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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647656/delayed-retroclival-and-cervical-spinal-subdural-hematoma-complicated-by-pre-existing-chiari-malformation-in-an-adult-trauma-patient
#1
Ha Nguyen, Hoon Choi, Shekar Kurpad, Hesham Soliman
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic spinal subdural hematoma involving the retroclival region and upper cervical spine is a rare pathology. To our knowledge, there have only been two prior cases in an adult trauma patient. We describe a patient with pre-existing Chiari 1 malformation, who recently sustained a unilateral Type 1 OCF (occipital condyle fracture) with associated disruption of the tectorial membrane and transverse ligament, that returned with a retroclival subdural hematoma extending down to C7, causing spinal cord compression and symptomatic obstructive hydrocephalus...
June 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646340/clinical-management-of-ebola-virus-disease-patients-in-low-resource-settings
#2
Armand Sprecher, Michel Van Herp, Pierre E Rollin
The low-resource environment deprives healthcare providers caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) of many of the means employed for the critically ill that are available in better resourced settings, such as advanced therapeutic interventions and abundant staff. In addition to these limitations may be added those imposed by the remote tropical locations, where EVD outbreaks occur. In this setting, a safe environment is created where healthcare workers may care for their patients over the evolving course of their acute illness into their convalescent period...
June 24, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643203/nonhuman-primate-models-of-ebola-virus-disease
#3
Richard S Bennett, Louis M Huzella, Peter B Jahrling, Laura Bollinger, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley
Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans is associated with four ebolaviruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Taï Forest virus. To date, no documented cases of human disease have been associated with Reston virus. Here, we describe the nonhuman primate (NHP) models that currently serve as gold standards for testing ebolavirus vaccines and therapeutic agents and elucidating underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis. Although multiple models have been explored over the past 50 years, the predominance of published work has been performed in macaque models...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642489/post-exposure-treatment-of-non-human-primates-lethally-infected-with-ebola-virus-with-ebotab-a-purified-ovine-igg-product
#4
Stuart D Dowall, Frédéric Jacquot, John Landon, Emma Rayner, Graham Hall, Caroline Carbonnelle, Hervé Raoul, Delphine Pannetier, Ian Cameron, Ruth Coxon, Ibrahim Al Abdulla, Roger Hewson, Miles W Carroll
Despite sporadic outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV) over the last 4 decades and the recent public health emergency in West Africa, there are still no approved vaccines or therapeutics for the treatment of acute EBOV disease (EVD). In response to the 2014 outbreak, an ovine immunoglobulin therapy was developed, termed EBOTAb. After promising results in the guinea pig model of EBOV infection, EBOTAb was tested in the cynomolgus macaque non-human primate model of lethal EBOV infection. To ensure stringent therapeutic testing conditions to replicate likely clinical usage, EBOTAb was first delivered 1, 2 or 3 days post-challenge with a lethal dose of EBOV...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640889/contrasting-academic-and-lay-press-print-coverage-of-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#5
Mark D Kieh, Elim M Cho, Ian A Myles
Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640823/estimating-the-number-of-secondary-ebola-cases-resulting-from-an-unsafe-burial-and-risk-factors-for-transmission-during-the-west-africa-ebola-epidemic
#6
Amanda Tiffany, Benjamin D Dalziel, Hilary Kagume Njenge, Ginger Johnson, Roselyn Nugba Ballah, Daniel James, Abdoulaye Wone, Juliet Bedford, Amanda McClelland
BACKGROUND: Safely burying Ebola infected individuals is acknowledged to be important for controlling Ebola epidemics and was a major component of the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola response. Yet, in order to understand the impact of safe burial programs it is necessary to elucidate the role of unsafe burials in sustaining chains of Ebola transmission and how the risk posed by activities surrounding unsafe burials, including care provided at home prior to death, vary with human behavior and geography...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636444/a-highly-infectious-disease-care-network-in-the-us-healthcare-system
#7
Aurora B Le, Paul D Biddinger, Philip W Smith, Jocelyn J Herstein, Deborah A Levy, Shawn G Gibbs, John J Lowe
During the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the United States responded by stratifying hospitals into 1 of 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-designated categories-based on the hospital's ability to identify, isolate, assess, and provide care to patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD)-in an attempt to position the US healthcare system to safely isolate and care for potential patients. Now, with the Ebola epidemic quelled, it is crucial that we act on the lessons learned from the EVD response to broaden our national perspective on infectious disease mitigation and management, build on our newly enhanced healthcare capabilities to respond to infectious disease threats, develop a more cost-effective and sustainable model of infectious disease prevention, and continue to foster training so that the nation is not in a vulnerable position once more...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628619/south-african-ebola-diagnostic-response-in-sierra-leone-a-modular-high-biosafety-field-laboratory
#8
Janusz T Paweska, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Gunther H Meier, Chantel le Roux, Ousman S Conteh, Alan Kemp, Cardia Fourie, Prabha Naidoo, Serisha Naicker, Phumza Ohaebosim, Nadia Storm, Orienka Hellferscee, Lisa K Ming Sun, Busisiwe Mogodi, Nishi Prabdial-Sing, Desiree du Plessis, Deidre Greyling, Shayne Loubser, Mark Goosen, Stewart D McCulloch, Terence P Scott, Alexandra Moerdyk, Wesley Dlamini, Kelfala Konneh, Idrissa L Kamara, Dauda Sowa, Samuel Sorie, Brima Kargbo, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628441/novel-retinal-lesion-in-ebola-survivors-sierra-leone-2016
