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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232689/a-computational-model-for-regulation-of-nanoscale-glucan-exposure-in-candida-albicans
#1
Michael J Wester, Jia Lin, Aaron K Neumann
Candida albicans is a virulent human opportunistic pathogen. It evades innate immune surveillance by masking an immunogenic cell wall polysaccharide, β-glucan, from recognition by the immunoreceptor Dectin-1. Glucan unmasking by the antifungal drug caspofungin leads to changes in the nanostructure of glucan exposure accessible to Dectin-1. The physical mechanism that regulates glucan exposure is poorly understood, but it controls the nanobiology of fungal pathogen recognition. We created computational models to simulate hypothetical physical processes of unmasking glucan in a biologically realistic distribution of cell wall glucan fibrils...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232685/surgical-management-of-deep-brain-stimulator-scalp-erosion-without-hardware-removal
#2
Michael D Staudt, Navid Pourtaheri, Gregory E Lakin, Hooman T Soltanian, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Scalp erosion in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware is an uncommon complication that lacks a clearly defined management strategy. Previous studies have described various therapies including conservative treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement with or without hardware removal. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of a hardware-sparing management strategy for the treatment of scalp erosion. METHODS: Five patients with previous DBS implantation presented with scalp erosion and visible hardware exposure at the calvarial burr hole site, and underwent tension-free, vascularized, rotational scalp flap, with preservation of the leads under the pericranium...
December 13, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232591/impact-of-time-on-ultrasonic-cavitation-peening-via-detection-of-surface-plastic-deformation
#3
Fushi Bai, Kai-Alexander Saalbach, Liang Wang, Xiaogeng Wang, Jens Twiefel
During ultrasonic cavitation peening, bubbles repeatedly form and collapse, which leads to high impact loads on the treated surface. At the initial stage of ultrasonic cavitation peening, the most obvious change is plastic deformation instead of mass loss on the treated specimen surface. Meanwhile the plastic deformation is beneficial for mechanical surface properties. As the cavitation exposure time increases, erosion and damage are inflicted on the metal surface due to the increase in the number of collapse events...
December 5, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231595/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-activation-of-microglia-cells-in-spinal-cord-in-rats-with-neuropathic-pain
#4
Sisi Li, Pengpeng Gu, Wenzhan Tu, Xia Jiang, Wenci Chen, Qimiao Hu, Songhe Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the activation of microglia cells in the L4 to L6 spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain, so as to investigate whether EA could inhibit the activation of spinal microglial cells and regulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to achieve the analgesic effect. METHODS: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a sham-model group, a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each one...
April 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230889/use-of-personal-protective-equipment-in-a-radiology-room-at-a-veterinary-teaching-hospital
#5
Monique N Mayer, Niels K Koehncke, Alexandra F Belotta, Isaac T Cheveldae, Cheryl L Waldner
The use of personal protective equipment by veterinary workers during radiographic imaging is inconsistent. While the self-reported use of leaded aprons and thyroid shields approaches 100% in some studies, the use of leaded gloves and eyeglasses is much lower. Previous studies describing personal protective equipment use are based on self-reporting. Objectives of this prospective, observational study were to describe use of leaded personal protective equipment during radiographic imaging by veterinary workers, and to compare observed use with self-reported use...
December 11, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230863/characterization-of-a-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-brummer-gene-and-analysis-of-its-role-in-lipid-metabolism
#6
Jinming Zhou, Jing Yan, Keke You, Xia Chen, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou, Kai Lu
The brummer (bmm) genes encode the lipid storage droplet-associated triacylglycerols (TAG) lipases, which belong to the Brummer/Nutrin subfamily. These enzymes hydrolyze the ester bonds in TAG in lipid metabolism and act in insect energy homeostasis. Exposure to some agricultural chemicals leads to increased fecundity, which necessarily involves lipid metabolism, in some planthopper species. However, the biological roles of bmm in planthopper lipid storage and mobilization have not been investigated. Here, the open reading frame (ORF) of bmm (Nlbmm) was cloned and sequenced from the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens)...
