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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678192/engineering-in-vitro-stem-cell-based-vascularized-bone-models-for-drug-screening-and-predictive-toxicology
#1
REVIEW
Alessandro Pirosa, Riccardo Gottardi, Peter G Alexander, Rocky S Tuan
The production of veritable in-vitro models of bone tissue is essential to understand the biology of bone and its surrounding environment, to analyze the pathogenesis of bone diseases (e.g., osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, osteomyelitis, etc.), to develop effective therapeutic drug screening, and to test potential therapeutic strategies. Dysregulated interactions between vasculature and bone cells are often related to the aforementioned pathologies, underscoring the need for a bone model that contains engineered vasculature...
April 20, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626823/microcystin-leucine-arginine-mc-lr-induces-bone-loss-and-impairs-bone-micro-architecture-by-modulating-host-immunity-in-mice-implications-for-bone-health
#2
Hamid Y Dar, Yaqoob Lone, Raj Kumar Koiri, Pradyumna K Mishra, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoporosis or enhanced bone loss is one of the most commonly occurring bone conditions in the world, responsible for higher incidence of fractures leading to increased morbidity and mortality in adults. Bone loss is affected by various environmental factors including diet, age, drugs, toxins etc. Microcystins are toxins produced by cyanobacteria with microcystin-LR being the most abundantly found around the world effecting both human and animal health. The present study demonstrates that MC-LR treatment induces bone loss and impairs both trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture along with decreasing the mineral density and heterogeneity of bones in mice...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564943/review-of-refractory-ceramic-fiber-rcf-toxicity-epidemiology-and-occupational-exposure
#3
L Daniel Maxim, Mark J Utell
This literature review on refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) summarizes relevant information on manufacturing, processing, applications, occupational exposure, toxicology and epidemiology studies. Rodent toxicology studies conducted in the 1980s showed that RCF caused fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Interpretation of these studies was difficult for various reasons (e.g. overload in chronic inhalation bioassays), but spurred the development of a comprehensive product stewardship program under EPA and later OSHA oversight...
March 22, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464595/toxicological-study-of-the-degradation-products-of-antineoplastic-agent-etoposide-in-commercial-formulation-treated-by-heterogeneous-photocatalysis-using-srsno-3
#4
Idio Alves de Sousa Filho, Tatiane Martins Lobo, Cesar Koppe Grisolia, Ingrid Távora Weber, Marly Eiko Osugi
Etoposide is an antineoplastic agent used for treating lung cancer, testicular cancer, breast cancer, pediatric cancers, and lymphomas. It is a pollutant due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Disposal of waste from this drug is still insufficiently safe, and there is no appropriate waste treatment. Therefore, it is important to use advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) for the treatment and disposal of medicines like this. The use of strontium stannate (SrSnO3 ) as a catalyst in heterogeneous photocatalysis reactions has emerged as an alternative for the removal of organic pollutants...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458304/asbestos-fiber-length-and-its-relation-to-disease-risk
#5
Christy A Barlow, Matthew Grespin, Elizabeth A Best
Differences in chemical and crystalline composition, fiber dimension, aerodynamic characteristics and biodurability are among the critical factors that define the toxicological and pathological consequences of asbestos exposure. Specifically, fiber dimension can impact whether the fiber is respired, whether and how deeply it is deposited in the lung, and how efficiently and rapidly it may be cleared. This paper provides a current, comprehensive evaluation of the weight of evidence regarding the relationship between asbestos fiber length and disease potency (for malignant and nonmalignant endpoints)...
October 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353197/bioanalytical-assessment-of-adaptive-stress-responses-in-drinking-water-a-predictive-tool-to-differentiate-between-micropollutants-and-disinfection-by-products
#6
Armelle Hebert, Cedric Feliers, Caroline Lecarpentier, Peta A Neale, Rita Schlichting, Sylvie Thibert, Beate I Escher
Drinking water can contain low levels of micropollutants, as well as disinfection by-products (DBPs) that form from the reaction of disinfectants with organic and inorganic matter in water. Due to the complex mixture of trace chemicals in drinking water, targeted chemical analysis alone is not sufficient for monitoring. The current study aimed to apply in vitro bioassays indicative of adaptive stress responses to monitor the toxicological profiles and the formation of DBPs in three drinking water distribution systems in France...