#9
Paul J Steptoe, Janet T Scott, Julia M Baxter, Craig K Parkes, Rahul Dwivedi, Gabriela Czanner, Matthew J Vandy, Fayiah Momorie, Alimamy D Fornah, Patrick Komba, Jade Richards, Foday Sahr, Nicholas A V Beare, Malcolm G Semple
We conducted a case-control study in Freetown, Sierra Leone, to investigate ocular signs in Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. A total of 82 EVD survivors with ocular symptoms and 105 controls from asymptomatic civilian and military personnel and symptomatic eye clinic attendees underwent ophthalmic examination, including widefield retinal imaging. Snellen visual acuity was <6/7.5 in 75.6% (97.5% CI 63%-85.7%) of EVD survivors and 75.5% (97.5% CI 59.1%-87.9%) of controls. Unilateral white cataracts were present in 7...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614970/effect-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-on-brain-tissue-oxygenation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Omar S Akbik, Mark Krasberg, Edwin M Nemoto, Howard Yonas
The effectiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in lowering high intracranial pressure (ICP) is well established in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, recently the use of external ventricular drains and intracranial pressure monitors in traumatic brain injury has come under question. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of CSF drainage on brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). Using a multimodality monitoring system, we continuously monitored brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) and parenchymal ICP during CSF drainage events via a ventriculostomy in 40 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606192/assessment-of-healthcare-worker-protocol-deviations-and-self-contamination-during-personal-protective-equipment-donning-and-doffing
#11
Jennie H Kwon, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Kimberly A Reske, Stephen Y Liang, Tiffany Hink, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, Sondra Seiler, Candice Cass, Victoria J Fraser, Erik R Dubberke
OBJECTIVE To evaluate healthcare worker (HCW) risk of self-contamination when donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) using fluorescence and MS2 bacteriophage. DESIGN Prospective pilot study. SETTING Tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS A total of 36 HCWs were included in this study: 18 donned/doffed contact precaution (CP) PPE and 18 donned/doffed Ebola virus disease (EVD) PPE. INTERVENTIONS HCWs donned PPE according to standard protocols. Fluorescent liquid and MS2 bacteriophage were applied to HCWs...
June 13, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601946/clinical-management-of-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-in-high-resource-settings
#12
G Marshall Lyon, Aneesh K Mehta, Bruce S Ribner
Like most viral illnesses in humans, supportive care of the patient is the mainstay of clinical care for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The goal is to maintain and sustain the patient until a specific immune response develops and clears the viral infection. Clearly, antiviral therapy may eventually help speed recovery, but supportive care will likely always be the centerpiece of care of the patient with EVD. While terrible in terms of human suffering and loss, the EVD outbreak of 2014-2016 provided an unheralded opportunity to advance our understanding in the care of patients (WHO 2016)...
June 11, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588973/responding-to-ever-changing-epidemiological-dynamics-of-ebola-virus-disease
#13
Yuki Maehira, Yohei Kurosaki, Tomoya Saito, Jiro Yasuda, Masayoshi Tarui, Denis J M Malvy, Tsutomu Takeuchi
With the incidence and mortality rates of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone now at zero and reports of the largest and most complex EVD outbreak in history no longer on the front pages of newspapers worldwide, the urgency of that crisis seems to have subsided. During this lull after the storm and before the next one, the international community needs to engage in a 'lessons-learned' exercise with respect to our collective scientific, clinical and public health preparedness. This engagement must identify pragmatic, innovative mechanisms at multinational, national and community levels that allow research and development of next generation diagnostics and therapeutics, the safe and effective practice of medicine, and the maintenance of public health to keep pace with the rapid epidemiological dynamics of EVD and other deadly infectious diseases...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588954/-women-and-babies-are-dying-but-not-of-ebola-the-effect-of-the-ebola-virus-epidemic-on-the-availability-uptake-and-outcomes-of-maternal-and-newborn-health-services-in-sierra-leone
#14
Susan A Jones, Somasundari Gopalakrishnan, Charles A Ameh, Sarah White, Nynke R van den Broek
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the impact of the Ebola virus epidemic on the availability, uptake and outcome of routine maternity services in Sierra Leone. METHODS: The number of antenatal and postnatal visits, institutional births, availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC), maternal deaths and stillbirths were assessed by month, by districts and by level of healthcare for 10 months during, and 12 months prior to, the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587602/health-care-workers-indicate-ill-preparedness-for-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-ashanti-region-of-ghana
#15
Augustina Angelina Annan, Denis Dekugmen Yar, Michael Owusu, Eno Akua Biney, Paa Kobina Forson, Portia Boakye Okyere, Akosua Adumea Gyimah, Ellis Owusu-Dabo
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic that hit some countries in West Africa underscores the need to train front line high-risk health workers on disease prevention skills. Although Ghana did not record (and is yet to) any case, and several health workers have received numerous training schemes, there is no record of any study that assessed preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWS) regarding EVD and any emergency prone disease in Ghana. We therefore conducted a hospital based cross sectional study involving 101 HCWs from two facilities in Kumasi, Ghana to assess the level of preparedness of HCWs to respond to any possible EVD...
