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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350786/multiple-biological-defects-caused-by-calycosin-7-o-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans-are-associated-with-the-activation-of-oxidative-damage
#1
Jianqin Zhang, Xiaoli Xue, Yang Yang, Wen Ma, Yan Han, Xuemei Qin
Calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside (CG) is an important active isoflavone compound in Radix Astragali that has many bioactivities. However, the toxicological effects and related toxicological mechanism of CG have been rarely documented. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the toxicity effects of CG on the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Some characteristics of the nematode, including lifespan, movement behavior and reproductive capacity, were used to detect the toxic effects of CG on C. elegans...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348075/benzalkonium-chloride-benzethonium-chloride-and-chloroxylenol-three-replacement-antimicrobials-are-more-toxic-than-triclosan-and-triclocarban-in-two-model-organisms
#2
Virinchipuram S Sreevidya, Kade A Lenz, Kurt R Svoboda, Hongbo Ma
With the recent ban of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) from some personal care products, many replacement antimicrobial compounds have been used. Yet the potential health risk and environmental impact of these replacement compounds are largely unknown. Here we investigated the toxicological effects of three commonly used replacement antimicrobials, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BEC), and chloroxylenol (CX) to two model organisms, the nematode C. elegans and zebrafish (Danio rerio), and compared them to the banned TCS and TCC...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346037/development-of-an-ultrasensitive-pcr-assay-for-polycyclic-musk-determination-in-fish
#3
Xiaohan Zhang, Huisheng Zhuang
Polycyclic musks (PCMs) in the aquatic environment and organisms have become an emerging environmental issue because of their potential risk. The most used method for polycyclic musk determination is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with different sample extractions, which are somewhat expensive to operate, complex and laborious. In this study, a novel and ultrasensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with multiple signal amplification of carboxylic-DNA by gold nanoparticle-polyamidoamine conjugation (Au-PAMAM) was developed for determining polycyclic musks in fish...
January 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339246/absence-of-toxicity-in-swiss-mice-following-treatment-with-7-acetoxy-4-aryl-3-4-dihydrocoumarin-acute-and-repeated-dose-toxicity-study
#4
Gláucio Barros Saldanha, Glaucia Barros Saldanha, Marina Rebeca Soares Carneiro de Sousa, George Laylson da Silva Oliveira, Ana Paula Dos Santos C L da Silva, Jorge M David, Juceni Pereira David
Neoflavonoids, which are classified as 4-arylcoumarin (neoflavone), 3,4-dihydro-4-arylcoumarin and neoflavene, have been the subject of a number of studies with respect to their therapeutic potential and, despite promising in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo pharmacological activities, there is a lack of studies demonstrating their toxicological properties. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the acute (14 days) and repeated-dose (28 days) toxicity of synthetic neoflavonoid 7-acetoxy-4-aryl-3,4-dihydrocoumarin in Swiss mice through parameters related to changes in body weight, food and water intake, hematological and biochemical parameters...
January 12, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337546/a-mitochondria-specific-fluorescent-probe-for-visualizing-endogenous-hydrogen-cyanide-fluctuations-in-neurons
#5
Lingliang Long, Meiyu Huang, Ning Wang, Yanjun Wu, Kun Wang, Aihua Gong, Zhijian Zhang, Jonathan L Sessler
An ability to visualize HCN in mitochondria in real time may permit additional insights into the critical toxicological and physiological roles this classic toxin plays in living organ-isms. Herein, we report a mitochondria-specific coumarin pyrrolidinium-derived fluorescence probe (MRP1) that permits the real time ratiometric imaging of HCN in living cells. The response is specific, sensitive (detection limit is ca. 65.6 nM), rapid (within 1 s), and reversible. Probe MRP1 contains a ben-zyl chloride subunit designed to enhance retention within the mitochondria under conditions where the mitochondria membrane potential is eliminated...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330132/an-overview-of-the-safety-pharmacology-society-strategic-plan
#6
M K Pugsley, S Authier, J E Koerner, W S Redfern, C G Markgraf, T Brabham, K Correll, M V Soloviev, A Botchway, M Engwall, M Traebert, J-P Valentin, T J Mow, A Greiter-Wilke, D J Leishman, H M Vargas
Safety Pharmacology studies are conducted to characterize the confidence by which biologically active new chemical entities (NCE) may be anticipated as safe. Non-clinical safety pharmacology studies aim to detect and characterize potentially undesirable pharmacodynamic activities using an array of in silico, in vitro and in vivo animal models. While a broad spectrum of methodological innovation and advancement of the science occurs within the Safety Pharmacology Society, the society also focuses on partnerships with health authorities and technology providers and facilitates interaction with organizations of common interest such as pharmacology, physiology, neuroscience, cardiology and toxicology...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322390/authentication-of-synthetic-environmental-contaminants-and-their-bio-transformation-products-in-toxicology-polychlorinated-biphenyls-as-an-example
#7
Xueshu Li, Erika B Holland, Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317273/mitochondrial-network-responses-in-oxidative-physiology-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Young-Mi Go, Jolyn Fernandes, Xin Hu, Karan Uppal, Dean P Jones
Mitochondrial activities are linked directly or indirectly to all cellular functions in aerobic eukaryotes. Omics methods enable new approaches to study functional organization of mitochondria and their adaptive and maladaptive network responses to bioenergetic fuels, physiologic demands, environmental challenges and aging. In this review, we consider mitochondria collectively within a multicellular organism as a macroscale "mitochondriome", functioning to organize bioenergetics and metabolism as an organism utilizes environmental resources and protects against environmental threats...
