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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926867/genomic-instability-is-induced-by-persistent-proliferation-of-cells-undergoing-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#1
Valentine Comaills, Lilian Kabeche, Robert Morris, Rémi Buisson, Min Yu, Marissa Wells Madden, Joseph A LiCausi, Myriam Boukhali, Ken Tajima, Shiwei Pan, Nicola Aceto, Srinjoy Sil, Yu Zheng, Tilak Sundaresan, Toshifumi Yae, Nicole Vincent Jordan, David T Miyamoto, David T Ting, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Wilhelm Haas, Lee Zou, Daniel A Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran
TGF-β secreted by tumor stroma induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, a reversible phenotype linked to cancer progression and drug resistance. However, exposure to stromal signals may also lead to heritable changes in cancer cells, which are poorly understood. We show that epithelial cells failing to undergo proliferation arrest during TGF-β-induced EMT sustain mitotic abnormalities due to failed cytokinesis, resulting in aneuploidy. This genomic instability is associated with the suppression of multiple nuclear envelope proteins implicated in mitotic regulation and is phenocopied by modulating the expression of LaminB1...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926485/axitinib-induces-senescence-associated-cell-death-and-necrosis-in-glioma-cell-lines-the-proteasome-inhibitor-bortezomib-potentiates-axitinib-induced-cytotoxicity-in-a-p21-waf-cip1-dependent-manner
#2
Maria Beatrice Morelli, Consuelo Amantini, Massimo Nabissi, Claudio Cardinali, Matteo Santoni, Giovanni Bernardini, Angela Santoni, Giorgio Santoni
Glioblastoma is associated with a poor overall survival despite new treatment advances. Antiangiogenic strategies targeting VEGF based on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently undergoing extensive research for the treatment of glioma.Herein we demonstrated that the TKI axitinib induces DNA damage response (DDR) characterized by γ-H2AX phosphorylation and Chk1 kinase activation leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest and mitotic catastrophe in U87, T98 and U251 glioma cell lines. Moreover, we found that p21(Waf1/Cip1) increased levels correlates with induction of ROS and senescence-associated cell death in U87 and T98 cell lines, which are reverted by N-acetyl cysteine pretreatment...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925861/modeling-heavy-ion-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-after-acute-and-fractionated-irradiation
#3
Eliedonna Cacao, Francis A Cucinotta
Radiation-induced impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is a concern due to its reported association with cognitive detriments after radiotherapy for brain cancers and the possible risks to astronauts chronically exposed to space radiation. Here, we have extended our recent work in a mouse model of impaired neurogenesis after exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion radiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a predictive mathematical model of radiation-induced changes to neurogenesis for a variety of radiation types after acute or fractionated irradiation...
December 7, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925395/persistency-of-enlarged-autolysosomes-underscores-nanoparticle-induced-autophagy-in-hepatocytes
#4
Ji-Qian Zhang, Wei Zhou, Sha-Sha Zhu, Jun Lin, Peng-Fei Wei, Fen-Fen Li, Pei-Pei Jin, Han Yao, Yun-Jiao Zhang, Yi Hu, Yi-Ming Liu, Ming Chen, Zheng-Quan Li, Xue-Sheng Liu, Li Bai, Long-Ping Wen
The diverse biological effects of nanomaterials form the basis for their applications in biomedicine but also cause safety issues. Induction of autophagy is a cellular response after nanoparticles exposure. It may be beneficial in some circumstances, yet autophagy-mediated toxicity raises an alarming concern. Previously, it has been reported that upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) elicit liver damage, with autophagy contributing most of this toxicity. However, the detailed mechanism is unclear. This study reveals persistent presence of enlarged autolysosomes in hepatocytes after exposure to UCNs and SiO2 nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo...
December 7, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925349/hepatitis-c-viremia-reversibly-maintains-subset-of-antigen-specific-t-bet-tissue-like-memory-b-cells
#5
Li-Yuan Chang, Yonghai Li, David E Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Chronic antigen exposure and/or aging increases the frequency of T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet)-expressing B-lymphocytes in mice. The frequency and significance of B-cell T-bet expression during chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection in human subjects has never been described. METHODS: Healthy controls, cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic HCV-infected patients, and non-HCV patients with cirrhosis were recruited. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were phenotyped for expression of T-bet and related markers by flow cytometry...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925273/biochemical-response-of-the-africanized-honeybee-exposed-to-fipronil
#6
Thaisa C Roat, Stephan M Carvalho, Mário S Palma, Osmar Malaspina
Bees are recognized worldwide for their social, economic, and environmental value; however, they have been seriously threatened in recent decades by diseases and by high levels of pesticide use. The susceptibility of bees to insecticides makes them an important terrestrial model for assessing environmental quality, and various biomarkers have been developed for these assessments. The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Africanized honeybees exposed to fipronil...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925256/pharmacokinetic-drug-drug-interactions-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-a-focus-on-cytochrome-p450-transporters-and-acid-suppression-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Caroline Gay, Delphine Toulet, Pascal Le Corre
The extensive use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI's) in hematology and oncology has shown that these drugs have a significant potential for drug-drug interactions. Since these drugs have a rather low therapeutic window, some drug interactions are of particular clinical relevance either on drug toxicity or on patient's response. Significant interactions occur with concomitant use of acid-suppressive therapy leading to a decreased oral bioavailability. However, such interactions are drug dependent according to their solubility pattern and to the duration of action of acid-suppressive therapy, which is coprescribed...
