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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455408/frequency-and-treatment-of-hydrocephalus-prior-to-and-after-posterior-fossa-tumor-surgery-in-adult-patients
#1
Sascha Marx, Maresa Reinfelder, Marc Matthes, Henry W S Schroeder, Joerg Baldauf
BACKGROUND: There is paucity of information about the frequency of hydrocephalus prior to and after posterior fossa tumor surgery in adult patients and about the best way it should be managed. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of hydrocephalus prior to and after posterior fossa tumor surgery in adult patients as well as the value of an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) prior to posterior fossa tumor surgery with regard to the rate of perioperative complications and persistent hydrocephalus...
February 17, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452995/immune-barriers-of-ebola-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Anita K McElroy, Elke Mühlberger, César Muñoz-Fontela
Since its initial emergence in 1976 in northern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ebola virus (EBOV) has been a global health concern due to its virulence in humans, the mystery surrounding the identity of its host reservoir and the unpredictable nature of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Early after the first clinical descriptions of a disease resembling a 'septic-shock-like syndrome', with coagulation abnormalities and multi-system organ failure, researchers began to evaluate the role of the host immune response in EVD pathophysiology...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452047/lessons-learned-from-ebola-vaccine-r-d-during-a-public-health-emergency
#3
Marie-Paule Kieny
In spite of a complete lack of Research and Development (R&D) preparedness, the 2013-2016 West-Africa Ebola experience demonstrated that it is possible to compress R&D timelines to less than a single year, from a more usual decade or longer. This is mostly to be credited to an unprecedented collaborative effort building on the availability of a small number of candidate diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines that could be moved rapidly into the clinical phase evaluation. The World Health Organization (WHO) led international consultations and activities - including the organization of a successful Ebola vaccine efficacy trial in Guinea - as a contribution to the unprecedented global efforts to control the Ebola epidemic...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439682/the-factors-affecting-household-transmission-dynamics-and-community-compliance-with-ebola-control-measures-a-mixed-methods-study-in-a-rural-village-in-sierra-leone
#4
Grazia Caleo, Jennifer Duncombe, Freya Jephcott, Kamalini Lokuge, Clair Mills, Evita Looijen, Fivi Theoharaki, Ronald Kremer, Karline Kleijer, James Squire, Manjo Lamin, Beverley Stringer, Helen A Weiss, Daniel Culli, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Jane Greig
BACKGROUND: Little is understood of Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission dynamics and community compliance with control measures over time. Understanding these interactions is essential if interventions are to be effective in future outbreaks. We conducted a mixed-methods study to explore these factors in a rural village that experienced sustained EVD transmission in Kailahun District, Sierra Leone. METHODS: We reconstructed transmission dynamics using a cross-sectional survey conducted in April 2015, and cross-referenced our results with surveillance, burial, and Ebola Management Centre (EMC) data...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435351/the-impact-of-the-2014-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-liberia-on-parent-preferences-for-harsh-discipline-practices-a-quasi-experimental-pre-post-design
#5
Eric Green, Rhea M Chase, John Zayzay, Amy Finnegan, Eve S Puffer
Background: This paper uses data from a cohort of parents and guardians of young children living in Monrovia, Liberia collected before and after the 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) to estimate the impact of EVD exposure on implicit preferences for harsh discipline. We hypothesized that parents exposed to EVD-related sickness or death would exhibit a stronger preference for harsh discipline practices compared with non-exposed parents. Methods: The data for this analysis come from two survey rounds conducted in Liberia as part of an intervention trial of a behavioral parenting skills intervention...
2018: Global Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432085/training-peers-to-treat-ebola-centre-workers-with-anxiety-and-depression-in-sierra-leone
#6
Samantha Waterman, Elaine Catherine Margaret Hunter, Charles L Cole, Lauren Jayne Evans, Neil Greenberg, G James Rubin, Alison Beck
BACKGROUND: Following the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, the UK Department for International Development funded South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) to develop a psychological intervention that ex-Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) staff could be trained to deliver to their peers to improve mental health in Sierra Leone. AIM: The two key aims were to assess the feasibility of training a national team to deliver a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based group intervention, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the overall intervention within this population...
