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Smoke toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224832/e-cigarettes-are-less-toxic-and-safer-than-smoking
#1
(no author information available yet)
E-cigarettes are safer to use than conventional cigarettes, the results of a new study suggest.
February 22, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221959/efficacy-of-ozonation-treatments-of-smoked-fish-for-reducing-its-benzo-a-pyrene-concentration-and-toxicity
#2
Irina Rozentale, Janis Ancans, Elena Bartkiene, Arturs Viksna, Vadims Bartkevics
Ozone is widely used in food processing, for example, to decompose mycotoxins or pesticide residues, to extend the shelf life of products, and for sanitation. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of expanding the application of ozone for oxidative degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The evaluation was conducted by ozonation of a benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) standard solution and smoked fish (sprats) contaminated with PAHs. The effect of ozonation was immediate in the BaP solution; 89% of this toxic compound was decomposed after only 1 min of treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215785/kinetics-of-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-following-waterpipe-smoking-indoors-and-outdoors
#3
Agnes Juhasz, Dalma Pap, Imre Barta, Orsolya Drozdovszky, Andrea Egresi, Balazs Antus
BACKGROUND: Despite accumulating evidence about its adverse health effects, waterpipe tobacco smoking has become very popular among youth. The aim of this study was to compare smoke exposure and the kinetics of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) between waterpipe and cigarette smokers under different conditions. METHODS: Using a cross-over study design, changes in eCO and urinary cotinine levels were measured in a cohort of 32 healthy university students following sessions of waterpipe smoking indoor and outdoor...
February 16, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212633/cooking-smoke-and-respiratory-symptoms-of-restaurant-workers-in-thailand
#4
Chudchawal Juntarawijit, Yuwayong Juntarawijit
BACKGROUND: Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Pho sub-district of Phitsanulok, a province in Thailand...
February 17, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#5
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207203/is-chronic-kidney-disease-an-adverse-factor-in-lung-cancer-clinical-outcome-a-propensity-score-matching-study
#6
Ming-Shian Lu, Miao-Fen Chen, Chien-Chao Lin, Yuan-Hsi Tseng, Yao-Kuang Huang, Hui-Ping Liu, Ying-Huang Tsai
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity has a great impact on lung cancer survival. Renal function status may affect treatment decisions and drug toxicity. The survival outcome in lung cancer patients with coexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been fully evaluated. We hypothesized that CKD is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: A retrospective, propensity-matched study of 434 patients diagnosed between June 2004 and May 2012 was conducted...
February 16, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199947/environmental-biomonitoring-of-essential-and-toxic-elements-in-human-scalp-hair-using-accelerated-microwave-assisted-sample-digestion-and-inductively-coupled-plasma-optical-emission-spectroscopy
#7
Hope Kumakli, A'ja V Duncan, Kiara McDaniel, Tsdale F Mehari, Jamira Stephenson, Lareisha Maple, Zaria Crawford, Calvin L Macemore, Carol M Babyak, Sayo O Fakayode
Human scalp hair samples were collected and used to assess exposure to toxic elements and essential elements in the state of North Carolina, USA using accelerated microwave assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The figures-of-merit of the ICP-OES were appropriate for elemental analysis in scalp hair with detection limits as low as 0.0001 mg/L for Cd, good linearity (R(2) > 0.9978), and percent recoveries that ranged from 96 to 106% for laboratory-fortified-blanks and 88-112% for sample spike recovery study...
February 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198993/a-debate-can-we-recommend-electronic-cigarettes-to-our-patients-opinion-2
#8
Michał Poznański, Tadeusz Pietras, Adam Antczak
Electronic cigarettes are more and more frequently used to deliver nicotine. They are used both by the users of regular cigarettes and those who to date have not smoked. The literature about potential impact of electronic nicotine delivery systems on health is constantly growing. Particular concern is expressed about toxicity of chemical compounds and elements delivered with the vapour of electronic cigarettes. It turns out that products that have positive image in media, actually are not so beneficial. Furthermore, they not only may cause damage to health but also death...
2017: Adv Respir Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193360/a-review-of-rapid-and-field-portable-analytical-techniques-for-the-diagnosis-of-cyanide-exposure
#9
REVIEW
Randy Jackson, Brian A Logue
Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Another relatively common, but consistently overlooked, mode of cyanide exposure is inhalation of fire smoke. Both civilians and fire rescue personnel risk exposure during the unfortunate event of a structure fire...
April 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188891/3-2-deoxy-%C3%AE-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl-pyrimido-1-2-%C3%AE-purin-10-3h-one-deoxyguanosine-adducts-of-workers-exposed-to-asbestos-fibers
#10
Stefano Bonassi, Filippo Cellai, Armelle Munnia, Donatella Ugolini, Alfonso Cristaudo, Monica Neri, Mirta Milić, Alessandra Bonotti, Roger W Giese, Marco E M Peluso
Asbestos is the commercial name for a group of silicate minerals naturally occurring in the environment and widely used in the industry. Asbestos exposure has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis, mesothelioma, and malignancies, which may appear after a period of latency of 20-40 years. Mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic effects of asbestos are still not fully elucidated, although the oxidative stress theory suggests that phagocytic cells produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species, due to their inability to digest asbestos fiber...
February 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186947/survey-of-community-pharmacists-perception-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-london
#11
Ana C N Marques Gomes, Shereen Nabhani-Gebara, Reem Kayyali, Federico Buonocore, Gianpiero Calabrese
OBJECTIVES: To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. SETTING: A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. CONTEXT: E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK...