December 7, 2016: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924816/an-analysis-of-human-exposure-to-trace-elements-from-deliberate-soil-ingestion-and-associated-health-risks
#8
Veronica M Ngole-Jeme, Georges-Ive E Ekosse, Sandile P Songca
Fifty-seven samples of soils commonly ingested in South Africa, Swaziland, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Togo were analyzed for the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) and their bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract. Bioaccessibility values were used to calculate daily intake, and hazard quotient of each trace element, and chronic hazard index (CHI) of each sample. Carcinogenic risk associated with As and Ni exposure were also calculated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923775/the-plasticizer-bbp-selectively-inhibits-epigenetic-regulator-sirtuin-during-differentiation-of-c3h10t1-2-stem-cell-line
#9
Jian Zhang, Mahua Choudhury
Exposure to environmental chemicals can perturb an individual's metabolic set point, especially during critical periods of development, and as a result increase his or her propensity towards obesity that is manifested later in life and possibly in successive generations. We hypothesized that benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), a widespread endocrine disruptor, may impair one important epigenetic regulator, sirtuin, in mesenchymal stem cells and induce adipogenesis. Our results showed that gene expression of two well-known adipogenic markers, aP2 and PPARγ, were significantly increased from day 2 to day 8 under 50μM BBP exposure when compared to control in C3H10T1/2 stem cells (p<0...
December 3, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923707/three-dimensional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-quantification-of-glenoid-bone-loss-is-equivalent-to-3-dimensional-computed-tomography-quantification-cadaveric-study
#10
Adam B Yanke, Jason J Shin, Ian Pearson, Bernard R Bach, Anthony A Romeo, Brian J Cole, Nikhil N Verma
PURPOSE: To assess the ability of 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 1.5 and 3 tesla [T]) to quantify glenoid bone loss in a cadaveric model compared with the current gold standard, 3D computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Six cadaveric shoulders were used to create a bone loss model, leaving the surrounding soft tissues intact. The anteroposterior (AP) dimension of the glenoid was measured at the glenoid equator and after soft tissue layer closure the specimen underwent scanning (CT, 1...
December 3, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923585/prenatal-lead-exposure-and-fetal-growth-smaller-infants-have-heightened-susceptibility
#11
Rodosthenis S Rodosthenous, Heather H Burris, Katherine Svensson, Chitra J Amarasiriwardena, Alejandra Cantoral, Lourdes Schnaas, Adriana Mercado-García, Brent A Coull, Robert O Wright, Martha M Téllez-Rojo, Andrea A Baccarelli
BACKGROUND: As population lead levels decrease, the toxic effects of lead may be distributed to more sensitive populations, such as infants with poor fetal growth. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of prenatal lead exposure and fetal growth; and to evaluate whether infants with poor fetal growth are more susceptible to lead toxicity than those with normal fetal growth. METHODS: We examined the association of second trimester maternal blood lead levels (BLL) with birthweight-for-gestational age (BWGA) z-score in 944 mother-infant participants of the PROGRESS cohort...
December 3, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923414/missing-data-in-ffqs-making-assumptions-about-item-non-response
#12
Karen E Lamb, Dana Lee Olstad, Cattram Nguyen, Catherine Milte, Sarah A McNaughton
OBJECTIVE: FFQs are a popular method of capturing dietary information in epidemiological studies and may be used to derive dietary exposures such as nutrient intake or overall dietary patterns and diet quality. As FFQs can involve large numbers of questions, participants may fail to respond to all questions, leaving researchers to decide how to deal with missing data when deriving intake measures. The aim of the present commentary is to discuss the current practice for dealing with item non-response in FFQs and to propose a research agenda for reporting and handling missing data in FFQs...
