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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681931/development-of-a-physiological-frailty-index-for-the-world-trade-center-general-responder-cohort
#1
Ghalib A Bello, Roberto G Lucchini, Susan L Teitelbaum, Moshe Shapiro, Michael A Crane, Andrew C Todd
Responders to the 9/11/2001 WTC attacks were exposed to multiple toxic pollutants. Since 2002, the health of the responder cohort has been continuously tracked by the WTC Health Monitoring Program. However, no assessments have been made of frailty, an important health metric given the current average age of the WTC responder cohort (55 years). In this study, we use laboratory test results and other physiological parameters to construct a physiological frailty index (FI-Lab) for this cohort. The study sample comprised responders aged 40 years or older who completed a health monitoring visit at Mount Sinai Center within the past 5 years...
2018: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678746/thirdhand-smoke-component-can-exacerbate-a-mouse-asthma-model-via-mast-cells
#2
Mang Yu, Kaori Mukai, Mindy Tsai, Stephen J Galli
BACKGROUND: Thirdhand smoke (THS) represents the accumulation of secondhand smoke on indoor surfaces and in dust, which, over time, can become more toxic than secondhand smoke. Although it is well known that children of smokers are at increased risk for developing asthma and for exacerbation of that disease if they already have it, how exposure to THS may influence the development or exacerbation of asthma remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether epicutaneous exposure to an important component of THS, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), can influence asthma pathology in a model elicited in mice by repeated intranasal challenge with cockroach antigen (CRA)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676648/global-tobacco-use-old-and-new-products
#3
Ana Navas-Acien
Tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke remain major but avoidable causes of premature mortality and disease worldwide. Although the age-standardized prevalence of daily smoking has declined for both men and women in many countries, the number of smokers continues to increase because of global population growth. Although cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product, the tobacco epidemic has become tremendously complex with the emergence and popularity of alternative products such as waterpipes and electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes)...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676630/international-approach-to-environmental-and-lung-health-a-perspective-from-the-fogarty-international-center
#4
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674239/relationship-between-domestic-smoking-and-metals-and-rare-earth-elements-concentration-in-indoor-pm-2-5
#5
Gaspare Drago, Cinzia Perrino, Silvia Canepari, Silvia Ruggieri, Luca L'Abbate, Valeria Longo, Paolo Colombo, Daniele Frasca, Martin Balzan, Giuseppina Cuttitta, Gianluca Scaccianoce, Giuseppe Piva, Salvatore Bucchieri, Mario Melis, Giovanni Viegi, Fabio Cibella, Martin Balzan, David Bilocca, Charles Borg, Stephen Montefort, Christopher Zammit, Salvatore Bucchieri, Fabio Cibella, Paolo Colombo, Giuseppina Cuttitta, Gaspare Drago, Giuliana Ferrante, Luca L'Abbate, Stefania La Grutta, Valeria Longo, Mario R Melis, Silvia Ruggieri, Giovanni Viegi, Remo Minardi, Giuseppe Piva, Rosaria Ristagno, Gianfranco Rizzo, Gianluca Scaccianoce
Cigarette smoke is the main source of indoor chemical and toxic elements. Cadmium (Cd), Thallium (Tl), Lead (Pb) and Antimony (Sb) are important contributors to smoke-related health risks. Data on the association between Rare Earth Elements (REE) Cerium (Ce) and Lanthanum (La) and domestic smoking are scanty. To evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoke, indoor levels of PM2.5 and heavy metals, 73 children were investigated by parental questionnaire and skin prick tests. The houses of residence of 41 "cases" and 32 "controls" (children with and without respiratory symptoms, respectively) were evaluated by 48-h PM2...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673384/prognostic-factors-of-radiation-dermatitis-following-passive-scattering-proton-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#6
Xiaoying Liang, Julie A Bradley, Dandan Zheng, Michael Rutenberg, Daniel Yeung, Nancy Mendenhall, Zuofeng Li
BACKGROUND: To identify prognostic factors for grade 3 radiation dermatitis following passive-scattering proton therapy for breast cancer. METHODS: This retrospective study included data on 23 (11 post-mastectomy and 12 post-lumpectomy) breast cancer patients who underwent proton therapy with the passive scattering technique in our institute from 2012 to 2016. Each patient received 50-50.4 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) at 1.8 or 2 CGE per daily fraction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors for grade 3 skin toxicity...
