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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935005/sequelae-of-occult-aggression-disqualifying-young-socially-housed-female-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-from-participation-in-dermal-toxicology-studies
#1
Jeffrey D Wyatt, Diane M Moorman-White, Donnalee Ventura, Brett W Schneider, Thomas W Bittner
International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, teaching, testing and farming settings. At our institution, 2 groups of female New Zealand white rabbits (approximate age, 11 wk; mean weight, 2.35 kg), compatibly paired at the vendor for 5 wk, were paired in caging or group-housed in a floor pen. The rabbits appeared compatible, demonstrating primarily affiliative behaviors throughout 6 wk of daily observations...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934642/physiological-responses-and-gene-expression-changes-in-the-western-mosquitofish-gambusia-affinis-exposed-to-progesterone-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations
#2
Liping Hou, Hongyan Xu, Guangguo Ying, Yang Yang, Hu Shu, Jianliang Zhao, Xuemei Cheng
Progesterone (P4) is a natural and synthetic steroid, widely distributed in the aquatic environments. It can lead to adverse effects on the endocrine system in aquatic organisms. This study investigated the toxicological effects of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (4, 44, and 410ng/L) of progesterone for 42 d on adult female mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. We performed morphological and histological analyses on gonads, anal fins, liver, and gills after the exposure of mosquito fish to P4...
September 14, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933022/food-safety-aspects-of-primary-environmental-contaminants-in-the-edible-tissues-of-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#3
József Lehel, Dóra Zwillinger, András Bartha, Katalin Lányi, Péter Laczay
The muscle, liver, kidney and fat samples of 20 roe deer of both sexes originating from a hunting area in central Hungary were investigated for the presence of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb, and their contents were evaluated for possible health risk to consumers. Both As and Hg were found at a level below the limit of detection (< 0.5 mg/kg wet weight) in all samples. The median of the measured Cd concentrations was significantly higher in both the kidney and the liver (p = 0.0011) of bucks than of does...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930302/-accidental-severe-poisoning-with-methemoglobinogenic-substance-a-case-report
#4
Kinga Rośniak-Bąk, Marek Bąk, Renata Winnicka, Anna Krakowiak
A 45-year-old male patient was admitted to the Regional Poison Center because of poisoning with dimethyloaniline contained in a toxic resin-curing dimethyl aniline-based formulation ingested inadvertently. Intoxication happened at workplace. The patient was then transferred to the Toxicology Clinic, where he stayed for 3 weeks. During the hospitalization, the primary method of treatment involved administration of methylene blue, which is the antidote of choice in such cases. During the intensive care and treatment of the patient massive intravascular hemolysis was seen...
September 20, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928018/cardio-respirometry-disruption-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos-exposed-to-hydraulic-fracturing-flowback-and-produced-water
#5
Erik J Folkerts, Tamzin A Blewett, Yuhe He, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing to extract oil and natural gas reserves is an increasing practice in many international energy sectors. Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (FPW) is a hyper saline wastewater returned to the surface from a fractured well containing chemical species present in the initial fracturing fluid, geogenic contaminants, and potentially newly synthesized chemicals formed in the fracturing well environment. However, information on FPW toxicological mechanisms of action remain largely unknown...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925369/generation-of-a-gene-corrected-isogenic-control-ipsc-line-from-cystic-fibrosis-patient-specific-ipscs-homozygous-for-p-phe508del-mutation-mediated-by-talens-and-ssodn
#6
Sylvia Merkert, Christien Bednarski, Gudrun Göhring, Toni Cathomen, Ulrich Martin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which affects multiple organs. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from CF patients and the generation of isogeneic gene-corrected control cell lines enable disease modelling, drug discovery or toxicological studies and therefore the development of CF patient-specific therapies. We have previously generated a hiPSC line from a CF patient homozygous for the p...
