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mineral toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#1
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893249/assessment-of-the-potential-respiratory-hazard-of-volcanic-ash-from-future-icelandic-eruptions-a-study-of-archived-basaltic-to-rhyolitic-ash-samples
#2
David E Damby, Claire J Horwell, Gudrun Larsen, Thorvaldur Thordarson, Maura Tomatis, Bice Fubini, Ken Donaldson
BACKGROUND: The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. METHODS: A physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885868/evaluating-the-moa-human-relevance-framework-for-f-344-rat-liver-epithelioid-granulomas-with-mineral-oil-hydrocarbons
#3
REVIEW
David Adenuga, Katy Goyak, R Jeffrey Lewis
Toxicology feeding studies of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), within the carbon number range C22-C28, results in species-specific epithelioid granulomas in the liver of F-344 rats but not in other rat strains, or species. While MOH has been detected, and some pathological effects have been shown to occur in other organs/tissues of F-344 rats and other rat strains/species, it is generally accepted that the effect of toxicological concern is species-specific inflammatory liver granuloma. As oil retention and other MOH-related nontoxic pathological changes in the liver are observed in humans, some have hypothesized that the potential for oil accumulation over a lifetime, through dietary sources, may predispose humans to similar liver effects as observed in F-344 rats...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799741/early-assessment-and-correlations-of-nanoclay-s-toxicity-to-their-physical-and-chemical-properties
#4
Alixandra Wagner, Andrew P White, Todd A Stueckle, Derrick Banerjee, Konstantinos A Sierros, Yon Rojanasakul, Sushant Agarwal, Rakesh K Gupta, Cerasela Zoica Dinu
Nanoclays' functionalization with organic modifiers increases their individual barrier properties, thermal stability, and mechanical properties and allows for ease of implementation in food packaging materials or medical devices. Previous reports have shown that, while organic modifiers integration between the layered mineral silicates leads to nanoclays with different degrees of hydrophobicity that become easily miscible in polymers, they could also pose possible effects at inhalation or ingestion routes of exposure...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796823/assessment-of-photocatalytic-potentiality-and-determination-of-ecotoxicity-using-plant-model-for-better-environmental-applicability-of-synthesized-copper-copper-oxide-and-copper-doped-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#5
Debadrito Das, Animesh Kumar Datta, Divya Vishambhar Kumbhakar, Bapi Ghosh, Ankita Pramanik, Sudha Gupta, Aninda Mandal
NPS SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND AZO-DYE DEGRADATION: A facile cost effective wet chemical method of synthesis is proposed for Cu-NPs, CuO-NPs and Cu-doped ZnO-NPs. The nanomaterials are opto-physically characterized for nano standard quality. Cu-doped ZnO-NPs based catalytic system is found to possess most efficient photocatalytic activity in degradation of two organic azo-dyes namely methyl red (MR) and malachite green (MG) that are released as industrial effluents in eco-environment intercollegium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729132/meclas-an-online-tool-for-hazard-identification-and-classification-of-complex-inorganic-metal-containing-materials
#6
Frederik Verdonck, Hugo Waeterschoot, Patrick Van Sprang, Isabelle Vercaigne, Katrien Delbeke, Chretien Simons, Violaine Verougstraete
MeClas is a web-based tool to generate (eco)toxicity hazard categories and corresponding classification & labelling information of inorganic metal-containing complex materials such as ores, concentrates, intermediates or alloys for which the manual application of the GHS/CLP rules is very complex and requires a high level of consistency. The tool comprises several tiers, aimed at the progressive refinement of classification through recognition of specific mineral content, speciation/mineralogy up to bio-availability corrections...
