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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458116/junk-food-advertising-moderates-the-indirect-effect-of-reward-sensitivity-and-food-consumption-via-the-urge-to-eat
#1
Chloe Kidd, Natalie J Loxton
The current study aimed to identify how underlying individual differences increases vulnerability to television food advertising. In particular, this study examined how reward sensitivity, a biologically-based predisposition to approach rewards (such as appetitive foods) in the environment, influenced participants' vulnerability to television food advertising and subsequent food consumption. Ninety-eight participants were randomly assigned to a cue condition (food cues versus non-food cues) and then viewed a 30 min documentary interrupted by advertising featuring a mix of food and neutral advertising (food cue condition) or only neutral advertising (non-food cue condition)...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457983/antimycobacterial-effect-of-ifng-interferon-gamma-induced-autophagy-is-dependent-on-the-hmox1-heme-oxygenase-1-mediated-increase-in-the-intracellular-calcium-levels-and-modulation-of-ppp3-calcineurin-tfeb-transcription-factor-eb-axis
#2
Nisha Singh, Pallavi Kansal, Zeeshan Ahmad, Naveen Baid, Hariom Kushwaha, Neeraj Khatri, Ashwani Kumar
IFNG (interferon gamma)-induced autophagy plays an important role in the elimination of intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the signaling cascade that leads to the increase in autophagy flux in response to IFNG is poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that HMOX1 (heme oxygenase 1)-generated carbon monoxide (CO) is required for the induction of autophagy and killing of Mtb residing in macrophages in response to immunomodulation by IFNG. Interestingly, IFNG exposure of macrophages induces an increase in intracellular calcium levels that is dependent on HMOX1 generated CO...
February 19, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457680/chronic-lead-exposure-enhances-the-sympathoexcitatory-response-associated-with-p2x4-receptor-in-rat-stellate-ganglia
#3
Gaochun Zhu, Zhenying Chen, Bo Dai, Chaoran Zheng, Huaide Jiang, Yurong Xu, Xuan Sheng, Jingjing Guo, Yu Dan, Shangdong Liang, Guilin Li
Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia injury. However, whether P2X4 receptor participates in sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure and the possible mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the change of the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure via the P2X4 receptor in the stellate ganglion (SG)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456943/transnasal-endoscopic-optic-nerve-decompression-in-post-traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#4
Devang Gupta, Monica Gadodia
To quantify the successful outcome in patients following optic nerve decompression in post traumatic unilateral optic neuropathy in form of improvement in visual acuity. A prospective study was carried out over a period of 5 years (January 2011 to June 2016) at civil hospital Ahmedabad. Total 20 patients were selected with optic neuropathy including patients with direct and indirect trauma to unilateral optic nerve, not responding to conservative management, leading to optic neuropathy and subsequent impairment in vision and blindness...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456636/expression-of-diaphragmatic-myostatin-and-correlation-with-apoptosis-in-rats-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Xu Zhou, Daijiao Yi, Yanhong Wu, Xinghua Pei, Haiming Yu, Yanhong Chen, Yu Jiang, Wenpu Li
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation and loss of lung function. The present study aimed to investigate the diaphragmatic protein expression of myostatin and its correlation with apoptosis in a rat model of CPOD. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and a COPD group, the latter of which were exposed to cigarette smoke to build a rat model of COPD. The validity of the COPD model was evaluated by assessment of lung function and histopathological analysis...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456523/g-protein-coupled-receptors-as-regulators-of-localized-translation-the-forgotten-pathway
#6
REVIEW
Aurélie Tréfier, Lucie P Pellissier, Astrid Musnier, Eric Reiter, Florian Guillou, Pascale Crépieux
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exert their physiological function by transducing a complex signaling network that coordinates gene expression and dictates the phenotype of highly differentiated cells. Much is known about the gene networks they transcriptionally regulate upon ligand exposure in a process that takes hours before a new protein is synthesized. However, far less is known about GPCR impact on the translational machinery and subsequent mRNA translation, although this gene regulation level alters the cell phenotype in a strikingly different timescale...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456486/generic-hrtfs-may-be-good-enough-in-virtual-reality-improving-source-localization-through-cross-modal-plasticity
#7
Christopher C Berger, Mar Gonzalez-Franco, Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Dinei Florencio, Zhengyou Zhang
Auditory spatial localization in humans is performed using a combination of interaural time differences, interaural level differences, as well as spectral cues provided by the geometry of the ear. To render spatialized sounds within a virtual reality (VR) headset, either individualized or generic Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) are usually employed. The former require arduous calibrations, but enable accurate auditory source localization, which may lead to a heightened sense of presence within VR. The latter obviate the need for individualized calibrations, but result in less accurate auditory source localization...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456072/acute-illness-from-campylobacter-jejuni-may-require-high-doses-while-infection-occurs-at-low-doses
#8
Peter F M Teunis, Axel Bonačić Marinović, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Arno Swart
Data from a set of different studies on the infectivity and pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed with a multilevel model, allowing for effects of host species (nonhuman primates and humans) and different strains of the pathogen. All challenge studies involved high doses of the pathogen, resulting in all exposed subjects to become infected. In only one study a dose response effect (increasing trend with dose) for infection was observed. High susceptibility to infection with C. jejuni was found in a joint analysis of outbreaks and challenge studies...
