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mineral toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923023/biodistribution-of-strontium-and-barium-in-the-developing-and-mature-skeleton-of-rats
#1
Arash Panahifar, L Dean Chapman, Lynn Weber, Nazanin Samadi, David M L Cooper
Bone acts as a reservoir for many trace elements. Understanding the extent and pattern of elemental accumulation in the skeleton is important from diagnostic, therapeutic, and toxicological perspectives. Some elements are simply adsorbed to bone surfaces by electric force and are buried under bone mineral, while others can replace calcium atoms in the hydroxyapatite structure. In this article, we investigated the extent and pattern of skeletal uptake of barium and strontium in two different age groups, growing, and skeletally mature, in healthy rats...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908452/transcriptomics-provides-mechanistic-indicators-of-fluoride-toxicology-on-endochondral-ossification-in-the-hind-limb-of-bufo-gargarizans
#2
Wu Chao, Yuhui Zhang, Lihong Chai, Hongyuan Wang
Endochondral ossification, the process by which most of the bone is formed, is regulated by many specific groups of molecules and extracellular matrix components. Hind limb of Bufo gargarizans is a model to study endochondral ossification during metamorphosis. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 ) from G3 to G42. The development of hind limb of B. gargarizans was observed using the double staining methodology. The transcriptome of hind limb of B...
June 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894283/mineral-oil-hydrocarbons-in-food-a-review
#3
Koni Grob
Work on mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) contaminating food is reviewed up to about 2010, when the subject received broad publicity. It covers the period of the main discoveries and elimination or reduction of the dominant sources: release agents used in industrial bakeries, spraying of rice, additions to animal feed, contamination of edible oils from various sources and migration from paperboard packaging. In most cases highly refined ("white") oils were involved, but also technical oils, e.g. from the environment, and more or less crude oil fractions from jute and sisal bags...
June 12, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887729/analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-mineral-oil-saturated-hydrocarbons-mosh-and-mineral-oil-aromatic-hydrocarbons-moah-a-short-review
#4
REVIEW
Sandra Weber, Karola Schrag, Gerd Mildau, Thomas Kuballa, Stephan G Walch, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Mineral oils (such as paraffinum liquidum or white oil), which consist of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), are widely applied in various consumer products such as medicines and cosmetics. Contamination of food with mineral oil may occur by migration of mineral oil containing products from packaging materials, or during the food production process, as well as by environmental contamination during agricultural production. Considerable analytical interest was initiated by the potential adverse health effects, especially carcinogenic effects of some aromatic hydrocarbons...
2018: Analytical Chemistry Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803096/small-sized-microplastics-and-pigmented-particles-in-bottled-mineral-water
#5
Barbara E Oßmann, George Sarau, Heinrich Holtmannspötter, Monika Pischetsrieder, Silke H Christiansen, Wilhelm Dicke
Up to now, only a few studies about microparticle contamination of bottled mineral water have been published. The smallest analysed particle size was 5 μm. However, due to toxicological reasons, especially microparticles smaller than 1.5 μm are critically discussed. Therefore, in the present study, 32 samples of bottled mineral water were investigated for contamination by microplastics, pigment and additive particles. Due to the application of aluminium coated polycarbonate membrane filters and micro-Raman spectroscopy, a lowest analysed particle size of 1 μm was achieved...
May 16, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751048/predicting-emp-hazard-lessons-from-studies-with-inhaled-fibrous-and-non-fibrous-nano-and-micro-particles
#6
Günter Oberdörster, Uschi Graham
Inhalation exposure to elongated cleavage fragments occurring at mineral and rock mining and crushing operations raises important questions regarding potential health effects given their resemblance to fibers with known adverse health effects like amphibole asbestos. Thus, a major goal for establishing a toxicity profile for elongate mineral particles (EMPs) is to identify and characterize a suspected hazard and characterize a risk by examining together results of hazard and exposure assessment. This will require not only knowledge about biokinetics of inhaled EMPs but also about underlying mechanisms of effects induced by retained EMPs...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750004/testicular-microlithiasis-in-a-clinically-healthy-cynomolgus-monkey-macaca-fascicularis
#7
Norimitsu Shirai, Mark G Evans
The present article describes an occurrence of testicular microlithiasis in a cynomolgus monkey from a routine regulatory toxicology study. The monkey was from a negative control group. Microscopically, the lesion was characterized by multiple extracellular mineralized calculi within seminiferous tubular epithelia of both testes without any tissue reaction or abnormal condition such as cryptorchidism, testicular neoplasm, or hypogonadism. The present case is remarkable in that there is a paucity of reports on spontaneous testicular microlithiasis in nonhuman primates...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705693/thiolated-arsenic-in-natural-systems-what-is-current-what-is-new-and-what-needs-to-be-known
#8
REVIEW
Indika Herath, Meththika Vithanage, Saman Seneweera, Jochen Bundschuh
Thiolated arsenic compounds are the sulfur analogous substructures of oxo-arsenicals as the arsinoyl (As = O) is substituted by an arsinothioyl (As = S) group. Relatively brief history of thioarsenic research, mostly in the current decade has endeavored to understand their consequences in the natural environment. However, thioarsenic related aspects have by far not attached much research concern on global scale compared to other arsenic species. This review attempts to provide a critical overview for the first time on formation mechanisms of thioarsenicals, their chemistry, speciation and analytical methodologies in order to provide a rational assessment of what is new, what is current, what needs to be known or what should be done in future research...