December 7, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923055/a-novel-rrm3-function-in-restricting-dna-replication-via-an-orc5-binding-domain-is-genetically-separable-from-rrm3-function-as-an-atpase-helicase-in-facilitating-fork-progression
#13
Salahuddin Syed, Claus Desler, Lene J Rasmussen, Kristina H Schmidt
In response to replication stress cells activate the intra-S checkpoint, induce DNA repair pathways, increase nucleotide levels, and inhibit origin firing. Here, we report that Rrm3 associates with a subset of replication origins and controls DNA synthesis during replication stress. The N-terminal domain required for control of DNA synthesis maps to residues 186-212 that are also critical for binding Orc5 of the origin recognition complex. Deletion of this domain is lethal to cells lacking the replication checkpoint mediator Mrc1 and leads to mutations upon exposure to the replication stressor hydroxyurea...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923048/contribution-of-wastewater-irrigation-to-soil-transmitted-helminths-infection-among-vegetable-farmers-in-kumasi-ghana
#14
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Amina Abubakari, Thor Axel Stenström, Robert Clement Abaidoo, Razak Seidu
Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively) and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922139/are-low-sun-exposure-and-or-vitamin-d-risk-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#15
K M Miller, P H Hart, N H de Klerk, E A Davis, R M Lucas
The global variation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence rates is one of the most significant observed for any non-communicable disease. Geographical patterns in incidence suggest that low sun exposure may contribute to the wide disparity, with incidence rates generally increasing with distance from the Equator. T1D development is associated with hyperactivity of the adaptive immune system leading to autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. Both exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and vitamin D, with their known immunosuppressive effects, have the potential to delay or inhibit the disease...
December 6, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921453/integrating-ion-mobility-spectrometry-into-mass-spectrometry-based-exposome-measurements-what-can-it-add-and-how-far-can-it-go
#16
Thomas O Metz, Erin S Baker, Emma L Schymanski, Ryan S Renslow, Dennis G Thomas, Tim J Causon, Ian K Webb, Stephan Hann, Richard D Smith, Justin G Teeguarden
Measuring the exposome remains a challenge due to the range and number of anthropogenic molecules that are encountered in our daily lives, as well as the complex systemic responses to these exposures. One option for improving the coverage, dynamic range and throughput of measurements is to incorporate ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) into current MS-based analytical methods. The implementation of IMS in exposomics studies will lead to more frequent observations of previously undetected chemicals and metabolites...
January 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920896/assessing-the-hyperthermic-properties-of-magnetic-heterostructures-the-case-of-gold-iron-oxide-composites
#17
Elvira Fantechi, Paula M Castillo, Erika Conca, Francesca Cugia, Claudio Sangregorio, Maria Francesca Casula
Gold-iron oxide composites were obtained by in situ reduction of an Au(III) precursor by an organic reductant (either potassium citrate or tiopronin) in a dispersion of preformed iron oxide ultrasmall magnetic (USM) nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, chemical analysis and mid-infrared spectroscopy show the successful deposition of gold domains on the preformed magnetic nanoparticles, and the occurrence of either citrate or tiopronin as surface coating. The potential of the USM@Au nanoheterostructures as heat mediators for therapy through magnetic fluid hyperthermia was determined by calorimetric measurements under sample irradiation by an alternating magnetic field with intensity and frequency within the safe values for biomedical use...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920821/protective-effect-of-vitamin-c-vitamin-b12-and-omega-3-on-lead-induced-memory-impairment-in-rat
#18
Saeedeh Alsadat Moosavirad, Mohammad Rabbani, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ali Hosseini-Sharifabad
Lead belongs to the heavy metal group and is considered as an environmental contaminant. Acute or chronic contact to lead can change the physiological function of human organs. One of the most important disorders following the lead exposure is neurotoxicity. Lead neurotoxicity consists of the neurobehavioral disturbances like cognitive impairment. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of vitamin C (Vit C), vitamin B12 (Vit B12), omega 3 (ω-3), or their combination on the lead-induced memory disorder...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919701/evaluation-of-the-neurotoxic-effects-of-chronic-embryonic-exposure-with-inorganic-mercury-on-motor-and-anxiety-like-responses-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#19
Noraini Abu Bakar, Nurul Syafida Asma' Mohd Sata, Nurul Farhana Ramlan, Wan Norhamidah Wan Ibrahim, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai
Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919640/the-french-human-biomonitoring-program-first-lessons-from-the-perinatal-component-and-future-needs
#20
Clémentine Dereumeaux, Clémence Fillol, Marie-Aline Charles, Sébastien Denys
This paper presents a progress report of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program established in 2010. This program has been designed to provide a national representative estimation of the French population's exposure to various environmental chemicals and to study the determinants of exposure. This program currently consists in two surveys: a perinatal component related to a selection of 4145 pregnant women who have been enrolled in the Elfe cohort (the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood) in 2011, and a general population survey related to adults aged 18-74 years and children as from 6 years (Esteban)...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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