December 12, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230653/environmental-exposure-to-cadmium-a-risk-for-health-of-the-general-population-in-industrialized-countries-and-preventive-strategies
#7
Magdalena Mezynska, Malgorzata M Brzóska
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal belonging to the group of the main chemical pollutants of the natural and occupational environment in economically developed countries. The forecasts indicate that contamination of the environment with this toxic metal, and thus the exposure of the general population, will increase. Food (particularly plant products) is the main source of the general population exposure to this element. Moreover, an important, and often the main, source of intoxication with Cd is habitual tobacco smoking...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230214/exome-sequencing-identifies-a-novel-map3k14-mutation-in-recessive-atypical-combined-immunodeficiency
#8
Nikola Schlechter, Brigitte Glanzmann, Eileen Garner Hoal, Mardelle Schoeman, Britt-Sabina Petersen, Andre Franke, Yu-Lung Lau, Michael Urban, Paul David van Helden, Monika Maria Esser, Marlo Möller, Craig Kinnear
Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) render patients vulnerable to infection with a wide range of microorganisms and thus provide good in vivo models for the assessment of immune responses during infectious challenges. Priming of the immune system, especially in infancy, depends on different environmental exposures and medical practices. This may determine the timing and phenotype of clinical appearance of immune deficits as exemplified with early exposure to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and dissemination in combined immunodeficiencies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230084/ionizing-radiation-processing-and-its-potential-in-advancing-biorefining-and-nanocellulose-composite-materials-manufacturing
#9
Michael T Postek, Dianne L Poster, András E Vládar, Mark S Driscoll, Jay A LaVerne, Zois Tsinas, Mohamad I Al-Sheikhly
Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. Through utilization of a biorefinery concept, nanocellulose can be produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost via ionizing radiation processing. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharide and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H2 and CO...
February 2018: Radiation Physics and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229991/bok-promotes-chemical-induced-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-mice
#10
Tatiana Rabachini, Yuniel Fernandez-Marrero, Matteo Montani, Giulio Loforese, Valentina Sladky, Zhaoyue He, Daniel Bachmann, Simone Wicki, Andreas Villunger, Deborah Stroka, Thomas Kaufmann
BCL-2-related ovarian killer (BOK) is a conserved and widely expressed BCL-2 family member with sequence homology to pro-apoptotic BAX and BAK, but with poorly understood pathophysiological function. Since several members of the BCL-2 family are critically involved in the regulation of hepatocellular apoptosis and carcinogenesis we aimed to establish whether loss of BOK affects diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Short-term exposure to DEN lead to upregulation of BOK mRNA and protein in the liver...
December 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229636/topical-antibiotic-use-co-selects-for-the-carriage-of-mobile-genetic-elements-conferring-resistance-to-unrelated-antimicrobials-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Glen P Carter, Mark B Schultz, Sarah L Baines, Anders Goncalves da Silva, Helen Heffernan, Audrey Tiong, Peter H Pham, Ian R Monk, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden, Deborah A Williamson
Topical antibiotics such as mupirocin and fusidic acid are commonly used in the prevention and treatment of skin infections, particularly those caused by staphylococci. However, widespread use of these agents is associated with increased resistance to these agents, potentially limiting their efficacy. Of particular concern is the observation that resistance to topical antibiotics is often associated with multidrug resistance, suggesting that topical antibiotics may play a role in the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229477/puma-dependent-mitophagy-by-abrus-agglutinin-contributes-to-apoptosis-through-ceramide-generation
#12
Prashanta Kumar Panda, Prajna Paramita Naik, Biswa Ranjan Meher, Durgesh Nandini Das, Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Prakash Priyadharshi Praharaj, Tapas K Maiti, Sujit K Bhutia
PUMA, a BH3-only pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family protein, is known to translocate from the cytosol into the mitochondria in order to induce apoptosis. Interestingly, the induction of PUMA by p53 plays a critical role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. In this study, we report mitophagy inducing potential of PUMA triggered by phytolectin Abrus agglutinin (AGG) in U87MG glioblastoma cells and established AGG-induced ceramide acts as the chief mediator of mitophagy dependent cell death through activation of both mitochondrial ROS as well as ER stress...
December 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229301/earlier-initiation-of-community-based-palliative-care-is-associated-with-fewer-unplanned-hospitalisations-and-emergency-department-presentations-in-the-final-months-of-life-a-population-based-study-amongst-cancer-decedents
#13
Cameron M Wright, David Youens, Rachael E Moorin
CONTEXT: While community-based palliative care (CPC) is associated with decreased acute care use in the lead up to death, it is unclear how the timing of CPC initiation affects this association. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the association between timing of CPC initiation and hospital use, over the final 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of life. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study in Perth, Western Australia. Linked administrative data including cancer registry, mortality, hospital admissions, emergency department (ED) and CPC records were obtained for cancer decedents from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2011...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228913/on-the-use-of-the-outcome-variable-small-for-gestational-age-when-gestational-age-is-a-potential-mediator-a-maternal-asthma-perspective
#14
Geneviève Lefebvre, Mariia Samoilenko
BACKGROUND: The variable "small for gestational age," frequently defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile in a gestational age and sex-normalized population, is nowadays generally perceived as a more adequate measure than birth weight or low birth weight (birth weight < 2500 g) to capture fetal growth. However, the use of small for gestational age rather than birth weight or low birth weight as an outcome (dependent) variable may have important impacts on the interpretation of analyses aimed at estimating the causal effect of an exposure of interest on infants...