June 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582554/novel-surveillance-methods-for-the-control-of-ebola-virus-disease
#16
C F Houlihan, D Youkee, C S Brown
The unprecedented scale of the 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak was in a large part due to failings in surveillance: contacts of confirmed cases were not systematically identified, monitored and diagnosed early, and new cases appearing in previously unaffected communities were similarly not rapidly identified, diagnosed and isolated. Over the course of this epidemic, traditional surveillance methods were strengthened and novel methods introduced. The wealth of experience gained, and the systems introduced in West Africa, should be used in future EVD outbreaks, as well as for other communicable diseases in the region and beyond...
May 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575034/ebola-virus-disease-contact-tracing-activities-lessons-learned-and-best-practices-during-the-duport-road-outbreak-in-monrovia-liberia-november-2015
#17
Caitlin M Wolfe, Esther L Hamblion, Jacqueline Schulte, Parker Williams, Augustine Koryon, Jonathan Enders, Varlee Sanor, Yatta Wapoe, Dash Kwayon, David J Blackley, Anthony S Laney, Emily J Weston, Emily K Dokubo, Gloria Davies-Wayne, Annika Wendland, Valerie T S Daw, Mehboob Badini, Peter Clement, Nuha Mahmoud, Desmond Williams, Alex Gasasira, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Mosoka Fallah
BACKGROUND: Contact tracing is one of the key response activities necessary for halting Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) transmission. Key elements of contact tracing include identification of persons who have been in contact with confirmed EVD cases and careful monitoring for EVD symptoms, but the details of implementation likely influence their effectiveness. In November 2015, several months after a major Ebola outbreak was controlled in Liberia, three members of a family were confirmed positive for EVD in the Duport Road area of Monrovia...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569196/mathematical-models-for-devising-the-optimal-ebola-virus-disease-eradication
#18
Shuo Jiang, Kaiqin Wang, Chaoqun Li, Guangbin Hong, Xuan Zhang, Menglin Shan, Hongbin Li, Jin Wang
BACKGROUND: The 2014-2015 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa defines an unprecedented health threat for human. METHODS: We construct a mathematical model to devise the optimal Ebola virus disease eradication plan. We used mathematical model to investigate the numerical spread of Ebola and eradication pathways, further fit our model against the real total cases data and calculated infection rate as 1.754. RESULTS: With incorporating hospital isolation and application of medication in our model and analyzing their effect on resisting the spread, we demonstrate the second peak of 10,029 total cases in 23 days, and expect to eradicate EVD in 285 days...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565992/pipeline-flow-diversion-of-ruptured-blister-aneurysms-of-the-supraclinoid-carotid-artery-using-a-single-device-strategy
#19
Robert W Ryan, Amir S Khan, Rebecca Barco, Armen Choulakian
OBJECTIVE Ruptured blister aneurysms remain challenging lesions for treatment due to their broad, shallow anatomy and thin, fragile wall. Historical challenges with both open microsurgical approaches and intrasaccular endovascular approaches have led to increased use of flow diversion for management of these aneurysms. However, the optimum paradigm, including timing of treatment, use of dual antiplatelet therapy, and number of flow-diverter devices to use remains unknown. The authors describe their experience with ruptured blister aneurysms treated with flow diversion at their institution, and discuss rates of rebleeding and number of devices used...
June 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555269/placement-accuracy-of-external-ventricular-drain-when-comparing-freehand-insertion-to-neuronavigation-guidance-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Ahmed AlAzri, Kelvin Mok, Jeffrey Chankowsky, Mohammad Mullah, Judith Marcoux
BACKGROUND: External ventricular drain (EVD) placement is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure. Inaccuracies in drain positioning and the need for multiple passes using the classic freehand insertion technique is well reported in the literature, especially in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if electromagnetic neuronavigation guidance for EVD insertion improves placement accuracy and minimizes the number of passes in severe TBI patients...
May 29, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
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