July 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696835/urinary-cadmium-levels-in-active-and-retired-coal-miners
#7
Julia Isermann, Hans-Martin Prager, Rainer Ebbinghaus, Beata Janasik, Wojciech Wasowicz, Bertinus Dufaux, Hans-Friedrich Meyer, Agata Widera, Silvia Selinski, Jan G Hengstler, Klaus Golka
A meta-analysis, based upon 24 publications, showed a significantly elevated risk for urinary bladder cancer amongst miners. In European underground hard coal mining areas, an increased risk for urinary bladder cancer development was noted among hard coal miners, in particular in three investigations in the greater Dortmund area. However, the cause remains unclear. As cadmium (Cd), which was reported to be a bladder carcinogen in humans and is a constituent of coal, the aim of this study was to determine urinary Cd levels in active and retired hard coal miners and assess whether hard coal miners demonstrated elevated metal levels...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643552/drug-induced-physeal-abnormalities-in-preclinical-toxicity-studies
#8
Kendall S Frazier
Most toxic physeal changes are characterized microscopically by altered chondrocyte development, proliferation, or maturation in the growth plate and eventually result in disordered appositional bone growth. Many therapeutic drugs directly or indirectly target proteins involved in chondrocytic differentiation and maturation pathways, so toxic physeal injury has become increasingly common in preclinical toxicologic pathology. While physeal dysplasia has been associated with several different drug classes including bisphosphonates, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors, fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors, transforming growth factor beta receptor inhibitors, and vascular targeting agents, physeal changes often share similar morphologic features including thickening and disorganization of the hypertrophic layer, increased numbers of hypertrophic chondrocytes, altered mineralization of endochondral ossification, and/or increased thickness of subphyseal bone...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588485/beneficial-effects-and-toxicity-studies-of-xian-ling-gu-bao-on-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#9
Hao Wu, Qingxiang Zhong, Jing Wang, Man Wang, Fang Fang, Zhi Xia, Rongling Zhong, Houcai Huang, Zhongcheng Ke, Yingjie Wei, Liang Feng, Ziqi Shi, E Sun, Jie Song, Xiaobin Jia
Xian-ling-gu-bao (XLGB) is a well-known patented traditional Chinese prescription widely used to treat osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, aseptic bone necrosis, or climacteric syndrome. However, recent reports have suggested that XLGB may cause liver injury in humans. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of XLGB in the prevention of osteoporosis in the zebrafish and ovariectomized (OVX) rats, both of which have been used as osteoporosis models. The safety of XLGB after long-term administration to OVX rats was also assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580886/normal-developmental-and-estrous-cycle-dependent-histological-features-of-the-female-reproductive-organs-in-microminipigs
#10
Akihisa Kangawa, Masayoshi Otake, Satoko Enya, Toshinori Yoshida, Masatoshi Shibata
The microminipig has become an increasingly attractive animal model for various experimental practices because of its manageable size; however, studies of the histological features of the female reproductive organs in microminipigs are limited. The present study investigates the sexual development of the reproductive organs and the cyclical changes during the estrous cycle in female microminipigs. The ovaries, oviducts, uteri, and vaginal tissues from 33 animals aged 0 to 26 months were utilized in this study...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495603/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-therapeutic-applications-of-clinacanthus-nutans-burm-f-lindau-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Long Chiau Ming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau, a widely used medicinal plant, is extensively grown in tropical Asia and Southeast Asian countries. C. nutans, with its broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, has been traditionally used to treat cancer, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, insect bites, and skin problems, consumed as a vegetable, mixed with fresh juices, in concoctions, and as a whole plant. The present review analyzes the advances in the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of C...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466691/salt-selection-matters-differential-renal-toxicity-with-mdv1634-maleate-versus-mdv1634-2hcl
#12
Mausumee Guha, Linh Nguyen, Florence Poitout-Belissent, Agathe Bedard, Kavita Raman
Salt forms of pharmaceutical compounds can have unique pharmacokinetic and toxicity properties. MDV1634 was evaluated for neurology indication and also demonstrated blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in nonclinical studies. During the chemistry manufacturing campaign, 2 salt forms, dihydrochloride (2HCl) and maleate (MAL), which improved chemical stability and water solubility of the free base were identified. MDV1634.MAL showed better chemical attributes and was evaluated in toxicology studies for further development...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431380/recent-aspects-of-uranium-toxicology-in-medical-geology
#13
REVIEW
Geir Bjørklund, Olav Albert Christophersen, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Olle Selinus, Jan Aaseth
Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities...
