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mineral lead toxicology

Swaroop Kumar Pandey, Subhasish Biswas, Sarika Gunjan, Bhavana Singh Chauhan, Sunil Kumar Singh, Kumkum Srivastava, Sarika Singh, Sanjay Batra, Renu Tripathi
Aiming to develop new artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for malaria, antimalarial effect of a new series of pyrrolidine-acridine hybrid in combination with artemisinin derivatives was investigated. Synthesis, antimalarial and cytotoxic evaluation of a series of hybrid of 2-(3-(substitutedbenzyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)alkanamines and acridine were performed and mode of action of the lead compound was investigated. In vivo pharmacodynamic properties (parasite clearance time, parasite reduction ratio, dose and regimen determination) against multidrug resistant (MDR) rodent malaria parasite and toxicological parameters (median lethal dose, liver function test, kidney function test) were also investigated...
September 2016: Parasitology
S Kuchler-Bopp, T Bécavin, T Kökten, J L Weickert, L Keller, H Lesot, E Deveaux, N Benkirane-Jessel
The arrangement of cells within a tissue plays an essential role in organogenesis, including tooth development. Progress is being made to regenerate teeth by reassociating dissociated embryonic dental cells and implanting them in vivo. In the present study, we tested the hanging drop method to study mixed epithelial-mesenchymal cell reorganization in a liquid instead of semisolid medium to see whether it could lead to tooth histogenesis and organogenesis. This method allowed the control of the proportion and number of cells to be used, and the forming microtissues showed homogeneous size...
June 2016: Journal of Dental Research
L Põllumaa, A Kahru, A Eisenträger, R Reiman, A Maloveryan, A Rätsep
A new direct-contact toxicity test, the solid-phase flash assay, which utilises photobacteria in direct contact with soil particles during the exposure, was evaluated on four soil samples. Samples HTNT1 and HTNT2 originated from former military sites in Germany, and were highly contaminated with nitroaromatics (approximately 20g/kg), lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Samples LMKW1 and LMKW2, from bioremediation stacks in Germany, were mainly contaminated with mineral oils. The solid-phase flash assay was applied to soil-water slurries, and the results were compared with the toxicity data for soil-water extracts obtained by using various conventional ecotoxicological tests, in which photobacteria, crustaceans, protozoa and algae were used as test organisms...
May 2000: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Maria Do Sameiro Barroso
Bezoar stones, once used as universal antidotes and panaceas, but currently regarded as costly and useless medicines of the past, are a major milestone in the history of toxicology. Arabic physicians had been using bezoars in medicine from the 8th century onwards. In the 16th century, the Portuguese controlled bezoar trade from India, and the Portuguese doctors Garcia de Orta, Amatus Lusitanus, and Cristobal Acosta introduced the medicinal use of Oriental bezoars to European medical literature. Some criticism aside, leading European doctors prescribed bezoars mainly as powerful antidotes...
2014: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Qinglin Chen, Baoshan Yang, Hui Wang, Fei He, Yongchao Gao, Ryan A Scheel
Intensive use of atrazine and extensive dispersal of lead (Pb) have occurred in farmland with chemical agriculture development. However, the toxicological effect of their presence on soil microorganism remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of atrazine or Pb on the soil microbiota, soil net nitrogen mineralization, and atrazine residues over a 28-day microcosm incubation. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, typical microbe species, and a Neighbor-joining tree of typical species from sequencing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were determined across periodical sampling times...
January 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Arun Rasheed, Madhu Naik, Kotappadath Pillanayil Mohammed-Haneefa, Raveendran Pillai Arun-Kumar, Abdul Kharim Azeem
Bhasmas are unique Ayurvedic-metallic preparations with herbal juices/fruits, widely recommended to treat variety of chronic ailments. Trivanga bhasma, a calcinated preparation, is used to treat Diabetes mellitus and as Diuretic. In the present research an attempt has been made to carry out a comparative standardization of formulated Trivanga bhasma (TB1) prepared as per Ayurvedic formulary and marketed Trivanga bhasma (TB2) integrating conventional and modern analytical tools. The formulations were evaluated for physical properties, chemical characterization using FTIR, AAS, SEM, TGA, XRD and AFM along with anti-diabetic, diuretic and toxicology studies...
