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Benjamin Levy, Christina Edholm, Orou Gaoue, Roselyn Kaondera-Shava, Moatlhodi Kgosimore, Suzanne Lenhart, Benjamin Lephodisa, Edward Lungu, Theresia Marijani, Farai Nyabadza
Public involvement in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) prevention efforts is key to reducing disease outbreaks. Targeted education through practical health information to particular groups and sub-populations is crucial to controlling the disease. In this paper, we study the dynamics of Ebola virus disease in the presence of public health education with the aim of assessing the role of behavior change induced by health education to the dynamics of an outbreak. The power of behavior change is evident in two outbreaks of EVD that took place in Sudan only 3 years apart...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Anna Nilsson, Erik Uvelius, David Cederberg, Erik Kronvall
BACKGROUND: Ventriculitis is a serious complication when using external ventricular drains (EVDs). Bactericidal silver coating has been reported to reduce the risk of infection. In the clinical setting, the diagnosis is often made based on symptoms and analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with treatment initiated before infection is culture verified. Therefore, the bactericidal effect might not correlate with a reduced rate of clinically diagnosed infections. The present retrospective study was initiated to analyze if silver-coated EVDs is associated with a reduced rate of ventriculitis...
June 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Manfred Weidmann, Ousmane Faye, Oumar Faye, Ahmed Abd El Wahed, Pranav Patel, Christophe Batejat, Jean Claude Manugerra, Aimee Adjami, Matthias Niedrig, Frank T Hufert, Amadou A Sall
Background: In order to enable local response to viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks a mobile laboratory transportable on commercial flights was developed. Methodology: The development progressed from use of mobile real time RT-PCR to mobile Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA). The various stages of the mobile laboratory development are described. Results: A brief overview of its deployments, which culminated in the first on site detection of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in March 2014 and a successful use in a campaign to roll back EVD cases in Conakry in the West-Africa Ebola virus outbreak are described...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Martin Jakobs, Sabrina Klein, Tatjana Eigenbrod, Andreas W Unterberg, Oliver W Sakowitz
OBJECTIVE Catheter-associated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection remains a serious event, especially for patients in neurocritical care units. The use of external ventricular drain (EVD) catheters impregnated with antimicrobial substances has led to a significant reduction of infection rates. This study was undertaken to compare the use of antimicrobial, silver-impregnated external lumbar drains (si-ELDs) and conventional ELDs. METHODS Patients with an indication for ELD placement were randomized to receive either a conventional or an si-ELD catheter...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ian Hennessee, Timothée Guilavogui, Alioune Camara, Eric S Halsey, Barbara Marston, Deborah McFarland, Matthew Freeman, Mateusz M Plucinski
BACKGROUND: Malaria case management in the context of the 2014-2016 West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic was complicated by a similar initial clinical presentation of the two diseases. In September 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) released recommendations titled, "Guidance on temporary malaria control measures in Ebola-affected countries", which aimed at reducing the risk of EVD transmission and improving malaria outcomes. This guidance recommended malaria diagnostic testing of fever cases only if adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) was available, defined as examination gloves, face shield, disposable gown, boots, and head cover; otherwise presumptive anti-malarial treatment was recommended...
June 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Karnail Singh, Bishal Marasini, Xuemin Chen, Paul Spearman
Ebolaviruses are highly virulent pathogens that cause Ebola viral disease (EVD). Data from non-human primate (NHP) models and from human survivors of EVD suggest that anti-Ebola antibodies play an integral role in protection. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a potential mechanism through which anti-Ebola antibodies may mediate protection. We developed a robust Ebola-specific ADCC assay for use in ongoing trials of Ebola vaccines. Stable cell lines for inducible Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein (EBOV GP) expression were developed to provide a uniform source of target cells in the assay, and were combined with an existing human natural killer (NK) cell line as the effector cell...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Bo Du, Ai-Jun Shan, Yu-Ping Peng, Jin Wang, Kai-Wen Peng, Xian-Liang Zhong, Yujuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive endoscopic haematoma evacuation is widely used in the treatment of intraventricular haemorrhage. However, its technique still has room for improvement. A new modified neuroendoscope technology (MNT) was used in this study and we explored its safety and efficacy in the treatment of severe acute intraventricular haemorrhage by comparing it with extraventricular drainage plus urokinase thrombolytic (EVD + UT) therapy. METHODS: The following parameters were compared between the MNT group and the control group: incision design, operation time, ICU monitoring time, ventricular drainage tube (VDT) placement time, post-operative drainage tube obstruction (PDTO) rate, post-operative complications rate, 6-month mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)...
