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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625392/the-current-landscape-of-nucleic-acid-tests-for-filovirus-detection
#1
REVIEW
David J Clark, John Tyson, Andrew D Sails, Sanjeev Krishna, Henry M Staines
Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for pathogenic filoviruses plays a key role in surveillance and to control the spread of infection. As they share clinical features with other pathogens, the initial spread of these viruses can be misdiagnosed. Tests that can identify a pathogen in the initial stages of infection are essential to control outbreaks. Since the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in 2014-2016 several tests have been developed that are faster than previous tests and more suited for field use. Furthermore, the ability to test for a range of pathogens simultaneously has been expanded to improve clinical pathway management of febrile syndromes...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623242/the-impact-of-a-case-of-ebola-virus-disease-on-emergency-department-visits-in-metropolitan-dallas-fort-worth-tx-july-2013-july-2015-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#2
Noelle-Angelique M Molinari, Tanya Telfair LeBlanc, William Stephens
Background: The first Ebola virus disease (EVD) case in the United States (US) was confirmed September 30, 2014 in a man 45 years old. This event created considerable media attention and there was fear of an EVD outbreak in the US. Methods: This study examined whether emergency department (ED) visits changed in metropolitan Dallas-Fort Worth--, Texas (DFW) after this EVD case was confirmed. Using Texas Health Services Region 2/3 syndromic surveillance data and focusing on DFW, interrupted time series analyses were conducted using segmented regression models with autoregressive errors for overall ED visits and rates of several chief complaints, including fever with gastrointestinal distress (FGI)...
March 20, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622497/ebola-virus-persistence-in-ocular-tissues-and-fluids-evict-study-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-cataract-surgery-outcomes-of-ebola-survivors-in-sierra-leone
#3
Jessica G Shantha, John G Mattia, Augustine Goba, Kayla G Barnes, Faiqa K Ebrahim, Colleen S Kraft, Brent R Hayek, Jessica N Hartnett, Jeffrey G Shaffer, John S Schieffelin, John D Sandi, Mambu Momoh, Simbirie Jalloh, Donald S Grant, Kerry Dierberg, Joyce Chang, Sharmistha Mishra, Adrienne K Chan, Rob Fowler, Tim O'Dempsey, Erick Kaluma, Taylor Hendricks, Roger Reiners, Melanie Reiners, Lowell A Gess, Kwame ONeill, Sarian Kamara, Alie Wurie, Mohamed Mansaray, Nisha R Acharya, William J Liu, Sina Bavari, Gustavo Palacios, Moges Teshome, Ian Crozier, Paul E Farmer, Timothy M Uyeki, Daniel G Bausch, Robert F Garry, Matthew J Vandy, Steven Yeh
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors are at risk for uveitis during convalescence. Vision loss has been observed following uveitis due to cataracts. Since Ebola virus (EBOV) may persist in the ocular fluid of EVD survivors for an unknown duration, there are questions about the safety and feasibility of vision restorative cataract surgery in EVD survivors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of EVD survivors anticipating cataract surgery and patients with active uveitis to evaluate EBOV RNA persistence in ocular fluid, as well as vision outcomes post cataract surgery...
March 23, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621608/impact-of-an-external-ventricular-drain-placement-and-handling-protocol-on-infection-rates-a-meta-analysis-and-single-institution-experience
#4
Emily P Sieg, Abraham C Schlauderaff, Russell A Payne, Michael J Glantz, Scott D Simon
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have looked at the impact of initiating an External Ventricular Drain (EVD) placement and handling protocols on infection rate dating back to the early 2000s. METHODS: We performed a quantitative systematic review of the published literature; and, created our own protocol (including a mandatory checklist); and, present our single institution experience. Search terms "external ventricular drain protocol" or "external ventricular drain placement protocol" or "preventing infections in external ventricular drains" or "external ventricular drain infections" were entered into standard search engines in a systematic fashion...
April 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618119/external-ventricular-drain-placement-accuracy-and-safety-when-done-by-midlevel-practitioners
#5
Nathaniel R Ellens, D Luke Fischer, Jason E Meldau, Brett A Schroeder, Sanjay E Patra
BACKGROUND: External ventricular drains (EVDs) measure intracranial pressure, divert cerebrospinal fluid, and allow for orthotropic administration of pharmacologic agents. Currently, neurosurgeons and neurosurgery residents are the primary practitioners placing EVDs. Due to the urgency of neurosurgical pathologies and the lack of qualified residents at most hospitals, midlevel practitioner (MLP) placement of EVDs would be advantageous. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and complication rates of MLP and neurosurgeon EVD placement...