April 19, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670654/toxicities-associated-with-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-in-long-term-testicular-cancer-survivors
#7
REVIEW
Chunkit Fung, Paul Dinh, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Kerry Schaffer, Sophie D Fossa, Lois B Travis
Testicular cancer has become the paradigm of adult-onset cancer survivorship, due to the young age at diagnosis and 10-year relative survival of 95%. This clinical review presents the current status of various treatment-related complications experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCS) free of disease for 5 or more years after primary treatment. Cardiovascular disease and second malignant neoplasms represent the most common potentially life-threatening late effects. Other long-term adverse outcomes include neuro- and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, nephrotoxicity, hypogonadism, infertility, and avascular necrosis...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669439/predictive-value-of-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-complexes-oxldl-%C3%AE-2-gpi-in-nonautoimmune-atherothrombosis
#8
Paul R J Ames, Giuseppe Di Girolamo, Giovanna D'Andrea, Luis R Lopez, Giovanni Gaeta, Luigi Iannaccone, Maurizio Maraglione
INTRODUCTION: Lipid oxidation is a definite feature of atherosclerosis, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is not only highly immunogenic but toxic to several cell types. Beta-2-glycoprotein-I (β2 GPI) dampens oxLDL toxicity by forming binary oxLDL/β2 GPI complexes. We evaluated whether circulating oxLDL/β2 GPI complexes are associated to atherosclerosis-related events (ARE) and to venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: In a cross-sectional case-control study, cases were (a) 57 consecutive patients (male/female [M/F] 33/24, mean age 57 [10] years) attending a thrombosis unit for ARE (myocardial infarction [MI] n = 20, peripheral vascular disease n = 7, and ischemic strokes n = 30); (b) 52 consecutive patients (M/F 22/30, mean age 55 [17] years) attending the same unit for unprovoked (VTE); (c) normal controls comprised 90 participants (M/F 35/55, mean age 41 [15] years); and (d) oxLDL/β2 GPI complexes were measured by immunoassay and resulting levels divided into quartiles...
January 1, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665082/e-cigarettes-voltage-and-concentration-dependent-loss-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-viability
#9
Michał Otręba, Leon Kośmider, Jakub Knysak, Jared D Warncke, Andrzej Sobczak
E-cigarettes are used by millions of people despite the fact that the harmful effect of aerosol emitted from these products to the human organism is still not clear. In this paper, toxicity of vapor generated using different solutions and battery output voltage on A549 cells viability is presented. The obtained EC50 values for commercially available propylene glycol/glycerol solution 1:1 e-liquids based on 3.2 V (0.127%), 4.0 V (0.112%) and 4.8 V (0.038%) were about 1.5-4.5 times higher than in tobacco smoke (0...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658714/activation-of-trpv3-by-wood-smoke-particles-and-roles-in-pneumotoxicity
#10
Cassandra Deering-Rice, Nam Nguyen, Zhenyu Lu, James Cox, Darien Shapiro, Erin G Romero, Virginia K Mitchell, Katherine L Burrell, John M Veranth, Christopher A Reilly
Wood/biomass smoke particulate materials (WBSPM) are pneumotoxic, but mechanisms by which these materials affect lung cells are not fully understood. We previously identified transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin-1 as a sensor for electrophiles in WBSPM and hypothesized that other TRP channels expressed by lung cells might also be activated by WBSPM, contributing to pneumotoxicity. Screening TRP channel activation by WBSPM using calcium flux assays revealed TRPV3 activation by materials obtained from burning multiple types of wood under fixed conditions...
April 16, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658611/effects-of-nicotine-on-the-metabolism-and-gene-expression-profile-of-sprague%C3%A2-dawley-rat-primary-osteoblasts
#11
Dan Liang, Ke-Jing Wang, Zhi-Qun Tang, Run-He Liu, Fulei Zeng, Miao-Ying Cheng, Qi-Si Lian, Hong-Kun Wu
Smoking is a risk factor associated with bone and oral diseases, particularly periodontitis. Nicotine, the major toxic component of tobacco, is able to affect the quality and quantity of bone. Osteoblasts serve an important role in bone formation. Thus far, the effects of nicotine on metabolism‑associated gene and protein expression in osteoblasts have been controversial and the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study assessed alterations in osteogenic activity by performing a Cell Counting kit‑8 assay to investigate proliferation, Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining to investigate apoptosis, alizarin red staining to investigate the formation of mineralized nodules, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting to investigate the mRNA and protein levels of collagen I, alkaline phosphatase, bone osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin; and mRNA microarray expression analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology analysis to investigate the whole genome expression profile of Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rat primary osteoblasts following treatment with different concentrations of nicotine...