June 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678192/engineering-in-vitro-stem-cell-based-vascularized-bone-models-for-drug-screening-and-predictive-toxicology
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Pirosa, Riccardo Gottardi, Peter G Alexander, Rocky S Tuan
The production of veritable in-vitro models of bone tissue is essential to understand the biology of bone and its surrounding environment, to analyze the pathogenesis of bone diseases (e.g., osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, etc.), to develop effective therapeutic drug screening, and to test potential therapeutic strategies. Dysregulated interactions between vasculature and bone cells are often related to the aforementioned pathologies, underscoring the need for a bone model that contains engineered vasculature...
April 20, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626823/microcystin-leucine-arginine-mc-lr-induces-bone-loss-and-impairs-bone-micro-architecture-by-modulating-host-immunity-in-mice-implications-for-bone-health
#10
Hamid Y Dar, Yaqoob Lone, Raj Kumar Koiri, Pradyumna K Mishra, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoporosis or enhanced bone loss is one of the most commonly occurring bone conditions in the world, responsible for higher incidence of fractures leading to increased morbidity and mortality in adults. Bone loss is affected by various environmental factors including diet, age, drugs, toxins etc. Microcystins are toxins produced by cyanobacteria with microcystin-LR being the most abundantly found around the world effecting both human and animal health. The present study demonstrates that MC-LR treatment induces bone loss and impairs both trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture along with decreasing the mineral density and heterogeneity of bones in mice...
July 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564943/review-of-refractory-ceramic-fiber-rcf-toxicity-epidemiology-and-occupational-exposure
#11
L Daniel Maxim, Mark J Utell
This literature review on refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) summarizes relevant information on manufacturing, processing, applications, occupational exposure, toxicology and epidemiology studies. Rodent toxicology studies conducted in the 1980s showed that RCF caused fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Interpretation of these studies was difficult for various reasons (e.g. overload in chronic inhalation bioassays), but spurred the development of a comprehensive product stewardship program under EPA and later OSHA oversight...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464595/toxicological-study-of-the-degradation-products-of-antineoplastic-agent-etoposide-in-commercial-formulation-treated-by-heterogeneous-photocatalysis-using-srsno-3
#12
Idio Alves de Sousa Filho, Tatiane Martins Lobo, Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Ingrid Távora Weber, Marly Eiko Osugi
Etoposide is an antineoplastic agent used for treating lung cancer, testicular cancer, breast cancer, pediatric cancers, and lymphomas. It is a pollutant due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Disposal of waste from this drug is still insufficiently safe, and there is no appropriate waste treatment. Therefore, it is important to use advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) for the treatment and disposal of medicines like this. The use of strontium stannate (SrSnO3 ) as a catalyst in heterogeneous photocatalysis reactions has emerged as an alternative for the removal of organic pollutants...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458304/asbestos-fiber-length-and-its-relation-to-disease-risk
#13
Christy A Barlow, Matthew Grespin, Elizabeth A Best
Differences in chemical and crystalline composition, fiber dimension, aerodynamic characteristics and biodurability are among the critical factors that define the toxicological and pathological consequences of asbestos exposure. Specifically, fiber dimension can impact whether the fiber is respired, whether and how deeply it is deposited in the lung, and how efficiently and rapidly it may be cleared. This paper provides a current, comprehensive evaluation of the weight of evidence regarding the relationship between asbestos fiber length and disease potency (for malignant and nonmalignant endpoints)...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353197/bioanalytical-assessment-of-adaptive-stress-responses-in-drinking-water-a-predictive-tool-to-differentiate-between-micropollutants-and-disinfection-by-products
#14
Armelle Hebert, Cedric Feliers, Caroline Lecarpentier, Peta A Neale, Rita Schlichting, Sylvie Thibert, Beate I Escher
Drinking water can contain low levels of micropollutants, as well as disinfection by-products (DBPs) that form from the reaction of disinfectants with organic and inorganic matter in water. Due to the complex mixture of trace chemicals in drinking water, targeted chemical analysis alone is not sufficient for monitoring. The current study aimed to apply in vitro bioassays indicative of adaptive stress responses to monitor the toxicological profiles and the formation of DBPs in three drinking water distribution systems in France...