March 29, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593102/a-conserved-transcriptional-response-to-intranasal-ebola-virus-exposure-in-nonhuman-primates-prior-to-onset-of-fever
#6
Emily Speranza, Sandra L Bixler, Louis A Altamura, Catherine E Arnold, William D Pratt, Cheryl Taylor-Howell, Christina Burrows, William Aguilar, Franco Rossi, Joshua D Shamblin, Suzanne E Wollen, Justine M Zelko, Timothy Minogue, Elyse Nagle, Gustavo Palacios, Arthur J Goff, John H Connor
Ebola virus disease (EVD), caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), is a severe illness characterized by case fatality rates of up to 90%. The sporadic nature of outbreaks in resource-limited areas has hindered the ability to characterize the pathogenesis of EVD at all stages of infection but particularly early host responses. Pathogenesis is often studied in nonhuman primate (NHP) models of disease that replicate major aspects of human EVD. Typically, NHP models use a large infectious dose, are carried out through intramuscular or aerosol exposure, and have a fairly uniform disease course...
March 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589579/field-investigation-with-real-time-virus-genetic-characterisation-support-of-a-cluster-of-ebola-virus-disease-cases-in-dubr%C3%A3-ka-guinea-april-to-june-2015
#7
Alessandro Pini, Delayo Zomahoun, Sophie Duraffour, Tarik Derrough, Myrna Charles, Joshua Quick, Nick Loman, Lauren Cowley, Mamadou Leno, Nobila Ouedraogo, Oumou Thiam, Alfonso Hernández-Romieu, Annie Iko, Halimatou Keita, Djiba Konate, Aboubacar Aboubak Soumah, Etran Bouchouar, Samuel Ileka-Priouzeau, Sakoba Keita, Boubacar Diallo, Fode Cisse, Josep Jansa, Miles Carroll, Stephan Günther, Ettore Severi, Pierre Formenty
On 11 May 2015, the Dubréka prefecture, Guinea, reported nine laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD). None could be epidemiologically linked to cases previously reported in the prefecture. We describe the epidemiological and molecular investigations of this event. We used the Dubréka EVD registers and the Ebola treatment centre's (ETC) records to characterise chains of transmission. Real-time field Ebola virus sequencing was employed to support epidemiological results. An epidemiological cluster of 32 cases was found, of which 27 were laboratory confirmed, 24 were isolated and 20 died...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584730/antiviral-efficacy-of-favipiravir-against-ebola-virus-a-translational-study-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#8
Jérémie Guedj, Géraldine Piorkowski, Frédéric Jacquot, Vincent Madelain, Thi Huyen Tram Nguyen, Anne Rodallec, Stephan Gunther, Caroline Carbonnelle, France Mentré, Hervé Raoul, Xavier de Lamballerie
BACKGROUND: Despite repeated outbreaks, in particular the devastating 2014-2016 epidemic, there is no effective treatment validated for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Among the drug candidates is the broad-spectrum polymerase inhibitor favipiravir, which showed a good tolerance profile in patients with EVD (JIKI trial) but did not demonstrate a strong antiviral efficacy. In order to gain new insights into the antiviral efficacy of favipiravir and improve preparedness and public health management of future outbreaks, we assess the efficacy achieved by ascending doses of favipiravir in Ebola-virus-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs)...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572862/detection-characterization-and-enrollment-of-donors-of-ebola-convalescent-plasma-in-sierra-leone
#9
Richard S Tedder, Dhan Samuel, Steve Dicks, Janet T Scott, Samreen Ijaz, Catherine C Smith, Charlene Adaken, Christine Cole, Samuel Baker, Tansy Edwards, Philip Kamara, Osman Kargbo, Saidia Niazi, Davis Nwakanma, Umberto d'Alessandro, Graham Burch, Heidi Doughty, Colin S Brown, Nick Andrews, Judith R Glynn, Johan van Griensven, Georgios Pollakis, William A Paxton, Malcolm G Semple
BACKGROUND: Passive therapy with convalescent plasma provides an early opportunity to intervene in Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods for field screening and selection of potential donors and quantifying plasma antibody are needed. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Recombinant Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GP) was formatted into immunoglobulin G-capture, competitive, and double-antigen bridging enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). EVD survivors in Freetown, Sierra Leone, were recruited as potential plasma donors and assessed locally using sera alone and/or paired sera and oral fluids (ORFs)...
