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Smoke toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027939/nicotine-component-of-cigarette-smoke-extract-cse-decreases-the-cytotoxicity-of-cse-in-beas-2b-cells-stably-expressing-human-cytochrome-p450-2a13
#1
Minghui Ji, Yudong Zhang, Na Li, Chao Wang, Rong Xia, Zhan Zhang, Shou-Lin Wang
Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), an extrahepatic enzyme mainly expressed in the human respiratory system, has been reported to mediate the metabolism and toxicity of cigarette smoke. We previously found that nicotine inhibited 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism by CYP2A13, but its influence on other components of cigarette smoke remains unclear. The nicotine component of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was separated, purified, and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), splitting CSE into a nicotine section (CSE-N) and nicotine-free section (CSE-O)...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027680/determination-of-thiocyanate-as-a-biomarker-of-tobacco-smoke-constituents-in-selected-biological-materials-of-human-origin
#2
Sylwia Narkowicz, Ewa Jaszczak, Żaneta Polkowska, Bogumiła Kiełbratowska, Alicja Kotłowska, Jacek Namieśnik
In order to protect human health, it is necessary to biomonitor toxic substances originating from tobacco smoke in biological materials sampled from the persons with different exposures to tobacco smoke constituents. Thiocyanate anion is a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke components which is characterized by a relatively long half-life in the human body, i.e. 6 days. In this work, we present the results of thiocyanate determinations performed on the samples of placenta, meconium, saliva, breast milk, sweat and blood...
October 13, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021725/prehospital-hydroxocobalamin-for-inhalation-injury-and-cyanide-toxicity-in-the-united-states-analysis-of-a-database-and-survey-of-ems-providers
#3
M V Purvis, H Rooks, J Young Lee, S Longerich, S A Kahn
Prehospital use of hydroxocobalamin as an antidote for cyanide toxicity, a serious complication of smoke inhalation, has yet to be universally adopted in the United States though its efficacy and safety have been demonstrated since 2006. The purpose of this study was to characterize practices of prehospital hydroxocobalamin administration via a survey of emergency medical services (EMS) and to report a case series from an EMS database to track use of hydroxocobalamin. The Fire Smoke Coalition Newsletter emailed a voluntary survey to EMS subscribers regarding hydroxocobalamin use...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994328/th17-treg-immunoregulation-and-implications-in-treatment-of-sulfur-mustard-gas-induced-lung-diseases
#4
Maryam Iman, Ramazan Rezaei, Sadegh Azimzadeh-Jamalkandi, Parvin Shariati, Farrah Kheradmand, Jafar Salimian
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Some of the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis, which include dysregulated lung inflammation, neutrophilia, recruitment of interleukin 17A (IL -17A) expressing CD4(+)T cells (Th17), and the paucity of lung regulatory T cells (Tregs), have also been described in SM-lung...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990896/acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-secondary-to-heroin-inhalation
#5
Damla Eyüpoğlu, Ebru Ortaç Ersoy, Kazım Rollas, Arzu Topeli
Smoking heroin (chasing the dragon), is a method of inhaling heroin via heating the drug on a tin-foil above a flame. It also has been associated both with the indirect effects of heroin overdose and with direct pulmonary toxicity. We describe a case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia secondary to heroin inhalation in our medical intensive care unit. She presented with fever, cough, dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiograph showed bilateral infiltrations. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed significant eosinophilia...
June 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985322/chemical-evaluation-of-electronic-cigarettes-multicomponent-analysis-of-liquid-refills-and-their-corresponding-aerosols
#6
Nicolas Beauval, Sébastien Antherieu, Mélissa Soyez, Nicolas Gengler, Nathalie Grova, Michael Howsam, Emilie M Hardy, Marc Fischer, Brice M R Appenzeller, Jean-François Goossens, Delphine Allorge, Guillaume Garçon, Jean-Marc Lo-Guidice, Anne Garat
Electronic cigarette use has raised concern worldwide regarding potential health risks and its position in tobacco cessation strategies. As part of any toxicity assessment, the chemical characterization of e-liquids and their related vapors are among fundamental data to be determined. Considering the lack of available reference methods, we developed and validated several analytical procedures in order to conduct a multicomponent analysis of six e-liquid refills and their resultant vapor emissions (generated by a smoking machine), and compared them with tobacco smoke...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983782/electronic-cigarettes-their-constituents-and-potential-links-to-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Phillip W Clapp, Ilona Jaspers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982369/lead-poisoning-among-opium-users-in-iran-an-emerging-health-hazard
#8
Mohammad Mahdi Hayatbakhsh, Zohreh Oghabian, Elvira Conlon, Samaneh Nakhaee, Ali Reza Amirabadizadeh, Mohammad Javad Zahedi, Sodief Darvish Moghadam, Bighan Ahmadi, Somayeh Soroush, Jan Aaseth, Omid Mehrpour
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) poisoning among people using opium has been an increasing problem in Iran. The present study highlights the clinical effects of lead toxicity associated with opium use in Iran, Kerman province. METHODS: Between January 2016 and June 2016, patients with signs and symptoms of Pb poisoning were questioned to assess whether they had a history of opium dependency. In total, 249 patients were enrolled onto this cross-sectional study, all were opium dependent...