February 8, 2018: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455390/utility-of-multiple-rule-out-ct-screening-of-high-risk-atraumatic-patients-in-an-emergency-department-a-feasibility-study
#9
Mia M Pries-Heje, Rasmus B Hasselbalch, Henriette Raaschou, Bijan Rezanavaz-Gheshlagh, Hanne Heebøll, Shazia Rehman, Mariana Kristensen, Erik Henning Andersen, Lisbet Ravn, Michel C Nèmery, Morten N Lind, Thomas Boel, Peter Sommer Ulriksen, Kasper K Iversen
BACKGROUND: Several large trials have evaluated the effect of CT screening based on specific symptoms, with varying outcomes. Screening of patients with CT based on their prognosis alone has not been examined before. For moderate-to-high risk patients presenting in the emergency department (ED), the potential gain from a CT scan might outweigh the risk of radiation exposure. We hypothesized that an accelerated "multiple rule out" CT screening of moderate-to-high risk patients will detect many clinically unrecognized diagnoses that affect change in treatment...
February 17, 2018: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455351/lead-facilitates-foci-formation-in-a-balb-c-3t3-two-step-cell-transformation-model-role-of-ape1-function
#10
Pablo Hernández-Franco, Martín Silva, Rodrigo Franco, Mahara Valverde, Emilio Rojas
Several possible mechanisms have been examined to gain an understanding on the carcinogenic properties of lead, which include among others, mitogenesis, alteration of gene expression, oxidative damage, and inhibition of DNA repair. The aim of the present study was to explore if low concentrations of lead, relevant for human exposure, interfere with Ape1 function, a base excision repair enzyme, and its role in cell transformation in Balb/c-3T3. Lead acetate 5 and 30 μM induced APE1 mRNA and upregulation of protein expression...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454986/nano-sized-tio-2-ntio-2-induces-metabolic-perturbations-in-physarum-polycephalum-macroplasmodium-to-counter-oxidative-stress-under-dark-conditions
#11
Zhi Zhang, Zhi Cheng Liang, Jian Hua Zhang, Sheng Li Tian, Jun Le Qu, Jiao Ning Tang, Shi De Liu
Nano-sized TiO2 (nTiO2 ) exerts an oxidative effect on cells upon exposure to solar or UV irradiation and ecotoxicity of the nTiO2 is an urgent concern. Little information is available regarding the effect of TiO2 on cells under dark conditions. Metabolomics is a unique approach to the discovery of biomarkers of nTiO2 cytotoxicity, and leads to the identification of perturbed metabolic pathways and the mechanism underlying nTiO2 toxicity. In the present study, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the effect of nTiO2 on sensitive cells (P...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454851/declines-in-adult-blood-lead-levels-in-new-york-city-compared-with-the-united-states-2004-2014
#12
Alexis Feinberg, Wendy McKelvey, Paromita Hore, Rania Kanchi, Patrick J Parsons, Christopher D Palmer, Lorna E Thorpe
OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in lead exposure in the New York City (NYC) adult population over a 10-year period and to contrast changes with national estimates, overall, and by socio-demographics and smoking status. METHODS: We used measurements of blood lead levels (BLLs) from NYC resident adults who participated in the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (HANES) in 2004 and 2013-2014. We compared estimates of geometric means (GM), 95th percentiles, and prevalence of BLL ≥ 5 µg/dL overall and by subgroups over time, with adults who participated in the National HANES (NHANES) 2001-2004 and 2011-2014...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454797/alterations-in-intestinal-microbiota-lead-to-production-of-interleukin-17-by-intrahepatic-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-receptor-positive-cells-and-pathogenesis-of-cholestatic-liver-disease
#13
Dana Tedesco, Manoj Thapa, Chui-Yoke Chin, Yong Ge, Minghao Gong, Jing Li, Sanjeev Gumber, Patrick Speck, Elizabeth J Elrod, Eileen M Burd, William H Kitchens, Joseph F Magliocca, Andrew B Adams, David S Weiss, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Arash Grakoui
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Variants at the ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 4 gene (ABCB4 or MDR2) locus, which encodes a biliary transport protein, are associated with a spectrum of cholestatic liver diseases. Exacerbation of liver disease has been linked to increased hepatic levels of interleukin 17 (IL17), yet the mechanisms of this increase are not understood. We studied mice with disruption of Mdr2 to determine how defects in liver and alteration in the microbiota contribute to production of IL17 by intrahepatic γδ T cells...