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919858/safety-evaluation-of-sclerotium-from-a-medicinal-mushroom-lignosus-cameronensis-cultivar-preclinical-toxicology-studies
#7
Sook-Shien Lee, Nget-Hong Tan, Jayalakshmi Pailoor, Shin-Yee Fung
Twenty-eight days subacute toxicity studies performed in rats using sclerotial powder of Lignosus cameronensis cultivar was conducted to assess its safety for consumption prior to other scientific investigations on its medicinal benefits, nutraceutical or pharmaceutical application of the mushroom. The study was conducted at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar (n = 5 for each respective dose, on both male and female groups) while control groups received only distilled water...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919451/biphasic-modulation-of-neuro-and-interrenal-steroidogenesis-in-juvenile-african-sharptooth-catfish-clarias-gariepinus-exposed-to-waterborne-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate
#8
Augustine Arukwe, Oju R Ibor, Aina O Adeogun
Receptor (i.e genomic) and non-receptor (or non-genomic) effects of endocrine toxicology have received limited or almost non-existent attention for tropical species and regions. In the present study, we have studied the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on neuro- and interrenal steroidogenesis of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using molecular, immunochemical and physiological approaches. Juvenile fish (mean weight and length: 5.6 ± 0.6g and 8.2 ± 1.2 cm, respectively), were randomly distributed into ten 120 L rectangular glass tanks containing 60 L of dechlorinated tap water, at 50 fish per exposure group...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918194/cleaning-and-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-approach-for-effective-safety-assessment
#9
Melissa J Vincent, Ann Parker, Andrew Maier
Research indicates a correlative relationship between asthma and use of consumer cleaning products. We conduct a systematic review of epidemiological literature on persons who use or are exposed to cleaning products, both in occupational and domestic settings, and risk of asthma or asthma-like symptoms to improve understanding of the causal relationship between exposure and asthma. A scoring method for assessing study reliability is presented. Although research indicates an association between asthma and the use of cleaning products, no study robustly investigates exposure to cleaning products or ingredients along with asthma risk...
September 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910747/transcriptome-analysis-of-rana-chensinensis-liver-under-trichlorfon-stress
#10
Yu Ma, Bo Li, Yang Ke, Yongan Zhang, Yuhui Zhang
Trichlorfon is a selective organophosphate insecticide that is widely applied in aquaculture and agriculture for control of various parasites. However, repeated and excess applications of trichlorfon often lead to water pollution and threaten non-targeted species. Our previous studies showed that trichlorfon could cause oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hepatic lesions in the liver of Rana chensinensis, but the related molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the interference of trichlorfon in gene transcription, the differentially expressed genes in the liver of R...
September 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905481/reducing-copper-use-in-the-environment-the-use-of-larixol-and-larixyl-acetate-to-treat-downy-mildew-caused-by-plasmopara-viticola-in-viticulture
#11
Barbara Thuerig, Emily E James, Hans-Jakob Schärer, Moses K Langat, Dulcie A Mulholland, Jonas Treutwein, Ina Kleeberg, Mathias Ludwig, Praveen Jayarajah, Oscar Giovannini, Emilia Markellou, Lucius Tamm
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts might provide sustainable alternatives to copper fungicides, which are still widely used despite their unfavourable ecotoxicological profile. Larch bark extract and its constituents, larixyl acetate and larixol, have been shown to be effective against grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) under semi-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to reduce the gap between innovation and the registration of a marketable product, namely to develop scalable extraction processes and to evaluate and optimize performance of larch extracts under different conditions...
September 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903500/intrinsic-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzyme-activities-in-early-life-stages-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#12
Jens C Otte, Bernadette Schultz, Daniela Fruth, Eric Fabian, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Björn Hidding, Edward R Salinas
Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903369/toxicology-and-efficacy-of-tumor-targeting-salmonella-typhimurium-a1-r-compared-to-vnp-20009-in-a-syngeneic-mouse-tumor-model-in-immunocompetent-mice
#13
Yong Zhang, Wenluo Cao, Makoto Toneri, Nan Zhang, Tasuku Kiyuna, Takashi Murakami, Scott D Nelson, Sarah M Dry, Yunfeng Li, Shukuan Li, Xiaoen Wang, Huaiyu Ma, Arun S Singh, Fritz C Eilber, Robert M Hoffman, Ming Zhao
Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) attenuated by leu and arg auxotrophy has been shown to target multiple types of cancer in mouse models. In the present study, toxicologic and biodistribution studies of tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R and S. typhimurium VNP20009 (VNP 20009) were performed in a syngeneic tumor model growing in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Single or multiple doses of S. typhimurium A1-R of 2.5 × 10(5) and 5 × 10(5) were tolerated. A single dose of 1 × 10(6) resulted in mouse death...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903077/assessing-toxicity-of-metal-contaminated-soil-from-glassworks-sites-with-a-battery-of-biotests
#14
M Hagner, M Romantschuk, O-P Penttinen, A Egfors, C Marchand, A Augustsson
The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-eastern Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox™ test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids...