April 1, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291515/biodegradation-of-azure-b-dye-by-serratia-liquefaciens-and-its-validation-by-phytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-studies
#7
Izharul Haq, Abhay Raj, Markandeya
The azo dyes in textile industry are a major source of environmental pollution and cause serious threat to aquatic flora and fauna. The present study aims to evaluate the potential of previously isolated lignin peroxidase (LiP) enzyme producing Serratia liquefaciens in degradation of Azure-B (AB) dye. S. liquefaciens showed rapid decolourisation of AB dye (100 mg L-1 ) in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.2% glucose and yeast extract, and more than 90% dye decolourisation was observed at 48 h when incubated at 30 °C...
April 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245151/substantial-enhancement-of-anaerobic-pyridine-bio-mineralization-by-electrical-stimulation
#8
Xinbai Jiang, Jinyou Shen, Kaichun Xu, Dan Chen, Yang Mu, Xiuyun Sun, Weiqing Han, Jiansheng Li, Lianjun Wang
Due to highly recalcitrant and toxicological nature of pyridine, the conventional anaerobic bioprocess is often limited by low removal rate and poor process stability. In this study, an electricity-assisted anaerobic system was developed in order to enhance biodegradation of pyridine from wastewater. The results showed that the performance and stability of the anaerobic reactor was remarkably improved for pyridine biodegradation with the applied direct current of 0.3 mA, where the efficiencies of pyridine and total organic carbon removal as well as NH4 + -N formation were as high as 100...
March 1, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172162/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-respirable-particle-fraction-from-residential-house-dust
#9
Åsa Gustafsson, Annette M Krais, András Gorzsás, Thomas Lundh, Per Gerde
Indoor air pollution has caused increasing concern in recent years. As we spend most of our lives indoors, it is crucial to understand the health effects caused by indoor air pollution. Household dust serve as good proxy for accessing indoor air pollution, especially smaller dust particles that can pass into the lungs are of interest. In this study we present an efficient method for the isolation of dust particles in the respirable size range. The respirable fraction was recovered from vacuum cleaner bags, separated by stepwise sieving, followed by characterization for size, morphology, surface area, organic content and elemental composition...
February 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113559/proceedings-of-the-2017-national-toxicology-program-satellite-symposium
#10
Susan A Elmore, Famke Aeffner, Dinesh S Bangari, Torrie A Crabbs, Stacey Fossey, Shayne C Gad, Wanda M Haschek, Jessica S Hoane, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Ramesh C Kovi, Gail Pearse, Lyn M Wancket, Erin M Quist
The 2017 annual National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium, entitled "Pathology Potpourri," was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada at the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 36th annual meeting. The goal of this symposium was to present and discuss challenging diagnostic pathology and/or nomenclature issues. This article presents summaries of the speakers' talks along with select images that were used by the audience for voting and discussion. Various lesions and other topics covered during the symposium included renal papillary degeneration in perinatally exposed animals, an atriocaval mesothelioma, an unusual presentation of an alveolar-bronchiolar carcinoma, a paraganglioma of the organ of Zuckerkandl (also called an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma), the use of human muscle samples to illustrate the challenges of manual scoring of fluorescent staining, intertubular spermatocytic seminomas, medical device pathology assessment and discussion of the approval process, collagen-induced arthritis, incisor denticles, ameloblast degeneration and poorly mineralized enamel matrix, connective tissue paragangliomas, microcystin-LR toxicity, perivascular mast cells in the forebrain thalamus unrelated to treatment, and 2 cases that provided a review of the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) bone nomenclature and recommended application of the terminology in routine nonclinical toxicity studies...