October 5, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979538/smoke-on-the-water-a-case-report-of-chronic-renal-failure-resulting-from-the-ingestion-of-smoke-machine-fluid
#9
Alice Trimble, Richard Partridge
We report the case of an 18-year-old male admitted to the Intensive Care Unit in Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital, who developed chronic kidney disease following the ingestion of smoke machine fluid. Smoke machine fluid may contain ethylene glycol, and a diagnosis of ethylene glycol toxicity with calcium oxalate nephropathy was made. This case resulted in a National Poisons Information Service internal review of the subject and a new TOXBASE entry for smoke machine fluid ingestion.
February 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971606/methionine-and-vitamin-b-complex-ameliorate-antitubercular-drugs-induced-toxicity-in-exposed-patients
#10
Kennedy I Amagon, Olufunsho Awodele, Abidemi J Akindele
Tuberculosis therapy utilizes drugs that while effective cause treatment-related toxicity. Modulation of antitubercular drugs-induced toxicity by methionine and vitamin B-complex in patients was evaluated. 285 treatment-naïve tuberculosis patients at the Chest Clinics of Infectious Diseases Hospital, Yaba and General Hospital, Lagos in Lagos, Nigeria was prospectively recruited and allotted into test (antitubercular medicines, methionine and vitamin B-complex) and control groups (antitubercular medicines)...
October 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966952/dual-use-of-cigarettes-little-cigars-cigarillos-and-large-cigars-smoking-topography-and-toxicant-exposure
#11
Wallace B Pickworth, Zachary R Rosenberry, Kevin E O'Grady, Bartosz Koszowski
OBJECTIVE: Smoking topography variables and toxicant exposure (plasma nicotine and exhaled CO) were examined in 3 groups of study participants that smoked both cigarettes and either filtered little cigars (Winchester), cigarillos (Black & Mild), or large cigars (Phillies Blunt). METHODS: Laboratory ad lib smoking of the cigar products was collected with a smoking puff analyzer; plasma levels of nicotine and exhaled CO were collected before and after smoking. RESULTS: Although there were no statistically significant differences in demographic and cigarette smoking topography among the groups, there were significant differences in how the different cigar products were smoked...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961439/chemical-characterization-and-safety-assessment-of-dokha-an-emerging-alternative-tobacco-product
#12
Yehya Elsayed, Sarah Dalibalta, Maissam El Kouche
Dokha is known to be one of the most rapidly spreading alternative tobacco products (ATPs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It is smoked using a pipe known as Midwakh. There is no scientific research published on the chemical composition of dokha and only very little was done to investigate its impact on human health. Three different types of dokha were included in this study. The trace metals content in the dokha samples were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-scanning electron microscope...
September 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961314/key-issues-surrounding-the-health-impacts-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-ends-and-other-sources-of-nicotine
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey Drope, Zachary Cahn, Rosemary Kennedy, Alex C Liber, Michal Stoklosa, Rosemarie Henson, Clifford E Douglas, Jacqui Drope
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Over the last decade, the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including the electronic cigarette or e-cigarette, has grown rapidly. More youth now use ENDS than any tobacco product. This extensive research review shows that there are scientifically sound, sometimes competing arguments about ENDS that are not immediately and/or completely resolvable. However, the preponderance of the scientific evidence to date suggests that current-generation ENDS products are demonstrably less harmful than combustible tobacco products such as conventional cigarettes in several key ways, including by generating far lower levels of carcinogens and other toxic compounds than combustible products or those that contain tobacco...