June 11, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Hansen Bow, Le He, Muhammad Aanish Raees, Sumit Pruthi, Rohan Chitale
BACKGROUND: External ventricular drain (EVD) placement is one of the most commonly performed procedures in neurosurgery, frequently by the junior neurosurgery resident. Simulators for EVD placement are often costly, time-intensive to create, and complicated to set up. OBJECTIVE: To describe creation of a simulator that is inexpensive, time-efficient, and simple to set up. METHODS: This simulator involves printing a hollow head using a desktop 3-dimensional (3D) printer...
June 5, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Jérôme Zervudacki, Agnès Yu, Delase Amesefe, Jingyu Wang, Jan Drouaud, Lionel Navarro, Angélique Deleris
Mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) in plants has been recognized as a driving force of evolution and adaptation, in particular by providing genes with regulatory modules that impact their transcription. In this study, we employed an ATCOPIA93 long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter- GUS fusion to show that this retrotransposon behaves like an immune-responsive gene during pathogen defense in Arabidopsis We also showed that the endogenous ATCOPIA93 copy " EVD ", which is activated in the presence of bacterial stress, is negatively regulated by both DNA methylation and polycomb-mediated silencing, a mode of repression typically found at protein-coding and microRNA genes...
June 5, 2018: EMBO Journal
Alpha K Keita, Christelle Butel, Guillaume Thaurignac, Aminata Diallo, Talla Nioke, Falaye Traoré, Lamine Koivogui, Martine Peeters, Eric Delaporte, Ahidjo Ayouba
Questions remain as whether an unnoticed Ebola outbreak has occurred in Guinea before the 2014-2016 epidemic. To address this, we used a highly sensitive and specific Luminex-based assay for Ebola virus (EBOV) antibody detection to screen blood samples collected in the framework of the Demographic Health Survey performed in 2012 in Guinea. One sample (GF069) of 1,483 tested was positive at very high immunoglobulin G titer to Zaire EBOV in Guinée Forestière. Thus, at least 2 years before the 2014 EVD outbreak in Guinea, Zaire EBOV was circulating in rural areas of this country...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Susan L Norris, Veronica Ivey Sawin, Mauricio Ferri, Laura Raques Sastre, Teegwendé V Porgo
BACKGROUND: The production of high-quality guidelines in response to public health emergencies poses challenges for the World Health Organization (WHO). The urgent need for guidance and the paucity of structured scientific data on emerging diseases hinder the formulation of evidence-informed recommendations using standard methods and procedures. OBJECTIVES: In the context of the response to recent public health emergencies, this project aimed to describe the information products produced by WHO and assess the quality and trustworthiness of a subset of these products classified as guidelines...
2018: PloS One
Paul J Steptoe, Fayiah Momorie, Alimamy D Fornah, Sahr P Komba, Elizabeth Emsley, Janet T Scott, Simon P Harding, Matthew J Vandy, Foday Sahr, Nicholas A V Beare, Malcolm G Semple
Importance: Differentiation between Ebola retinal lesions and other retinal pathologies in West Africa is important, and the pathogenesis of Ebola retinal disease remains poorly understood. Objective: To describe the appearance of Ebola virus disease (EVD) retinal lesions using multimodal imaging to enable inferences on potential pathogenesis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective case series study was carried out at 34 Military Hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone...
May 3, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Michaela Mallow, Lee Gary, Timmy Jeng, Bob Bongomin, Miriam Tamar Aschkenasy, Peter Wallis, Hilarie H Cranmer, Estifanos Debasu, Adam C Levine
PURPOSE: The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest in history. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated five Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Sierra Leone and Liberia. This paper explores how future infectious disease outbreak facilities in resource-limited settings can be planned, organized, and managed by analyzing data collected on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and infection prevention control (IPC) protocols...