March 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429544/ebola-virus-localization-in-the-macaque-reproductive-tract-during-acute-ebola-virus-disease
#7
Donna L Perry, Louis M Huzella, John G Bernbaum, Michael R Holbrook, Peter B Jahrling, Katie R Hagen, Matthias J Schnell, Reed F Johnson
Sexual transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) has been demonstrated more than a year after recovery from the acute phase of Ebola virus disease (EVD). The mechanisms underlying EBOV persistence and sexual transmission are not currently understood. Using the acute macaque model of EVD, we hypothesized EBOV would infect the reproductive tissues and sought to localize the infection in these tissues using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. In four female and eight male macaques that succumbed to EVD between 6 and 9 days after EBOV challenge, we demonstrate widespread EBOV infection of the interstitial tissues and endothelium in the ovary, uterus, testis, seminal vesicle, epididymis, and prostate gland, with minimal associated tissue immune response or organ pathology...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421463/unintended-consequences-of-the-bushmeat-ban-in-west-africa-during-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-epidemic
#8
Jesse Bonwitt, Michael Dawson, Martin Kandeh, Rashid Ansumana, Foday Sahr, Hannah Brown, Ann H Kelly
Following the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa, governments across the region imposed a ban on the hunting and consumption of meat from wild animals. This injunction was accompanied by public health messages emphasising the infectious potential of wild meat, or 'bushmeat.' Using qualitative methods, we examine the local reception and impact of these interventions. Fieldwork was focused in 9 villages in the Eastern and Southern provinces of Sierra Leone between August and December 2015...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413730/healthcare-associated-ventriculitis-and-meningitis-in-a-neuro-icu-incidence-and-risk-factors-selected-by-machine-learning-approach
#9
Ivan Savin, Ksenia Ershova, Nataliya Kurdyumova, Olga Ershova, Oleg Khomenko, Gleb Danilov, Michael Shifrin, Vladimir Zelman
PURPOSE: To define the incidence of healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (HAVM) in the neuro-ICU and to identify HAVM risk factors using tree-based machine learning (ML) algorithms. METHODS: An observational cohort study was conducted in Russia from 2010 to 2017, and included high-risk neuro-ICU patients. We utilized relative risk analysis, regressions, and ML to identify factors associated with HAVM development. RESULTS: 2286 patients of all ages were included, 216 of them had HAVM...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410863/ebola-could-be-eradicated-through-voluntary-vaccination
#10
Andrew Brettin, Rosa Rossi-Goldthorpe, Kyle Weishaar, Igor V Erovenko
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe infection with an extremely high fatality rate spread through direct contact with body fluids. A promising Ebola vaccine (rVSV-ZEBOV) may soon become universally available. We constructed a game-theoretic model of Ebola incorporating individual decisions to vaccinate. We found that if a population adopts selfishly optimal vaccination strategies, then the population vaccination coverage falls negligibly short of the herd immunity level. We concluded that eradication of Ebola is feasible if voluntary vaccination programmes are coupled with focused public education efforts...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405115/clinical-manifestations-and-modes-of-death-among-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-monrovia-liberia-2014
#11
Linda M Mobula, Nathalie MacDermott, Clive Hoggart, Kent Brantly, Lance Plyler, Jerry Brown, Bev Kauffeldt, Deborah Eisenhut, Lisa A Cooper, John Fankhauser
Although the high case fatality rate (CFR) associated with Ebola virus disease (EVD) is well documented, there are limited data on the actual modes of death. We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study among patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD. The patients were all seen at the Eternal Love Winning Africa Ebola Treatment Unit in Monrovia, Liberia, from June to August 2014. Our primary objective was to describe the modes of death of our patients and to determine predictors of mortality. Data were available for 53 patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD, with a median age of 35 years...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393841/the-infectious-disease-network-idn-development-and-use-for-evaluation-of-potential-ebola-cases-in-georgia
#12
Alezandria K Turner, Robert K Wages, Kelly Nadeau, Laura Edison, Peki F Prince, Earnest R Doss, Cherie Drenzek, Patrick O'Neal
In response to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, the Georgia Department of Public Health developed the Infectious Disease Network (IDN) based on an EVD preparedness needs assessment of hospitals and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers. The network consists of 12 hospitals and 16 EMS providers with staff specially trained to provide a coordinated response and utilize appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the transport or treatment of a suspected or confirmed serious communicable disease patient...
February 2, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393813/reinfection-after-treatment-of-first-cerebrospinal-fluid-shunt-infection-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#13
Tamara D Simon, Matthew P Kronman, Kathryn B Whitlock, Nancy E Gove, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett, Samuel R Browd, D Douglas Cochrane, Richard Holubkov, Abhaya V Kulkarni, Marcie Langley, David D Limbrick, Thomas G Luerssen, W Jerry Oakes, Jay Riva-Cambrin, Curtis Rozzelle, Chevis Shannon, Mandeep Tamber, John C Wellons, William E Whitehead, John R W Kestle
OBJECTIVE CSF shunt infection requires both surgical and antibiotic treatment. Surgical treatment includes either total shunt removal with external ventricular drain (EVD) placement followed by new shunt insertion, or distal shunt externalization followed by new shunt insertion once the CSF is sterile. Antibiotic treatment includes the administration of intravenous antibiotics. The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) registry provides a unique opportunity to understand reinfection following treatment for CSF shunt infection...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386105/active-ebola-virus-replication-and-heterogeneous-evolutionary-rates-in-evd-survivors
#14
Shannon L M Whitmer, Jason T Ladner, Michael R Wiley, Ketan Patel, Gytis Dudas, Andrew Rambaut, Foday Sahr, Karla Prieto, Samuel S Shepard, Ellie Carmody, Barbara Knust, Dhamari Naidoo, Gibrilla Deen, Pierre Formenty, Stuart T Nichol, Gustavo Palacios, Ute Ströher
Following cessation of continuous Ebola virus (EBOV) transmission within Western Africa, sporadic EBOV disease (EVD) cases continued to re-emerge beyond the viral incubation period. Epidemiological and genomic evidence strongly suggests that this represented transmission from EVD survivors. To investigate whether persistent infections are characterized by ongoing viral replication, we sequenced EBOV from the semen of nine EVD survivors and a subset of corresponding acute specimens. EBOV evolutionary rates during persistence were either similar to or reduced relative to acute infection rates...