July 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319860/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-survival-biomass-change-and-avoidance-behaviour-of-the-endogeic-earthworm-allolobophora-chlorotica
#14
C Brami, A R Glover, K R Butt, C N Lowe
Increasing commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) and subsequent presence in wastewater and sewage sludge has raised concerns regarding their effects in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Several studies have employed standardised acute and chronic earthworm-based tests to establish the toxicological effects of Ag NP within soil. These studies have relied heavily on the use of epigiec earthworm species which may have limited ecological relevance in mineral soil. This study assessed the influence of Ag NP (uncoated 80nm powder) and AgNO3 on survival, change in biomass and avoidance behaviour in a soil dwelling (endogiec) species, Allolobophora chlorotica...
July 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222304/fabrication-of-novel-visible-light-driven-agi-g-c-3-n-4-composites-with-enhanced-visible-light-photocatalytic-activity-for-diclofenac-degradation
#15
Wei Zhang, Li Zhou, Jun Shi, Huiping Deng
A visible-light-driven heterostructured AgI/g-C3N4 was prepared by a deposition-precipitation method. The composition, structure, morphology, and optical properties of the photocatalyst were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), photocurrent, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120304/evaluation-of-long-term-toxicity-of-oral-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-and-zinc-sulfate-in-mice
#16
Chao Wang, Kang Cheng, Le Zhou, Jintian He, Xiaochuan Zheng, Lili Zhang, Xiang Zhong, Tian Wang
The toxicological effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are related to their dissolution and interference with zinc ion homeostasis. High-soluble zinc sources may produce more severe and acute toxicity; however, the evaluation of potential toxicity of long-term exposure to nano-ZnOs and high-soluble sources of zinc remains obscure. This study aimed at evaluating effects of nano-ZnOs and zinc sulfate on development, serum and hematological parameters, and mineral concentrations in selected tissues and intestinal microbiota in mice via gastrointestinal administration for 7 weeks...
January 24, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104475/effects-of-cry1ab-bt-maize-straw-return-on-bacterial-community-of-earthworm-eisenia-fetida
#17
Yinghua Shu, Yanyan Zhang, Huilan Zeng, Yahui Zhang, Jianwu Wang
The eco-toxicological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize on earthworm life-history traits were widely studied and the results were controversial, while their effects on earthworm bacterial community have been rarely studied. Here, effects of two hybrids of Bt maize [5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810)] straw return on Eisenia fetida bacterial community were investigated by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) combing with DNA sequencing, compared to near-isogenic non-Bt maize (5422)...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056959/morphological-densitometric-and-mechanical-properties-of-mandible-in-5-month-old-polish-merino-sheep
#18
Anna Szabelska, Marcin R Tatara, Witold Krupski
BACKGROUND: Among bones building the axial and appendicular skeleton, the mandible is characterized by unique morphological and functional traits. The aim of the study was to evaluate morphological, densitometric and mechanical properties of mandible in 5-month-old Polish Merino sheep. Using quantitative computed tomography, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and calcium hydroxyapatite density of the cortical bone (CbCa-HA), mean vBMD (MvBMD) and total bone volume were determined...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956261/advances-in-drug-metabolism-and-pharmacogenetics-research-in-australia
#19
Peter I Mackenzie, Andrew A Somogyi, John O Miners
Metabolism facilitates the elimination, detoxification and excretion in urine or bile (as biotransformation products) of a myriad of structurally diverse drugs and other chemicals. The metabolism of drugs, non-drug xenobiotics and many endogenous compounds is catalyzed by families of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). These include the hemoprotein-containing cytochromes P450, which function predominantly as monooxygenases, and conjugation enzymes that transfer a sugar, sulfate, acetate or glutathione moiety to substrates containing a suitable acceptor functional group...
February 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901621/perfluorooctanoic-acid-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblast-cells
#20
Eun Mi Choi, Kwang Sik Suh, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Youngmi Kim Pak, Suk Chon
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a stable organic perfluorinated compound, is an emerging persistent organic pollutant, found widely in human and wildlife populations. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to environmental toxicants can be associated with higher risks of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied the cellular toxicology of PFOA in MC3T3-E1osteoblast cells. To examine the effect of PFOA, we measured cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial superoxide, and mitochondrial parameters including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cardiolipin content, and cytochrome c release in MC3T3-E1 cells...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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