2018: PloS One
Bobby Brooke Herrera, Donald J Hamel, Philip Oshun, Rolake Akinsola, Alani S Akanmu, Charlotte A Chang, Philomena Eromon, Onikepe Folarin, Kayode T Adeyemi, Christian T Happi, Yichen Lu, Folasade Ogunsola, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) caused more than 11,000 deaths during the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa without approved vaccines or immunotherapeutics. Despite its high lethality in some individuals, EBOV infection can produce little to no symptoms in others. A better understanding of the immune responses in individuals who experienced minimally symptomatic and asymptomatic infection could aid the development of more effective vaccines and antivirals against EBOV and related filoviruses...
May 24, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Danijela Dobrosavljevic, Dimitrije Brasanac, Sofija Glumac, Sanja Radojevic, Lidija Matija, Dejana Stanisavljevic
BACKGROUND: Sensitivity and specificity of ex vivo dermatoscopy (EVD) for malignancy detection of skin tumors is unknown. We sought to assess whether the use of EVD could be a useful adjunct to histopathological diagnosis of pigmented skin tumors, including cases where complete clinical information is inadequate or missing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EVD was performed on 195 excised, formalin-fixed pigmented skin tumors. RESULTS: Of 183 eligible lesions, 104 (56...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Lu-Ting Kuo, Hsueh-Yi Lu, Jui-Chang Tsai, Yong-Kwang Tu
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Extension of the hemorrhage into the ventricles is associated with the development of acute hydrocephalus and a poor outcome. Although it can be managed by external ventricular drainage (EVD), a subset of these patients require placement of permanent ventricular shunts. This study aimed to examine the factors on admission that can predict shunt dependency after EVD management. METHODS: Seventy-two patients who underwent EVD were included in this study...
May 22, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Bonnie Mowinski Jennings, Katherine A Yeager, Nancye R Feistritzer, Mary M Gullatte, Kristy K Martyn
BACKGROUND: Fear surrounds Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) because it is highly infectious. Yet members of the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital (EUH) had to overcome that fear when caring for patients with EVD. PURPOSE: The analysis reported here illustrates how the members of EUH's SCDU tacitly enacted high reliability (HR) principles while caring for patients with EVD. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted to describe the experience of members of the EUH SCDU who worked with EVD patients in 2014...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
José E Cohen, J Moshe Gomori, Ronen R Leker, Sergey Spektor, Hosni Abu El Hassan, Eyal Itshayek
OBJECTIVE: We present our experience with stent techniques in the management of acutely ruptured aneurysms, focusing on aneurysm occlusion rates, intraprocedural complications, and late outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients treated by stent techniques during the early acute phase of aneurysmal rupture, from June 2011 to June 2016. Patients who underwent stenting for the management of unruptured aneurysms, or in a delayed fashion for a ruptured lesion, were excluded...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Zheng Wen-Jian, L I Liang-Ming, Hu Zi-Hui, Liao Wei, Lin Qi-Chang, Zhu Yong-Hua, Lin Shao-Hua
BACKGROUND: Ventriculostomy-associated cerebrospinal fluid infection (VAI) is a major complication limiting the use of an external ventricular drain (EVD) in intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Risk factors of VAI are still under wide discussion. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 84 IVH patients who underwent EVD at our center between January 2012 and January 2017. Preoperative clinical parameters, surgeon status, number of catheters and catheter-days, subgaleal tunneling distance, frequency of urokinase flush, and prophylactic antibiotics were compared between the infective and non-infective groups...
May 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Chantal B Reusken, Ramona Mögling, Pieter W Smit, Roland Grunow, Giuseppe Ippolito, Antonino Di Caro, Marion Koopmans
From December 2013 to March 2016, West Africa experienced the largest Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak to date, leading to a European-wide activation of laboratory preparedness and response. At the end of the outbreak, laboratories associated with the two European preparedness networks of expert laboratories EMERGE JA and EVD-LabNet were invited to participate in an assessment of the response of European laboratories to the EBOV outbreak, to identify learning points and training needs to strengthen future outbreak responses...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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