March 23, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569244/maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-suspected-ebola-virus-disease-in-sierra-leone-2014
#10
Meghan Lyman, Jonetta Johnson Mpofu, Fatma Soud, Titilope Oduyebo, Sascha Ellington, Gabriel W Schlough, Alimamy P Koroma, Jevon McFadden, Diane Morof
OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Sierra Leone. METHODS: Observational investigation of maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women with suspected EVD from five districts in Sierra Leone from June-December 2014. Suspected cases were ill pregnant women with symptoms suggestive of EVD or relevant exposures who were tested for EVD. Case frequencies and odds ratios were calculated to compare patient characteristics and outcomes by EVD status...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568545/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-of-medical-laboratory-practitioners-in-the-fight-against-ebola-virus-disease
#11
EDITORIAL
Kabir M Hamid, Ibrahim Yusuf, Bernard A Onoja, Abdullahi Y Koki
Introduction: Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was an enormous public health challenge. Nigeria was able to contain the spread of the virus with a concerted effort and an effective public health response in terms of identification of contacts, rapid laboratory diagnosis, quarantine and symptomatic treatment. We determined the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical laboratory practitioners (MLPs) in this post-Ebola epidemic era. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in eight hospitals in Kano State for 6 months, between January and June 2016...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568066/human-transbodies-that-interfere-with-the-functions-of-ebola-virus-vp35-protein-in-genome-replication-and-transcription-and-innate-immune-antagonism
#12
Watee Seesuay, Surasak Jittavisutthikul, Nawannaporn Sae-Lim, Nitat Sookrung, Yuwaporn Sakolvaree, Wanpen Chaicumpa
Small molecular inhibitors and passive immunization against Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been tested in animal models, including rodents and non-human primates, as well as in clinical trials. Nevertheless, there is currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy, and alternative strategies must be pursued. The aim of this study was to produce cell-penetrable human single-chain antibodies (transbodies) that are able to interfere with the activities of interferon inhibitory domain (IID) of the VP35 protein, a multifunctional virulence factor of Ebola virus (EBOV)...
March 21, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566079/testing-therapeutics-in-cell-based-assays-factors-that-influence-the-apparent-potency-of-drugs
#13
Elena Postnikova, Yu Cong, Lisa Evans DeWald, Julie Dyall, Shuiqing Yu, Brit J Hart, Huanying Zhou, Robin Gross, James Logue, Yingyun Cai, Nicole Deiuliis, Julia Michelotti, Anna N Honko, Richard S Bennett, Michael R Holbrook, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling
Identifying effective antivirals for treating Ebola virus disease (EVD) and minimizing transmission of such disease is critical. A variety of cell-based assays have been developed for evaluating compounds for activity against Ebola virus. However, very few reports discuss the variable assay conditions that can affect the results obtained from these drug screens. Here, we describe variable conditions tested during the development of our cell-based drug screen assays designed to identify compounds with anti-Ebola virus activity using established cell lines and human primary cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557511/endoscopic-ventriculo-cisterno-ventricular-approach-in-the-treatment-of-bilateral-trapped-temporal-horn-related-to-fungal-infection-in-a-child-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
José Ascención Arenas-Ruiz, Horus Martinez-Maldonado, Vicente Gonzalez-Carranza, Samuel Torres-García, Fernando Chico-Ponce de Leon
INTRODUCTION: Focal hydrocephalus including trapped temporal horn (TTH), isolated lateral and fourth ventricles, is caused by obstruction and/or adhesion related to various etiologies. With the advent of the neuroendoscope, endoscopic procedures have become an alternative in selected cases. CASE REPORT: A 2-year-old male from a rural town in México was referred to our institution because of multiple supra- and infra-tentorial abscesses and hydrocephalus. The patient had progressive deterioration and developed bilateral trapped temporal horn related to multi-septated hydrocephalus, so we performed an endoscopic ventricular-cistern-ventriculostomy through a single right temporal burr hole...