December 11, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228902/a-methodological-consideration-for-blood-lead-concentrations-obtained-from-the-earlobe-in-japanese-adults-occupationally-unexposed-to-lead
#15
Nozomi Tatsuta, Kunihiko Nakai, Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Futoshi Mizutani, Katsuyuki Murata, Yoichi Chisaki, Hiroshi Satoh
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological effects of considerably low levels of lead exposure are observed in children, and a reliable and possibly painless technique that can detect such levels is required for the assessment of such exposure. We examined whether the blood lead (BPb) concentrations obtained from the earlobe were as valid and useful as those from the median cubital vein. METHODS: Paired blood samples were collected from the earlobe and cubital vein of 112 Japanese participants occupationally unexposed to lead, and the BPb levels were determined using ICP-MS...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228900/effects-of-chronic-noise-on-the-corticotropin-releasing-factor-system-in-the-rat-hippocampus-relevance-to-alzheimer-s-disease-like-tau-hyperphosphorylation
#16
Zhihui Gai, Donghong Su, Yawen Wang, Wenlong Li, Bo Cui, Kang Li, Xiaojun She, Rui Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic noise exposure has been associated with tau hyperphosphorylation and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathological changes, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term noise exposure on the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in the hippocampus and its role in noise-induced tau phosphorylation. METHODS: Sixty-four rats were randomly divided into the noise-exposed group and the control group, and rats in the exposure group were exposed to 95 dB SPL white noise for 30 consecutive days...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228828/trace-elements-profiles-of-maternal-blood-umbilical-cord-blood-and-placenta-in-beijing-china
#17
Cui Zhou, Ran Zhang, Xueping Cai, Rong Xiao, Yu Huanling
Profiles of heavy metals chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and micronutrients ferrum (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) in maternal and umbilical cord blood clots were investigated for assessing placenta function in the transport of micronutrients or heavy metal pollutants. Correlations between contents of elements in the two tissues were also analyzed. Results demonstrated significantly lower levels of Cr, Pb and Cd in umbilical cord blood clots than in maternal blood clots, and negative relationship between lead levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood (r = -0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228505/a-spatio-temporal-exposure-hazard-model-for-assessing-biological-risk-and-impact
#18
Emily Walker, Melen Leclerc, Jean-François Rey, Rémy Beaudouin, Samuel Soubeyrand, Antoine Messéan
We developed a simulation model for quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of contaminants (e.g., xenobiotics) and assessing the risk of exposed populations at the landscape level. The model is a spatio-temporal exposure-hazard model based on (i) tools of stochastic geometry (marked polygon and point processes) for structuring the landscape and describing the exposed individuals, (ii) a dispersal kernel describing the dissemination of contaminants from polygon sources, and (iii) an (eco)toxicological equation describing the toxicokinetics and dynamics of contaminants in affected individuals...
December 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228354/prolonged-exposure-does-not-increase-soil-microbial-community-compositional-response-to-warming-along-geothermal-gradients
#19
Dajana Radujkovic, Erik Verbruggen, Bjarni D Sigurdsson, Niki I W Leblans, Ivan A Janssens, Sara Vicca, James T Weedon
Global change is expected to affect soil microbial communities through their responsiveness to temperature. It has been proposed that prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures may lead to progressively larger effects on soil microbial community composition. However, due to the relatively short-term nature of most warming experiments, this idea has been challenging to evaluate. The present study took advantage of natural geothermal gradients (from + 1°C to + 19°C above ambient) in two subarctic grasslands to test the hypothesis that long-term exposure ( > 50 years) intensifies the effect of warming on microbial community composition compared to short-term exposure (5-7 years)...
December 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228352/tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-uraemic-serum-promotes-osteoblastic-transition-and-calcification-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-via-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinases-and-activator-protein-1-c-fos-mediated-induction-of-interleukin-6-expression
#20
Daniel Zickler, Christian Luecht, Kevin Willy, Lei Chen, Janusz Witowski, Matthias Girndt, Roman Fiedler, Markus Storr, Julian Kamhieh-Milz, Janosch Schoon, Sven Geissler, Olle Ringdén, Ralf Schindler, Guido Moll, Duska Dragun, Rusan Catar
Background: Vascular calcification is enhanced in uraemic chronic haemodialysis patients, likely due to the accumulation of midsize uraemic toxins, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Here we have assessed the impact of uraemia on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and examined the role of IL-6 and TNF-α as possible mediators and, most importantly, its underlying signalling pathway in VSMCs. Methods: VSMCs were incubated with samples of uraemic serum obtained from patients treated with haemodialysis for renal failure in the Permeability Enhancement to Reduce Chronic Inflammation-I clinical trial...
December 8, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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