January 6, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313199/effects-of-glyphosate-on-early-life-stages-comparison-between-cyprinus-carpio-and-danio-rerio
#9
Emma Fiorino, Pavla Sehonova, Lucie Plhalova, Jana Blahova, Zdenka Svobodova, Caterina Faggio
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is an active substance of many herbicides. According to literature studies, glyphosate residues and their metabolites have been commonly detected in surface waters and toxicological reports confirmed negative effects on living organisms. In this study, the acute embryo toxicity of glyphosate into two different fish species-common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)-was investigated. Lethal endpoints, development disorder, and, in addition, other sublethal endpoints such as hatching rate, formation of somites, and development of eyes, spontaneous movement, heartbeat/blood circulation, pigmentation, and edema were recorded to indicate the mode of action of the toxic compound...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305175/an-overview-of-anti-diabetic-plants-used-in-gabon-pharmacology-and-toxicology
#10
REVIEW
B Bading Taika, M Bouckandou, A Souza, H P Bourobou Bourobou, L MacKenzie, L Lione
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The management of diabetes mellitus management in African communities, especially in Gabon, is not well established as more than 60% of population rely on traditional treatments as primary healthcare. The aim of this review was to collect and present the scientific evidence for the use of medicinal plants that are in currect by Gabonese traditional healers to manage diabetes or hyperglycaemia based here on the pharmacological and toxicological profiles of plants with anti-diabetic activity are presented in order to promote their therapeutic value, ensure a safer use by population and provide some bases for further study on high potential plants reviewed...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304413/zn2-induced-molecular-responses-associated-with-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-and-histopathological-lesions-in-liver-and-kidney-of-the-fish-channa-punctatus-bloch-1793
#11
Arun Ratn, Rajesh Prasad, Yashika Awasthi, Manoj Kumar, Abha Misra, Sunil P Trivedi
Zn2+ is essential for normal physiological functioning of all organisms in small quantities, but when its concentration enhances in surrounding environment it acts as a toxicant to organisms. Common sources of Zn2+ pollution are electroplating, alloying, mining, and allied industrial operations. The present study aims to assess the biochemical, histopathological and genotoxicological implications under Zn2+ intoxication along with its accumulation patterns in prime biotransformation sites-liver and kidney, of a bottom feeder fish, Channa punctatus...
January 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303016/a-toxicological-evaluation-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-a-green-algae
#12
Timothy S Murbach, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Gábor Hirka, Adél Vértesi, Erzsébet Béres, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
There is a current worldwide interest in developing novel sustainable nonanimal nutritional sources, and one such source is the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the only green algae that has been studied as a model organism for many biological processes ranging from photosynthesis to flagellar movement. However, its potential as a safe nutritional source for use in various foods has not been thoroughly investigated. To assess the safety of C reinhardtii for use as a nutritional human food ingredient, in accordance with internationally accepted standards, the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of the dried C reinhardtii (THN 6) algal biomass was investigated...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298518/botany-phytochemistry-pharmacology-and-toxicity-of-strychnos-nux-vomica-l-a-review
#13
Rixin Guo, Ting Wang, Guohong Zhou, Mengying Xu, Xiankuo Yu, Xiao Zhang, Feng Sui, Chun Li, Liying Tang, Zhuju Wang
Strychnos nux-vomica L. belongs to the genus Strychnos of the family Loganiaceae and grows in Sri Lanka, India and Australia. The traditional medicinal component is its seed, called Nux vomica. This study provides a relevant and comprehensive review of S. nux-vomica L., including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, thus providing a foundation for future studies. Up to the present day, over 84 compounds, including alkaloids, iridoid glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, triterpenoids, steroids and organic acids, among others, have been isolated and identified from S...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297242/recent-advances-in-three-dimensional-cell-culturing-to-assess-liver-function-and-dysfunction-from-a-drug-biotransformation-and-toxicity-perspective
#14
Carlemi Calitz, Josias H Hamman, Stephen J Fey, Krzysztof Wrzesinski, Chrisna Gouws
The liver is a vital organ fulfilling a central role in over 500 major metabolic functions, including serving as the most essential site for drug biotransformation. Dysfunction of the drug biotransformation processes may result in the exposure of the liver (and other organs) to hepatotoxins, potentially interacting with cellular constituents and causing toxicity and various lesions. Hepatotoxicity can be investigated on a tissue, cellular and molecular level by employing various in vivo and in vitro techniques, including novel three-dimensional (3D) cell culturing methods...