April 1, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291515/biodegradation-of-azure-b-dye-by-serratia-liquefaciens-and-its-validation-by-phytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-studies
#15
Izharul Haq, Abhay Raj, Markandeya
The azo dyes in textile industry are a major source of environmental pollution and cause serious threat to aquatic flora and fauna. The present study aims to evaluate the potential of previously isolated lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzyme producing Serratia liquefaciens in degradation of Azure-B (AB) dye. S. liquefaciens showed rapid decolourisation of AB dye (100 mg L-1 ) in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.2% glucose and yeast extract, and more than 90% dye decolourisation was observed at 48 h when incubated at 30 °C...
April 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245151/substantial-enhancement-of-anaerobic-pyridine-bio-mineralization-by-electrical-stimulation
#16
Xinbai Jiang, Jinyou Shen, Kaichun Xu, Dan Chen, Yang Mu, Xiuyun Sun, Weiqing Han, Jiansheng Li, Lianjun Wang
Due to highly recalcitrant and toxicological nature of pyridine, the conventional anaerobic bioprocess is often limited by low removal rate and poor process stability. In this study, an electricity-assisted anaerobic system was developed in order to enhance biodegradation of pyridine from wastewater. The results showed that the performance and stability of the anaerobic reactor was remarkably improved for pyridine biodegradation with the applied direct current of 0.3 mA, where the efficiencies of pyridine and total organic carbon removal as well as NH4 + -N formation were as high as 100...
March 1, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172162/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-respirable-particle-fraction-from-residential-house-dust
#17
Åsa Gustafsson, Annette M Krais, András Gorzsás, Thomas Lundh, Per Gerde
Indoor air pollution has caused increasing concern in recent years. As we spend most of our lives indoors, it is crucial to understand the health effects caused by indoor air pollution. Household dust serve as good proxy for accessing indoor air pollution, especially smaller dust particles that can pass into the lungs are of interest. In this study we present an efficient method for the isolation of dust particles in the respirable size range. The respirable fraction was recovered from vacuum cleaner bags, separated by stepwise sieving, followed by characterization for size, morphology, surface area, organic content and elemental composition...
February 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113559/proceedings-of-the-2017-national-toxicology-program-satellite-symposium
#18
Susan A Elmore, Famke Aeffner, Dinesh S Bangari, Torrie A Crabbs, Stacey Fossey, Shayne C Gad, Wanda M Haschek, Jessica S Hoane, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Ramesh C Kovi, Gail Pearse, Lyn M Wancket, Erin M Quist
The 2017 annual National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium, entitled "Pathology Potpourri," was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada at the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 36th annual meeting. The goal of this symposium was to present and discuss challenging diagnostic pathology and/or nomenclature issues. This article presents summaries of the speakers' talks along with select images that were used by the audience for voting and discussion. Various lesions and other topics covered during the symposium included renal papillary degeneration in perinatally exposed animals, an atriocaval mesothelioma, an unusual presentation of an alveolar-bronchiolar carcinoma, a paraganglioma of the organ of Zuckerkandl (also called an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma), the use of human muscle samples to illustrate the challenges of manual scoring of fluorescent staining, intertubular spermatocytic seminomas, medical device pathology assessment and discussion of the approval process, collagen-induced arthritis, incisor denticles, ameloblast degeneration and poorly mineralized enamel matrix, connective tissue paragangliomas, microcystin-LR toxicity, perivascular mast cells in the forebrain thalamus unrelated to treatment, and 2 cases that provided a review of the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) bone nomenclature and recommended application of the terminology in routine nonclinical toxicity studies...
October 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090445/release-of-particles-organic-compounds-and-metals-from-crumb-rubber-used-in-synthetic-turf-under-chemical-and-physical-stress
#19
Silvia Canepari, Paola Castellano, Maria Luisa Astolfi, Stefano Materazzi, Riccardo Ferrante, Dennis Fiorini, Roberta Curini
The chemical and morphological characteristics of materials released under chemical and physical stress by different rubber granulates used as infill materials in synthetic turf (recycled scrap tires, natural rubber, and a new-generation thermoplastic elastomer) were compared.The headspace solid-phase micro-extraction GC-MS analysis evidenced that at 70 °C natural rubber and thermoplastic elastomer release amounts of organic species much higher than recycled scrap tires. In particular, the desorption of mineral oils, with a prevalence of toxicologically relevant low-viscosity alkanes in the range C17-C22, and plasticizers (diisobutyl phthalate) was clearly evidenced...
January 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089634/surface-reactivity-of-amphibole-asbestos-a-comparison-between-crocidolite-and-tremolite
#20
Giovanni B Andreozzi, Alessandro Pacella, Ingrid Corazzari, Maura Tomatis, Francesco Turci
Among asbestos minerals, fibrous riebeckite (crocidolite) and tremolite share the amphibole structure but largely differ in terms of their iron content and oxidation state. In asbestos toxicology, iron-generated free radicals are largely held as one of the causes of asbestos malignant effect. With the aim of clarifying i) the relationship between Fe occurrence and asbestos surface reactivity, and ii) how free-radical generation is modulated by surface modifications of the minerals, UICC crocidolite and fibrous tremolite from Maryland were leached from 1 day to 1 month in an oxidative medium buffered at pH 7...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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