October 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090445/release-of-particles-organic-compounds-and-metals-from-crumb-rubber-used-in-synthetic-turf-under-chemical-and-physical-stress
#11
Silvia Canepari, Paola Castellano, Maria Luisa Astolfi, Stefano Materazzi, Riccardo Ferrante, Dennis Fiorini, Roberta Curini
The chemical and morphological characteristics of materials released under chemical and physical stress by different rubber granulates used as infill materials in synthetic turf (recycled scrap tires, natural rubber, and a new-generation thermoplastic elastomer) were compared.The headspace solid-phase micro-extraction GC-MS analysis evidenced that at 70 °C natural rubber and thermoplastic elastomer release amounts of organic species much higher than recycled scrap tires. In particular, the desorption of mineral oils, with a prevalence of toxicologically relevant low-viscosity alkanes in the range C17-C22, and plasticizers (diisobutyl phthalate) was clearly evidenced...
January 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089634/surface-reactivity-of-amphibole-asbestos-a-comparison-between-crocidolite-and-tremolite
#12
Giovanni B Andreozzi, Alessandro Pacella, Ingrid Corazzari, Maura Tomatis, Francesco Turci
Among asbestos minerals, fibrous riebeckite (crocidolite) and tremolite share the amphibole structure but largely differ in terms of their iron content and oxidation state. In asbestos toxicology, iron-generated free radicals are largely held as one of the causes of asbestos malignant effect. With the aim of clarifying i) the relationship between Fe occurrence and asbestos surface reactivity, and ii) how free-radical generation is modulated by surface modifications of the minerals, UICC crocidolite and fibrous tremolite from Maryland were leached from 1 day to 1 month in an oxidative medium buffered at pH 7...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917762/full-validation-of-a-method-for-the-determination-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-non-mineralized-dental-biofilm-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-application-to-postmortem-samples
#13
Kerstin Henkel, Markus J Altenburger, Volker Auwärter, Merja A Neukamm
Alternative matrices play a major role in postmortem forensic toxicology, especially if common matrices (like body fluids or hair) are not available. Incorporation of illicit and medicinal drugs into non-mineralized dental biofilm (plaque) seems likely but has not been investigated so far. Analysis of plaque could therefore extend the spectrum of potentially used matrices in postmortem toxicology. For this reason, a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the extraction, determination and quantification of ten drugs of abuse from plaque using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and fully validated...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893249/assessment-of-the-potential-respiratory-hazard-of-volcanic-ash-from-future-icelandic-eruptions-a-study-of-archived-basaltic-to-rhyolitic-ash-samples
#14
David E Damby, Claire J Horwell, Gudrun Larsen, Thorvaldur Thordarson, Maura Tomatis, Bice Fubini, Ken Donaldson
BACKGROUND: The eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011), Iceland, triggered immediate, international consideration of the respiratory health hazard of inhaling volcanic ash, and prompted the need to estimate the potential hazard posed by future eruptions of Iceland's volcanoes to Icelandic and Northern European populations. METHODS: A physicochemical characterization and toxicological assessment was conducted on a suite of archived ash samples spanning the spectrum of past eruptions (basaltic to rhyolitic magmatic composition) of Icelandic volcanoes following a protocol specifically designed by the International Volcanic Health Hazard Network...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885868/evaluating-the-moa-human-relevance-framework-for-f-344-rat-liver-epithelioid-granulomas-with-mineral-oil-hydrocarbons
#15
REVIEW
David Adenuga, Katy Goyak, R Jeffrey Lewis
Toxicology feeding studies of mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), within the carbon number range C22-C28, results in species-specific epithelioid granulomas in the liver of F-344 rats but not in other rat strains, or species. While MOH has been detected, and some pathological effects have been shown to occur in other organs/tissues of F-344 rats and other rat strains/species, it is generally accepted that the effect of toxicological concern is species-specific inflammatory liver granuloma. As oil retention and other MOH-related nontoxic pathological changes in the liver are observed in humans, some have hypothesized that the potential for oil accumulation over a lifetime, through dietary sources, may predispose humans to similar liver effects as observed in F-344 rats...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799741/early-assessment-and-correlations-of-nanoclay-s-toxicity-to-their-physical-and-chemical-properties