January 3, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287801/subchronic-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-studies-of-antrodia-mushroom-%C3%AE-glucan-preparation
#15
S N Chen, C S Chang, S Chen, Madhu Soni
Antrodia cinnamomea is one of the most highly valued mushrooms utilized in traditional Taiwanese therapeutic practices. Its neutral monosaccharides (mannose, glucose and xylose) linked by a β-D-glucan chain have been claimed to be responsible for its health benefits. The objective of the present study was to investigate adverse effects, if any, of β-glucan (∼65% pure) from A. cinnamomea in subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were followed Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) application, and were administered (gavage) Antrodia mushroom β-glucan preparation at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days...
December 26, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285604/a-new-four-step-hierarchy-method-for-combined-assessment-of-groundwater-quality-and-pollution
#16
Henghua Zhu, Xiaohua Ren, Zhizheng Liu
A new four-step hierarchy method was constructed and applied to evaluate the groundwater quality and pollution of the Dagujia River Basin. The assessment index system is divided into four types: field test indices, common inorganic chemical indices, inorganic toxicology indices, and trace organic indices. Background values of common inorganic chemical indices and inorganic toxicology indices were estimated with the cumulative-probability curve method, and the results showed that the background values of Mg2+ (51...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280623/metabolism-of-a-phenylarsenical-in-human-hepatic-cells-and-identification-of-a-new-arsenic-metabolite
#17
Qingqing Liu, Elaine M Leslie, Birget Moe, Hongquan Zhang, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, X Chris Le
Environmental contamination and human consumption of chickens could result in potential exposure to Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), an organic arsenical that has been used as a chicken feed additive in many countries. However, little is known about the metabolism of Roxarsone in humans. The objective of this research was to investigate the metabolism of Roxarsone in human liver cells and to identify new arsenic metabolites of toxicological significance. Human primary hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells were treated with 20 or 100 µM Roxarsone...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280285/treatment-related-changes-after-short-term-exposure-of-sd-rats-to-aloe-vera-whole-leaf-freeze-dried-powder
#18
Tao Chen, Li Wang, Chunyan Hu
Aloe vera is a widely used natural herb from which many sorts of commercial products have been derived using different preparation technologies. Aloe whole-leaf powder is one of the most popular subtypes. The long-term impact of aloe products has already been reported; however, there have been few studies about short-term exposure, and especially about the relative impact of Aloe vera whole-leaf freeze-dried powder (AWFP). To provide more toxicological data and to document the early changes induced by AWFP, in this study 120 SD rats were divided into four groups (control and 400/1200/2000 mg/kg treatment groups) and were administered AWFP once daily by oral gavage for 28 consecutive days, followed by a two week recovery phase...
October 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279645/methadone-gastrobezoar-in-a-psychiatric-patient-presented-in-coma
#19
Alexandra Gavala, Despoina Manou, Vasiliki Psalida, Maria Nystatzaki, Christos Mavrogiannis, George Alevizopoulos, Pavlos Myrianthefs
A 43-year-old psychiatric patient was transferred in coma and hypercapnic respiratory failure at the emergency department. He was intubated for airway protection and transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Abdominal X-ray revealed a radiopaque mass; a pharmacobezoar was suspected and confirmed by gastroscopy; one large in the stomach fundus and a smaller one in the pylorus. Gastric lavage through the gastroscope and administration of gastro-kinetic drugs and laxatives were able to dilute the bezoars. Tablets retrieved from the stomach identified as methadone and toxicological tests of the gastric fluid confirmed the presence of methadone as the only organic chemical compound...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277452/a-three-year-study-of-metal-levels-in-skin-biopsies-of-whales-in-the-gulf-of-mexico-after-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-crisis
#20
John Pierce Wise, James T F Wise, Catherine F Wise, Sandra S Wise, Christy Gianios, Hong Xie, Ron Walter, Mikki Boswell, Cairong Zhu, Tongzhang Zheng, Christopher Perkins, John Pierce Wise
In response to the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon and the massive release of oil that followed, we conducted three annual research voyages to investigate how the oil spill would impact the marine offshore environment. Most investigations into the ecological and toxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil crisis have mainly focused on the fate of the oil and dispersants, but few have considered the release of metals into the environment. From studies of previous oil spills, other marine oil industries, and analyses of oil compositions, it is evident that metals are frequently encountered...
December 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
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