February 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454490/subchronic-exposure-to-acrylamide-leads-to-pancreatic-islet-remodeling-determined-by-alpha-cell-expansion-and-beta-cell-mass-reduction-in-adult-rats
#14
Milena Stošić, Milica Matavulj, Jelena Marković
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic substance, used to synthesize polymers for industrial and laboratory processes. Also, AA is a food contaminant formed during the high temperature preparation of carbohydrate-rich food. The main subject of this study was to examine effects of subchronic AA treatment on the islets of Langerhans of adult rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of glucagon and insulin expression and stereological analyses of pancreatic alpha and beta cells were performed...
February 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454270/cadmium-induced-stress-response-of-phanerochaete-chrysosporium-during-the-biodegradation-of-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-47
#15
Mi Feng, Hua Yin, Yajuan Cao, Hui Peng, Guining Lu, Zehua Liu, Zhi Dang
Cd-induced stress response of Phanerochaete chrysosporium during the biodegradation of BDE-47 was investigated in this study, with the goal of elucidating the tolerance behavior and the detoxification mechanisms of P. chrysosporium to resist the Cd stress in the course of BDE-47 biodegradation, which has implications for expanding the application of P. chrysosporium in the bioremediation of Cd and BDE-47 combined pollution. The results suggested that single BDE-47 exposure did not induce obvious oxidative stress in P...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454080/is-the-childhood-home-food-environment-a-confounder-of-the-association-between-child-maltreatment-exposure-and-adult-body-mass-index
#16
S M Mason, N J Santaularia, J M Berge, N Larson, D Neumark-Sztainer
Childhood maltreatment is consistently associated with adult obesity, leading to calls for tailored weight interventions for people with maltreatment histories. However, it is possible that the maltreatment-obesity association is spurious and driven by unmeasured confounding, in which case such interventions would be misplaced. The home food environment in childhood is a potential confounder, but its role in the association of maltreatment with obesity has not been examined. We used a longitudinal dataset (Project EAT) to examine the association of adult retrospective reports of maltreatment history in childhood (1+ types of maltreatment before age 18 years) with previously-collected prospective childhood reports of home food environment characteristics (availability of healthy foods, availability of sweet/salty snack food, family meal frequency, and food insufficiency)...
February 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454062/laser-assisted-delivery-of-synergistic-combination-chemotherapy-in-in-vivo-skin
#17
Emily Wenande, Joshua Tam, Brijesh Bhayana, Steven Kyle Schlosser, Emily Ishak, William A Farinelli, Agata Chlopik, Mai P Hoang, Omar R Pinkhasov, Peter Caravan, R Rox Anderson, Merete Haedersdal
The effectiveness of topical drugs for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer is greatly reduced by insufficient penetration to deep skin layers. Ablative fractional lasers (AFLs) are known to enhance topical drug uptake by generating narrow microchannels through the skin, but information on AFL-drug delivery in in vivo conditions is limited. In this study, we examined pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and toxicity of two synergistic chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), following AFL-assisted delivery alone or in combination in in vivo porcine skin...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453874/outcomes-of-early-dermatology-consultation-for-inpatients-diagnosed-with-cellulitis
#18
David G Li, Fan Di Xia, Hasan Khosravi, Anna K Dewan, Daniel J Pallin, Christopher W Baugh, Karl Laskowski, Cara Joyce, Arash Mostaghimi
Importance: Many inflammatory skin dermatoses mimic cellulitis (pseudocellulitis) and are treated with antibiotics and/or hospitalization, leading to unnecessary patient morbidity and substantial health care spending. Objective: To evaluate the impact of early dermatology consultation on clinical and economic outcomes associated with misdiagnosed cellulitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study enrolled patients with presumed diagnosis of cellulitis in the emergency department, in the emergency department observation unit, or within 24 hours of admission to an inpatient unit of a large urban teaching hospital between February and September 2017...
February 16, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453775/effect-of-pparg-on-ages-induced-akt-mtor-signaling-associated-human-chondrocytes-autophagy
#19
Zhao-Jun Wang, Hai-Bin Zhang, Cheng Chen, Hao Huang, Jian-Xia Liang
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in articular cartilage is thought to represent a major risk factor for osteoarthritis development. In this study we aimed to probe the role of AGEs in human chondrocytes and to determine the impact of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) on AGEs-induced cell autophagy. Cell viability was measured after human chondrocytes were treated with different concentrations of AGEs with or without the PPARG inhibitor, T0070907, or agonist, pioglitazone...
February 17, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453693/exploiting-the-unique-phenotypes-of-the-earthworm-eudrilus-eugeniae-to-evaluate-the-toxicity-of-chemical-substances
#20
Beryl Vedha Yesudhason, Paulkumar Kanniah, Elaiya Raja Subramanian, Vasanthakumar Ponesakki, Veeraragavan Rajendiran, Sudhakar Sivasubramaniam
Both the evaluation and the determination of toxicity of chemical substances present in the environment have implications in human health. In this present study, the natural phenomenon named autotomy, a self-defense mechanism employed by several animals against the toxic chemical contaminants, was considered to assess the toxicity of different chemical substances. We investigated the effects of glucose, sodium chloride, kanamycin, mercuric chloride, arsenic trioxide, and lead oxide on the phenotypes of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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