#16
Alixandra Wagner, Andrew P White, Todd A Stueckle, Derrick Banerjee, Konstantinos A Sierros, Yon Rojanasakul, Sushant Agarwal, Rakesh K Gupta, Cerasela Zoica Dinu
Nanoclays' functionalization with organic modifiers increases their individual barrier properties, thermal stability, and mechanical properties and allows for ease of implementation in food packaging materials or medical devices. Previous reports have shown that, while organic modifiers integration between the layered mineral silicates leads to nanoclays with different degrees of hydrophobicity that become easily miscible in polymers, they could also pose possible effects at inhalation or ingestion routes of exposure...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796823/assessment-of-photocatalytic-potentiality-and-determination-of-ecotoxicity-using-plant-model-for-better-environmental-applicability-of-synthesized-copper-copper-oxide-and-copper-doped-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#17
Debadrito Das, Animesh Kumar Datta, Divya Vishambhar Kumbhakar, Bapi Ghosh, Ankita Pramanik, Sudha Gupta, Aninda Mandal
NPS SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND AZO-DYE DEGRADATION: A facile cost effective wet chemical method of synthesis is proposed for Cu-NPs, CuO-NPs and Cu-doped ZnO-NPs. The nanomaterials are opto-physically characterized for nano standard quality. Cu-doped ZnO-NPs based catalytic system is found to possess most efficient photocatalytic activity in degradation of two organic azo-dyes namely methyl red (MR) and malachite green (MG) that are released as industrial effluents in eco-environment intercollegium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729132/meclas-an-online-tool-for-hazard-identification-and-classification-of-complex-inorganic-metal-containing-materials
#18
Frederik Verdonck, Hugo Waeterschoot, Patrick Van Sprang, Isabelle Vercaigne, Katrien Delbeke, Chretien Simons, Violaine Verougstraete
MeClas is a web-based tool to generate (eco)toxicity hazard categories and corresponding classification & labelling information of inorganic metal-containing complex materials such as ores, concentrates, intermediates or alloys for which the manual application of the GHS/CLP rules is very complex and requires a high level of consistency. The tool comprises several tiers, aimed at the progressive refinement of classification through recognition of specific mineral content, speciation/mineralogy up to bio-availability corrections...
July 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696835/urinary-cadmium-levels-in-active-and-retired-coal-miners
#19
Julia Isermann, Hans-Martin Prager, Rainer Ebbinghaus, Beata Janasik, Wojciech Wasowicz, Bertinus Dufaux, Hans-Friedrich Meyer, Agata Widera, Silvia Selinski, Jan G Hengstler, Klaus Golka
A meta-analysis, based upon 24 publications, showed a significantly elevated risk for urinary bladder cancer amongst miners. In European underground hard coal mining areas, an increased risk for urinary bladder cancer development was noted among hard coal miners, in particular in three investigations in the greater Dortmund area. However, the cause remains unclear. As cadmium (Cd), which was reported to be a bladder carcinogen in humans and is a constituent of coal, the aim of this study was to determine urinary Cd levels in active and retired hard coal miners and assess whether hard coal miners demonstrated elevated metal levels...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643552/drug-induced-physeal-abnormalities-in-preclinical-toxicity-studies
#20
Kendall S Frazier
Most toxic physeal changes are characterized microscopically by altered chondrocyte development, proliferation, or maturation in the growth plate and eventually result in disordered appositional bone growth. Many therapeutic drugs directly or indirectly target proteins involved in chondrocytic differentiation and maturation pathways, so toxic physeal injury has become increasingly common in preclinical toxicologic pathology. While physeal dysplasia has been associated with several different drug classes including bisphosphonates, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors, fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors, transforming growth factor beta receptor inhibitors, and vascular targeting agents, physeal changes often share similar morphologic features including thickening and disorganization of the hypertrophic layer, increased numbers of hypertrophic chondrocytes, altered mineralization of endochondral ossification, and/or increased thickness of subphyseal bone...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
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