks is not known. It has been shown that different mouse strains show differences in susceptibility to tobacco smoke. However, the effect of waterpipe smoke (WPS) exposure and strain differences in susceptibility to oxidative and inflammatory responses is not known. Here, we showed acute WPS exposure induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mouse strains. WPS exposure induced inflammatory cell influx (neutrophils and T-lymphocytes) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid), which varied among mouse strains...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416638/nicotine-enhanced-stemness-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-tumor-formation-and-growth-in-nude-mice
#15
Tao Li, Jun Zhang, Jiahui Zhang, Nannan Zhang, Yang Zeng, Shengnan Tang, Zehua Tao, Xiying Qu, Jue Jia, Wei Zhu, Xiaochun Sun, Huabiao Chen
Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor in the development and progression of malignant diseases. Nicotine, the major constituent in cigarette smoke, has also shown negative effects on stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely demonstrated to migrate into tumors and play key roles in cancer progression. However, the mechanisms by which nicotine impacts MSCs and tumorigenesis of lung cancer are still undetermined. In this study we investigated the effects of nicotine on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) and the impacts of nicotine-treated hUC-MSCs on tumor formation and progression...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412867/urinary-1-hydroxypyrene-and-smoking-are-determinants-of-line-1-and-ahrr-promoter-methylation-in-coke-oven-workers
#16
Jin Yang, Yanli Liu, Huitao Zhang, Hongjie Zhang, Wubin Wang, Yanfeng Fan
Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominant toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that have been linked to increased risk of lung cancer. Aberrant DNA methylation is one of the best known epigenetic changes in human cancers and healthy subjects exposed to carcinogens. The purpose of this study is to explore the factors influencing the methylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) in coke oven workers...
February 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407794/a-critical-review-of-assays-for-hazardous-components-of-air-pollution
#17
REVIEW
Henry Jay Forman, Caleb Ellicott Finch
Increased mortality and diverse morbidities are globally associated with exposure to ambient air pollution (AAP), cigarette smoke (CS), and household air pollution (HAP). The AAP-CS-HAP aerosols present heterogeneous particulate matter (PM) of diverse chemical and physical characteristics. Some epidemiological models have assumed the same health hazards by PM weight for AAP, CS, and HAP regardless of the composition. While others have recognized that biological activities and toxicity will vary with components, we focus particularly on oxidation because of its major role in assay outcomes...
January 30, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392888/organizing-pneumonia-related-to-electronic-cigarette-use-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Saud Khan, Faisal Khateeb, Jamal Akhtar, Zubair Khan, Amos Lal, Veronika Kholodovych, Jeffrey Hammersley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarettes (e cigarettes) are battery operated devices that produce aerosol by heating a solution typically made up of nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin and flavoring agents. The use of e cigarettes has risen dramatically in recent years especially among adolescents and young adults. These devices have been marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco smoking by their manufactures despite lack of adequate safety data. METHODS: We present a case of 40-year-old female patient who developed significant pulmonary toxicity secondary to e cigarette use and searched existing literature relevant to the case...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388307/chronic-myeloid-leukaemia-and-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy-assessment-and-management-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#19
REVIEW
David M Ross, Chris Arthur, Kate Burbury, Brian S Ko, Anthony K Mills, Jake Shortt, Karam Kostner
Several BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are approved for the first-line treatment of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Disease control is achieved in the vast majority of patients and disease-specific survival is excellent. Consequently, there is now emphasis on managing comorbidities and minimising treatment-related toxicity. Second-generation TKIs have cardiovascular risks that are greater than with imatinib treatment, but these risks must be balanced against the superior CML responses encountered with more potent TKIs...
February 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379386/low-dose-nicotine-exposure-induced-the-oxidative-damage-of-reproductive-organs-and-altered-the-sperm-characteristics-of-adolescent-male-rats
#20
Siti Balkis Budin, Jia Hui Kho, Jia Hui Lee, Anand Ramalingam, Fatin Farhana Jubaidi, Elda Surhaida Latif, Satirah Zainalabidin, Izatus Shima Taib, Jamaludin Mohamed
Background: Nicotine is a major toxic and hazardous component of cigarette smoke, and it has been widely used in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of chronic low-dose nicotine on sperm characteristics and reproductive organ integrity in adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Twelve rats were equally divided into two groups. Group I received normal saline, and group II received 0.6 mg/kg body weight nicotine intraperitoneally for 28 consecutive days...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
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