July 2014: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Grégory Chatelain, Damien Bourgeois, Johann Ravaux, Olivier Averseng, Claude Vidaud, Daniel Meyer
The classical simulated body fluids method cannot be employed to prepare biomimetic apatites encompassing metallic ions that lead to very stable phosphates. This is the case for heavy metals such as uranium, whose presence in bone mineral after contamination deserves toxicological study. We have demonstrated that existing methods, based on alternate dipping into calcium and phosphate ions solutions, can be adapted to achieve this aim. We have also especially studied the impact of the presence of carbonate ions in the medium as these are necessary to avoid hydrolysis of the contaminating metallic cations...
February 2014: Biomedical Materials
Gara Luis, Carmen Rubio, Angel J Gutiérrez, Dailos González-Weller, Consuelo Revert, Arturo Hardisson
Sweet potatoes are a staple in the diet of some people and an excellent source of minerals. Metal monitoring in food, like sweet potatoes, provides basic information on safety aspects in regulatory processes as well as nutritional values. One hundred five samples of three varieties of sweet potatoes were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmers' plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), while the levels of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry...
January 2014: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ming-Ling Wu, Jou-Fang Deng, Kon-Ping Lin, Wei-Jen Tsai
BACKGROUND: Metal poisonings through a mucocutaneous route are reported rarely in the literature. METHODS: We report 2 cases of heavy metal intoxication from inappropriate use of Chinese mineral medicines confirmed by toxicologic investigations. RESULTS: A 51-year-old man developed perianal gangrene and a high fever after a 2-week anal use of hong-dan herbal mixtures for anal fistula. He presented gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms, followed by skin rash, anemia, hair loss, peripheral neuropathy, and muscle atrophy...
May 2013: American Journal of Medicine
Daniela Manno, Elisabetta Carata, Bernadetta A Tenuzzo, Elisa Panzarini, Alessandro Buccolieri, Emanuela Filippo, Marco Rossi, Antonio Serra, Luciana Dini
A surprising and unexpected biomineralization process was observed during toxicological assessment of carbon nanoparticles on Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin) pluteus larvae. The larvae activate a process of defense against external material, by incorporating the nanoparticles into microstructures of aragonite similarly to pearl oysters. Aiming at a better understanding of this phenomenon, the larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations of carbon nanoparticles and the biomineralization products were analyzed by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy...
December 14, 2012: Nanotechnology
Xi Tang, John Yang
In an effort to address public concerns of the long-term stability and ecological risk reduction of phosphate (P)-stabilized lead (Pb) in mine wastes, mill tailings located at the Jasper County Superfund Site of southwest Missouri, containing ~4000 mg Pb kg(-1), were treated in situ by phosphoric acid at three rates: 0; 7.5; and 10.0 g P kg(-1) soil. Field experiment consisted of 2- by 4-m plots arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replicates of each P level. Soil and plant samples were collected at a 3-month interval during five to six (5-6) years post treatments and analyzed for Pb bioaccessibility and leachability, microbial toxicity, Pb chemical fraction, and elemental composition of Pb solids, and Pb concentration in plant tissue...
November 1, 2012: Science of the Total Environment
Thomas W Hesterberg, Christopher M Long, William B Bunn, Charles A Lapin, Roger O McClellan, Peter A Valberg
The mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), first noted more than 55 years ago, initiated an avalanche of diesel exhaust (DE) health effects research that now totals more than 6000 published studies. Despite an extensive body of results, scientific debate continues regarding the nature of the lung cancer risk posed by inhalation of occupational and environmental DE, with much of the debate focused on DEP. Decades of scientific scrutiny and increasingly stringent regulation have resulted in major advances in diesel engine technologies...