March 20, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557329/food-insecurity-as-a-risk-factor-for-outcomes-related-to-ebola-virus-disease-in-kono-district-sierra-leone-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
J Daniel Kelly, Eugene T Richardson, Michael Drasher, M Bailor Barrie, Sahr Karku, Mohamed Kamara, Katrina Hann, Kerry Dierberg, Allan Hubbard, Christina P Lindan, Paul E Farmer, George W Rutherford, Sheri D Weiser
Studies have shown that people suffering from food insecurity are at higher risk for infectious and noncommunicable diseases and have poorer health outcomes. No study, however, has examined the association between food insecurity and outcomes related to Ebola virus disease (EVD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in two Ebola-affected communities in Kono district, Sierra Leone, from November 2015 to September 2016. We enrolled persons who were determined to have been exposed to Ebola virus. We assessed the association of food insecurity, using an adapted version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, a nine-item scale well validated across Africa, with having been diagnosed with EVD and having died of EVD, using logistic regression models with cluster-adjusted standard errors...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556933/primary-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-closer-look-at-hypertension-and-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#16
David Roh, Chung-Huan Sun, J Michael Schmidt, Edip Gurol, Santosh Murthy, Soojin Park, Sachin Agarwal, E Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) studies often use hematoma location rather than ICH etiologies when assessing outcome. Characterizing ICH using hematoma location is effective/reproducible, but may miss heterogeneity among these ICH locations, particularly lobar ICH where competing primary ICH etiologies are possible. We subsequently investigated baseline characteristics/outcome differences of spontaneous, primary ICH by their etiologies: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and hypertension...
March 19, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547083/relationship-between-external-ventricular-drain-clamp-trials-and-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-insertion-following-nontraumatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-single-center-study
#17
Luis C Ascanio, Raghav Gupta, Nimer Adeeb, Justin M Moore, Christoph J Griessenauer, Julie Mayeku, Yaw Tachie-Baffour, Ranjit Thomas, Abdulrahman Y Alturki, Philip G R Schmalz, Christopher S Ogilvy, Ajith J Thomas
OBJECTIVE Currently, there is no established standard regarding the ideal number of external ventricular drain (EVD) clamp trials performed before ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion following nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate this relationship. METHODS A retrospective review of all patients presenting with SAH between July 2007 and December 2016 was performed. Patients with SAH who had received an EVD within the first 24 hours of hospital admission and had undergone at least 1 clamp trial prior to EVD removal were eligible for inclusion in the study...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545219/creation-of-an-evd-registry-from-a-quality-improvement-project
#18
David P Darrow, Coridon Quinn, Huy T Donguyen, Matthew Hunt, Stephen Haines
INTRODUCTION: External ventricular drains can pose a serious source of morbidity and mortality. Interventions proven to reduce the risk of infections are lacking. Single center studies limit the study of procedures that mitigate infection, but bundled protocols have demonstrated utility. A collaborative EVD registry was designed to facilitate local quality improvement projects to be implemented at any location using standardized data collection instruments through resident collaboration to reduce and study EVD infection and prevention...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541885/recurrent-sampling-and-ventriculostomy-associated-infections-a-case-control-study
#19
Daniel Roan Thompson, Savvas Vlachos, Sabina Patel, Simeon Innocent, Christos Tolias, Konstantinos Barkas
BACKGROUND: External ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is a common neurosurgical procedure with a significant risk of ventriculostomy-associated infections (VAIs), other morbidities and mortality. Several risk factors have been identified but their effect is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to assess whether recurrent EVD sampling increased the risk of VAIs. The secondary objective was to explore the effect of sampling frequency, duration of EVD stay, presence of cerebrospinal fluid leak and concurrent infections...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533850/epidemiology-and-short-term-surgical-outcomes-of-children-presenting-with-cerebellar-tumors
#20
Balagangadhar R Totapally, Ashish H Shah, Toba Niazi
OBJECTIVE: Posterior fossa tumor surgery in children poses a significant morbidity and mortality. Large multi-institutional datasets characterizing the epidemiology and morbidity of children undergoing posterior fossa tumor surgery are lacking. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology and short term surgical outcomes of children presenting with cerebellar tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the Kids Inpatient Database (KID) for all hospital discharges in 2012 with a diagnosis of cerebellar tumor (ICD-9 diagnosis code 191...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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