September 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893587/current-nonclinical-testing-paradigm-enables-safe-entry-to-first-in-human-clinical-trials-the-iq-consortium-nonclinical-to-clinical-translational-database
#15
Thomas M Monticello, Thomas W Jones, Donna M Dambach, David M Potter, Michael W Bolt, Maggie Liu, Douglas A Keller, Timothy K Hart, Vivek J Kadambi
The contribution of animal testing in drug development has been widely debated and challenged. An industry-wide nonclinical to clinical translational database was created to determine how safety assessments in animal models translate to First-In-Human clinical risk. The blinded database was composed of 182 molecules and contained animal toxicology data coupled with clinical observations from phase I human studies. Animal and clinical data were categorized by organ system and correlations determined. The 2×2 contingency table (true positive, false positive, true negative, false negative) was used for statistical analysis...
September 8, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890242/asphyxiation-death-caused-by-oxygen-depleting-cargo-on-a-ship
#16
Marjana Kjetland Sundal, Peer Kaare Lilleng, Hans Barane, Inge Morild, Merete Vevelstad
The extreme danger associated with entering enclosed spaces loaded with oxygen-depleting organic cargo in ships and tanks is obviously underestimated, both among crew and management. We present a case report to highlight this occupational hazard and to increase the knowledge about the imperative precautions, in order to prevent future accidents. An experienced customs officer was found lifeless at the bottom of the unattended cargo hold on a ship loaded with woodchips. The oxygen content in the cargo atmosphere was below 2%, which is incompatible with life...
September 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889778/genotoxicity-testing-progress-and-prospects-for-the-next-decade
#17
Hasan Turkez, Mehmet E Arslan, Ozlem Ozdemir
Genotoxicity and mutagenicity analyses have a significant role in the identification of hazard effects of therapeutic drugs, cosmetics, agrochemicals, industrial compounds, food additives, natural toxins and nanomaterials for regulatory purposes. To evaluate mutagenicity or genotoxicity, different in vitro and in vivo methodologies exert various genotoxicological endpoints such as point mutations, changes in number and structure of chromosomes. Areas covered: This review covered the basics of genotoxicity and in vitro/in vivo methods for determining of genetic damages...
September 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889346/prospective-of-microbial-exopolysaccharide-for-heavy-metal-exclusion
#18
Bhavana V Mohite, Sunil H Koli, Chandrakant P Narkhede, Sucheta N Patil, Satish V Patil
Metals as a resource are depleting, and on another side, it fetches serious environmental pollution causing a threat to human health and ecosystem. The heavy metal accumulation due to anthropogenic activities results in toxicological manifestation. The traditional methods of remediation are not cost effective, efficient, and ecofriendly which necessitate and motivate towards the safe, effective, and ecofriendly biological methods. The increasing presence of heavy metals in the microbial habitat compels the microbes to develop the ability to tolerate or resist the presence of heavy metals...
September 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889277/neurodegeneration-induced-by-metals-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Felix Antunes Soares, Daiandra Almeida Fagundez, Daiana Silva Avila
Metals are a component of a variety of ecosystems and organisms. They can generally be divided into essential and nonessential metals. The essential metals are involved in physiological processes once the deficiency of these metals has been associated with diseases. Although iron, manganese, copper, and zinc are important for life, it has been evidenced that they are also involved in neuronal damage in many neurodegenerative disorders. Nonessential metals, which are metals without physiological functions, are present in trace or higher levels in living organisms...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889273/neurotoxicity-of-vanadium
#20
Hilary Afeseh Ngwa, Muhammet Ay, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Arthi Kanthasamy, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Vanadium (V) is a transition metal that presents in multiple oxidation states and numerous inorganic compounds and is also an ultra-trace element considered to be essential for most living organisms. Despite being one of the lightest metals, V offers high structural strength and good corrosion resistance and thus has been widely adopted for high-strength steel manufacturing. High doses of V exposure are toxic, and inhalation exposure to V adversely affects the respiratory system. The neurotoxicological properties of V are just beginning to be identified...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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