June 2012: Inhalation Toxicology
Reginaldo Geremias, Tiago Bortolotto, Danilo Wilhelm-Filho, Rozangela Curi Pedrosa, Valfredo Tadeu de Fávere
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined...
May 2012: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Belainesh Desta, Gizela Maldonado, Herman Reid, Birgit Puschner, James Maxwell, Alice Agasan, Leigh Humphreys, Thomas Holt
Just prior to an international polo event, 21 horses from one team exhibited clinical signs of central nervous system disturbance, hyperexcitability, sweating, ataxia, tachycardia, dyspnea, pyrexia, and rapid death. The suspected cause of this peracute onset of illness and death included intentional contamination of feed or iatrogenic administration of performance-enhancing drugs resulting in a severe adverse reaction. Six horses were submitted to the Bronson Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy and toxicological examination...
May 2011: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Ljerka Prester
Fish, cephalopods and shellfish provide a healthy source of high-quality proteins, essential vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The beneficial effects of fish consumption on human health such as protection against coronary heart disease and certain cancer may be offset by fish decomposition and the formation of chemical contaminants such as biogenic amines. There are several toxicological effects of biogenic amines on humans, especially histamine. It is the causative agent of histamine or scombroid fish poisoning which is a significant public health problem...
November 2011: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
A J Wakeman
The results above reported lead to the conclusion that while in the degenerating cells chemical changes are taking place tending toward a diminution of the hexon bases as a whole, they affect the arginin especially. One may picture the process either as a partial or as a complete breaking down of certain proteid. material more or less rich in hexon bases, leaving behind. proteid matter poorer in bases. The meaning of these changes is, however, obscure, and with the limited number of known facts bearing upon the subject, it would seem idle even to attempt to formulate an hypothesis to explain them...
June 10, 1905: Journal of Experimental Medicine
David Vearrier, John A Curtis, Michael I Greenberg
INTRODUCTION: Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous throughout the earth's crust. Human manipulation of NORM for economic ends, such as mining, ore processing, fossil fuel extraction, and commercial aviation, may lead to what is known as "technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials," often called TENORM. The existence of TENORM results in an increased risk for human exposure to radioactivity. Workers in TENORM-producing industries may be occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation...
May 2009: Clinical Toxicology
D Bontje, B W Kooi, M Liebig, S A L M Kooijman
We study the effects of toxicants on the functioning of phototrophic unicellular organism (an algae) in a simple aquatic microcosm by applying a parameter-sparse model. The model allows us to study the interaction between ecological and toxicological effects. Nutrient stress and toxicant stress, together or alone, can cause extinction of the algal population. The modelled algae consume dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) under surplus light and use it for growth and maintenance. Dead algal biomass is mineralized by bacterial activity, leading to nutrient recycling...
July 2009: Water Research
Christiane Schulz-Zunkel, Frank Krueger
This paper reviews trace metal dynamics in floodplain soils using the Elbe floodplains in Germany as an example of extraordinary importance because of the pollution level of its sediments and soils. Trace metal dynamics are determined by processes of retention and release, which are influenced by a number of soil properties including pH value, redox potential, organic matter, type and amount of clay minerals, iron-, manganese- and aluminum-oxides. Today floodplains act as important sinks for contaminants but under changing hydraulic and geochemical conditions they may also act as sources for pollutants...
July 2009: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ashley I Bush
The recent report of positive results from a Phase IIa clinical trial of PBT2, a novel drug that targets amyloid-beta-metal interactions, underscores the value of abnormal transition metal metabolism as a potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease. The Metals Hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease is based upon observations of the precipitation of amyloid-beta by zinc and its radicalization by copper. Both metals are markedly enriched in plaques. The Hypothesis involves the perturbance of these endogenous brain metals, and it does not consider toxicological exposure part of pathogenesis...
October 2008: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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