January 30, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364007/complication-rates-of-external-ventricular-drain-insertion-by-surgeons-of-different-experience
#15
J Yuen, W Selbi, S Muquit, T Berei
Introduction Insertion of external ventricular drain (EVD) is a widely accepted, routinely performed procedure for treatment of hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a surgeon's experience affects the associated complication rate. Methods This retrospective study included all adult patients undergoing EVD insertion at a single centre between July 2013 and June 2015. Medical records were retrieved to obtain details on patient demographics, surgical indication, risk factors for infection and use of anticoagulants or antiplatelets...
January 24, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361403/structure-based-virtual-screening-of-the-ebola-virus-trimeric-glycoprotein-using-consensus-scoring
#16
Abdulmujeeb T Onawole, Temitope U Kolapo, Kazeem O Sulaiman, Rukayat O Adegoke
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes zoonotic viral infection with a potential risk of global spread and a highly fatal effect on humans. Till date, no drug has gotten market approval for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD), and this perhaps allows the use of both experimental and computational approaches in the antiviral drug discovery process. The main target of potential vaccines that are recently undergoing clinical trials is trimeric glycoprotein (GP) of the EBOV and its exact crystal structure was used in this structure based virtual screening study, with the aid of consensus scoring to select three possible hit compounds from about 36 million compounds in MCULE's database...
November 22, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350145/development-of-a-pediatric-ebola-predictive-score-sierra-leone1
#17
Felicity Fitzgerald, Kevin Wing, Asad Naveed, Musa Gbessay, J C G Ross, Francesco Checchi, Daniel Youkee, Mohamed Boie Jalloh, David E Baion, Ayeshatu Mustapha, Hawanatu Jah, Sandra Lako, Shefali Oza, Sabah Boufkhed, Reynold Feury, Julia Bielicki, Elizabeth Williamson, Diana M Gibb, Nigel Klein, Foday Sahr, Shunmay Yeung
We compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone during August 2014-March 2015 and performed multivariable logistic regression. Among 1,054 children, 309 (29%) were EVD positive and 697 (66%) EVD negative, with 48 (5%) missing. Contact history, conjunctivitis, and age were the strongest positive predictors for EVD...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346831/postoperative-reduction-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-volume-single-versus-dual-catheter-drainage
#18
Syed Shahzad Hussain, Asif Raza, Saman Shahid, Hafiz Hamza Asif, Usman Ahmad, Naveed Ashraf
BACKGROUND/AIMS:  The use of single/dual external ventricular drains (EVD) for reducing intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is under investigation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare postoperative reduction of IVH volume using single- and dual-catheter drainage in spontaneous IVH patients. We investigated factors that may influence an effective hematoma volume reduction by EVDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  The average cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage volumes were analyzed...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341945/lessons-about-causes-and-management-of-an-ebola-outbreak
#19
Aida Elargoubi, Anis W Belhaj Khelifa, Ons Haddad, Salma Mhalla, Nabil Sakly, Maha Mastouri
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the deadliest viral diseases. It is characterized by a high mortality rate due to the lack of effective and safe treatments or vaccines and its ability to spread at an unstoppable pace. The West Africa outbreak ended but the disease may strike again at any time. The latest epidemic was, by far, the deadliest to date. The most concern was why this outbreak was so different from the previous ones. We proposed in this review firstly to summarize the principal causes of its unprecedented spread and secondly to identify the steps for an effective management approach of a future Ebola outbreak...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329455/serologic-evidence-of-ebolavirus-infection-in-a-population-with-no-history-of-outbreaks-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#20
Sabue Mulangu, Vivian H Alfonso, Nicole A Hoff, Reena H Doshi, Prime Mulembakani, Neville K Kisalu, Emile Okitolonda-Wemakoy, Benoit Ilunga Kebela, Hadar Marcus, Joseph Shiloach, Je Nie Phue, Linda L Wright, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Nancy J Sullivan, Anne W Rimoin
Background: Previous studies suggest that cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) may go unreported because they are asymptomatic or unrecognized, but evidence is limited by study designs and sample size. Methods: A large population-based survey was conducted (n = 3415) to assess animal exposures and behaviors associated with Ebolavirus antibody prevalence in rural Kasai Oriental province of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Fourteen villages were randomly selected and all healthy individuals ≥1 year of age were eligible...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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