September 29, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961214/cadmium-and-cadmium-zinc-ratios-and-tobacco-related-morbidities
#14
REVIEW
Patricia Richter, Obaid Faroon, R Steven Pappas
Metals are one of five major categories of carcinogenic or toxic constituents in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Cadmium is highly volatile and a higher percentage of the total tobacco cadmium content is efficiently transferred to mainstream tobacco smoke than many other toxic metals in tobacco. Inhaled cadmium bioaccumulates in the lungs and is distributed beyond the lungs to other tissues, with a total body biological half-life of one to two decades. Chronic cadmium exposure through tobacco use elevates blood and urine cadmium concentrations...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961056/protective-effects-of-memantine-on-hydroquinone-treated-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-human-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells
#15
Mohamed Tarek Moustafa, Claudio Ramirez, Kevin Schneider, Shari R Atilano, Gloria Astrid Limb, Baruch D Kuppermann, Maria Cristina Kenney
PURPOSE: Memantine (MEM) acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. The role that MEM plays in protecting retinal cells is unknown. Hydroquinone (HQ) is one of the cytotoxic components in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we tested whether pretreatment with MEM could protect against the cytotoxic effects of HQ on human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) and human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1) in vitro. METHODS: Cells were plated, pretreated for 6 h with 30 μM of MEM, and then exposed for 24 h to 200, 100, 50, and 25 μM of HQ while MEM was still present...
October 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959653/p-benzoquinone-initiates-non-invasive-urothelial-cancer-through-aberrant-tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-egfr-map-kinase-activation-and-cell-cycle-deregulation-prevention-by-vitamin-c
#16
Shinjini Ganguly, Ayan Chandra, Dhruba J Chattopadhyay, Indu B Chatterjee
According to WHO classification system, non-invasive urothelial carcinoma represents urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS) and dysplasia. Dysplastic urothelium often progresses to CIS that further advances to urothelial carcinoma (UC). The strongest risk factor for UC is cigarette smoking. However, the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced UC is poorly understood. Earlier we had shown that p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), a major toxic quinone derived from p-benzosemiquinone of CS in vivo, is a causative factor for various CS-induced diseases...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959625/human-health-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-smoked-fish-species-from-markets-in-southern-nigeria
#17
Isioma Tongo, Ozekeke Ogbeide, Lawrence Ezemonye
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in four commonly consumed smoked fish species from markets in Southern Nigeria were assessed to evaluate possible human health risks associated with consumption. Varying levels of PAH congeners were observed in the fish tissues with the highest total concentration of PAHs in Scomber scombrus. High concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene was observed in Clarias gariepinus and Ethmalosa fimbriata with values above the guideline value of 0.05 mg/kg. The Dietary Daily Intake (DDI) value for total PAHs (∑PAHs) was highest for S...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954704/assessing-modified-risk-tobacco-and-nicotine-products-description-of-the-scientific-framework-and-assessment-of-a-closed-modular-electronic-cigarette
#18
James Murphy, Marianna Gaca, Frazer Lowe, Emmanuel Minet, Damien Breheny, Krishna Prasad, Oscar Camacho, Ian M Fearon, Chuan Liu, Christopher Wright, Kevin McAdam, Christopher Proctor
Cigarette smoking causes many human diseases including cardiovascular disease, lung disease and cancer. Novel tobacco products with reduced yields of toxicants compared to cigarettes, such as tobacco-heating products, snus and electronic cigarettes, hold great potential for reducing the harms associated with tobacco use. In the UK several public health agencies have advocated a potential role for novel products in tobacco harm reduction. Public Health England has stated that "The current best estimate is that e-cigarettes are around 95% less harmful than smoking" and the Royal College of Physicians has urged public health to "Promote e-cigarettes widely as substitute for smoking"...
September 22, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954055/the-impact-of-tobacco-additives-on-cigarette-smoke-toxicity-a-critical-appraisal-of-tobacco-industry-studies
#19
REVIEW
Francisco José Roma Paumgartten, Maria Regina Gomes-Carneiro, Ana Cecilia Amado Xavier de Oliveira
Cigarette production involves a number of substances and materials other than just tobacco, paper and a filter. Tobacco additives include flavorings, enhancers, humectants, sugars, and ammonium compounds. Although companies maintain that tobacco additives do not enhance smoke toxicity and do not make cigarettes more attractive or addictive, these claims are questioned by independent researchers. This study reviewed the studies on the effects of tobacco additives on smoke chemistry and toxicity. Tobacco additives lead to higher levels of formaldehyde and minor changes in other smoke analytes...
September 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948455/trace-elements-in-blood-samples-of-smoker-and-nonsmoker-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-from-jamshoro-pakistan
#20
Zainab Manzoor Memon, Erkan Yilmaz, Afsheen Mushtaque Shah, Ugur Sahin, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Bikha Ram Devrajani, Mustafa Soylak
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a serious public threat throughout the world. PTB and smoking have a strong correlation. Malnutrition, poverty, addiction, overcrowding, illiteracy, unemployment, and poor hygienic conditions are the collective aspects for the disease progress. Pakistan is the fifth among 22 high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries and the fourth regarding multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of study was to determine the concentration of essential and toxic elements from blood samples of smoker and nonsmoker PTB patients by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) followed by microwave acid digestion and compared with control subjects (n = 30)...
September 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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