April 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657376/smoke-inhalation-injury-etiopathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Kapil Gupta, Mayank Mehrotra, Parul Kumar, Anoop Raj Gogia, Arun Prasad, Joseph Arnold Fisher
Smoke inhalation injury is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in fire victims. It is a complex multifaceted injury affecting initially the airway; however, in short time, it can become a complex life-threatening systemic disease affecting every organ in the body. In this review, we provide a summary of the underlying pathophysiology of organ dysfunction and provide an up-to-date survey of the various critical care modalities that have been found beneficial in caring for these patients. Major pathophysiological change is development of edema in the respiratory tract...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656633/flavors-of-fire-assessing-the-relative-toxicity-of-smoke-from-different-types-of-wildfires
#13
Nate Seltenrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648477/acute-intensive-care-unit-management-of-mustard-gas-victims-the-turkish-experience
#14
Ertugrul Kilic, Mesut Ortatatli, Sermet Sezigen, Rusen Koray Eyison, Levent Kenar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims. Thirteen Free Syrian Army soldiers near Al-Bab region of North Syria were reportedly exposed to oily blackish smoke with garlic smell due to the explosion of a trapped bomb without causing any blast or thermal effect on 26th November 2016...
April 12, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644536/cigarette-smoke-and-nicotine-effects-on-brain-proinflammatory-responses-and-behavioral-and-motor-function-in-hiv-1-transgenic-rats
#15
Walter Royal, Adem Can, Todd D Gould, Ming Guo, Jared Huse, Myles Jackson, Harry Davis, Joseph Bryant
Cognitive impairment in HIV-1 infection is associated with the induction of chronic proinflammatory responses in the brains of infected individuals. The risk of HIV-related cognitive impairment is increased by cigarette smoking, which induces brain inflammation in rodent models. To better understand the role of smoking and the associated immune response on behavioral and motor function in HIV infection, wild-type F344 and HIV-1 transgenic (HIV1Tg) rats were exposed to either smoke from nicotine-containing (regular) cigarettes, smoke from nicotine-free cigarettes, or to nicotine alone...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621723/persistent-organic-pollutants-as-predictors-of-increased-fsh-lh-ratio-in-naturally-cycling-reproductive-age-women
#16
Mia V Gallo, Julia Ravenscroft, David O Carpenter, Lawrence M Schell, Akwesasne Task Force On The Environment
Although several recent studies suggest endocrine disrupting compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p', DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), target different organs and systems in the body, their impact on female reproductive function in humans is not well characterized. We seek to determine the relationship between several known endocrine disrupting compounds and a marker of ovarian responsivity, the FSH:LH ratio (higher ratio indicates less ovarian responsivity)...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615835/the-effect-of-electronic-cigarette-and-tobacco-smoke-exposure-on-copd-bronchial-epithelial-cell-inflammatory-responses
#17
Andrew Higham, Declan Bostock, George Booth, Josiah V Dungwa, Dave Singh
Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are used to help smoking cessation. However, these devices contain harmful chemicals, and there are safety concerns. We have investigated the effects of e-cigs on the inflammatory response and viability of COPD bronchial epithelial cells (BECs). Methods: BECs from COPD patients and controls were exposed to e-cig vapor extract (ECVE) and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8), and lactate dehydrogenase release were measured...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614795/full-atrioventricular-block-secondary-to-acute-poisoning-mercury-a-case-report
#18
Amelia Geraldine Peregrina-Chávez, María Del Rayo Ramírez-Galindo, Rolando Chávez-Martínez, Cesar Anuar Delahanty-Delgado, Fernando Vazquez-Alaniz
Background: The biological behaviour and clinical significance of mercury toxicity vary according to its chemical structure. Mercury differs in its degree of toxicity and in its effects on the nervous, digestive and immune systems as well as on organs such as the lungs, kidneys, skin, eyes and heart. Human exposure occurs mainly through inhalation of elemental mercury vapours during industrial and artisanal processes such as artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Case presentation: A 52-years-old female, housewife, with a body mass index of 25...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611609/prevalence-of-chronic-obstructive-respiratory-diseases-amongst-fishermen
#19
Omar Laraqui, Reda Hammouda, Salwa Laraqui, Nadia Manar, Tarik Ghailan, Jaouda Ben Amor, Frédéric Deschamps, Chakib El Houssine Laraqui
BACKGROUND: The objective was to screen and evaluate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and obstructive ventilatory defects among fishermen in Morocco. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational and cross-sectional epidemiological study involved 924 men over 20 years old and with at least two years of seniority. It included a questionnaire and a spirometry. The questionnaire is composed of four sections: sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, toxic habits, medical history and respiratory clinical symptoms...
2018: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611127/the-levels-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-human-milk-and-exposure-risk-to-breastfed-infants-in-petrochemical-industrialized-lanzhou-valley-northwest-china
#20
Li Wang, Aiping Liu, Yuan Zhao, Xi Mu, Tao Huang, Hong Gao, Jianmin Ma
We investigated in this paper the presence of PAHs in human milk from lactating women residing in Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized valley city in Northwest China. The PAH concentration levels in human milk samples from 98 healthy women were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The associations between the lifestyle factors and the PAHs levels of human milk were analyzed. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) method to gain a better insight into the similarities or dissimilarities of the human milk PAH loads and different pathways of source exposure...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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