November 10, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185617/mycobacterium-kansasii
#12
James C Johnston, Leslie Chiang, Kevin Elwood
The incidence of Mycobacterium kansasii varies widely over time and by region, but this organism remains one of the most clinically relevant isolated species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. In contrast to other common nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. kansasii is infrequently isolated from natural water sources or soil. The major reservoir appears to be tap water. Infection is likely acquired through the aerosol route, with low infectivity in regions of endemicity. Human-to-human transmission is thought not to occur...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183434/multigenerational-cohorts-in-patients-with-asthma-and-allergy
#13
S Hasan Arshad, Wilfried Karmaus, Hongmei Zhang, John W Holloway
Recent observations that disease risk can be transmitted across generations without the need for direct exposure of the child to the index environmental insult has sparked interest in transgenerational inheritance. Epigenetics describes processes that modify gene expression without a change in the nucleotide sequence. Epigenetic processes can be induced in response to environmental exposures, can influence disease risk, and might explain these multigenerational effects. In experimental models a number of epigenetic mechanisms have been identified that could mediate vertical transmission of epigenetic inheritance...
February 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181029/smoking-modify-the-effects-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-exposure-on-oxidative-damage-to-dna-in-coke-oven-workers
#14
Jin Yang, Hongjie Zhang, Huitao Zhang, Wubin Wang, Yanli Liu, Yanfeng Fan
PURPOSE: Coke oven emissions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominant toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that have been linked to increased risk of lung cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested that oxidative DNA damage may play a pivotal role in the carcinogenic mechanism of lung cancer. Little is known about the effect of interaction between PAHs exposure and lifestyle on DNA oxidative damage. METHODS: The study population is composed by coke oven workers (365) and water treatment workers (144), and their urinary levels of four PAH metabolites and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined...
February 8, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176665/in-vivo-phenotyping-methods-cytochrome-p450-probes-with-emphasis-on-the-cocktail-approach
#15
Guillermo Alberto Keller, María Laura Ferreirós Gago, Roberto Alejandro Diez, Guillermo Di Girolamo
BACKGROUND: Differences in drug response among patients are common. Most major drugs are effective in only 25 to 60 percent of the patients, in part due to the CYP enzymes, whose activity vary up to 50-fold between individuals for some index metabolic reactions. Several factors affect CYP activity, among which genetic polymorphisms have been studied as the major cause for long time. Age, gender, disease states, and environmental influences such as smoking, concomitant drug treatment or exposure to environmental chemicals are also important...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167231/nicotine-slows-down-oligomerisation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-ameliorates-cytotoxicity-in-a-yeast-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Jay Kardani, Ratnika Sethi, Ipsita Roy
Several retrospective epidemiological reports have indicated an inverse correlation between smoking and development of Parkinson's disease (PD). This has mostly been attributed to the neuroprotective role of nicotine in stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and dopaminergic neurons which are damaged in PD. One of the characteristic features of PD is the intraneuronal deposition of globular inclusions of the intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein as Lewy bodies. Using in vitro and the well-validated yeast cell models, we show that nicotine also exerts a beneficial effect on aggregation of α-synuclein...
February 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162177/-prognostic-factors-for-inability-to-walk-independently-in-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy
#17
Z W Wang, X H Wu, F Qiu, J G Liu, W Yao, M Jiang, S S Wang, Z G Chen, X K Qi
Objective: To explore the prognostic factors for inability to walk independently in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: A total of 123 patients with clinically confirmed MSA admitted to Navy General Hospital and Dongfang Hospital affiliated to the Second Clinical Medical College of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, from February 2013 to February 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data and all records were collected and all subjects were followed up by a telephone call in February 2016...
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161553/lower-incidence-of-esophagitis-in-the-elderly-undergoing-definitive-radiation-therapy-for-lung-cancer
#18
Payal D Soni, Philip S Boonstra, Matthew J Schipper, Latifa Bazzi, Robert T Dess, Martha M Matuszak, Feng-Ming Kong, James A Hayman, Randall K Ten Haken, Theodore S Lawrence, Gregory P Kalemkerian, Shruti Jolly
INTRODUCTION: Most patients with lung cancer are elderly and poorly represented in randomized clinical trials. They are often undertreated because of concerns about their ability to tolerate aggressive treatment. We tested the hypothesis that elderly patients undergoing definitive lung radiation might tolerate treatment differently than younger patients. METHODS: A total of 125 patients who underwent definitive lung radiotherapy were identified from a prospective institutional database (University of Michigan cohort)...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156599/differences-in-perceptions-of-smoking-and-second-hand-smoke-shs-in-palliative-and-nonpalliative-patients-with-cancer
#19
Devon Alton, Jie Su, Yuyao Song, Delaram Farzanfar, Olivia Krys, Tom Yoannidis, Robin Milne, M Catherine Brown, Andrew J Hope, Doris Howell, Jennifer M Jones, Peter Selby, Wei Xu, David Paul Goldstein, Meredith Elana Giuliani, Geoffrey Liu, Lawson Eng
: 251 Background: With improvements in cancer therapies, palliative patients with cancer now enjoy improved and sometimes prolonged survival. Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis negatively impacts treatment response/toxicities, survival and quality of life and is influenced by SHS exposure. Little is known about the perceptions of palliative patients with cancer in comparison to patients who are considered potentially curative, on smoking after a cancer diagnosis and of SHS exposure...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139420/transition-from-ldr-to-hdr-brachytherapy-for-cervical-cancer-evaluation-of-tumor-control-survival-and-toxicity
#20
K D Romano, K J Pugh, D M Trifiletti, B Libby, T N Showalter
PURPOSE: In 2012, our institution transitioned from low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. We report clinical outcomes after brachytherapy for cervical cancer at our institution over a continuous 10-year period. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2004 to 2014, 258 women (184 LDR and 74 HDR) were treated with tandem and ovoid brachytherapy in the multidisciplinary management of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stages IA-IVB cervical cancer...
January 27, 2017: Brachytherapy
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