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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724276/fatal-small-intestinal-ischemia-due-to-methamphetamine-intoxication-report-of-a-case-with-autopsy-results
#1
Hamid Attaran
Methamphetamine is one of the most common abused drugs, so its various effects on different body organs should be familiar to all physicians. Regarding its gastrointestinal sequels, there are few reports of ischemic colitis induced by its vasoconstrictive effects. This is the first report of isolated small intestinal infarction resulting in death following methamphetamine toxicity. A 40-year-old woman with a past history of medical treatment for obesity referred to hospital with severe chest and back pain, perspiration, nausea, agitation, high blood pressure, bradycardia and subsequent lethargy and vasomotor instability...
May 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721614/low-doses-of-chlorpyrifos-interfere-with-spermatogenesis-of-rats-through-reduction-of-sex-hormones
#2
Dinithi Champika Peiris, Thamali Dhanushka
Use of pesticides results in indirect effects on human health. We aimed to evaluate implications of toxicological effects of subchronic chlorpyrifos exposure on reproductive function in male rats. A total of 48 adult Wistar male rats were separated into four groups (n = 12). Animals were gavaged with 2.5 mg/kg (T1), 5 mg/kg (T2), or 10 mg/kg (T3) body weight of chlorpyrifos (CPF) or distilled water (control) daily for 30 days. Organ weights, epididymal sperm parameters, DNA integrity, sex hormonal (FHS and LH) levels, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and creatinine concentrations were determined on day 31...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718799/zebrafish-as-a-model-organism-for-the-development-of-drugs-for-skin-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Fatemeh Bootorabi, Hamed Manouchehri, Reza Changizi, Harlan Barker, Elisabetta Palazzo, Annalisa Saltari, Mataleena Parikka, Carlo Pincelli, Ashok Aspatwar
Skin cancer, which includes melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma, represents the most common type of cutaneous malignancy worldwide, and its incidence is expected to rise in the near future. This condition derives from acquired genetic dysregulation of signaling pathways involved in the proliferation and apoptosis of skin cells. The development of animal models has allowed a better understanding of these pathomechanisms, with the possibility of carrying out toxicological screening and drug development. In particular, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been established as one of the most important model organisms for cancer research...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715779/mechanisms-underlying-the-acute-toxicity-of-fullerene-to-daphnia-magna-energy-acquisition-restriction-and-oxidative-stress
#4
Xiaohui Lv, Boming Huang, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yuelu Jiang, Baiyang Chen, Yi Tao, Jin Zhou, Zhonghua Cai
The toxicity of fullerene (C60) to Daphnia magna has been a subject with increasing concerns. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated various aspects of the toxicological impacts of C60 on daphnia. After a 72-h exposure, the 50% effective concentration of C60 was 14.9 mg/L for immobilization, and 16.3 mg/L for mortality. Daphnia exhibited a quick uptake of C60 with a body burden value of 413 μg/g in wet weight in the 1 mg/L C60 treatment group...
July 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709525/the-toxic-exposure-of-flamingos-to-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfas-from-firefighting-foam-applications-in-bonaire
#5
Pepijn de Vries, Diana M E Slijkerman, Christiaan J A F Kwadijk, Michiel J J Kotterman, Leo Posthuma, Dick de Zwart, Albertinka J Murk, Edwin M Foekema
In 2010 an oil terminal next to nature reservation Saliña Goto (Bonaire) caught fire. Firefighting resulted in elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) concentrations in the salt lake. Within months flamingo abundance in Goto dropped to near complete absence. After statistical analysis, rainfall was deemed an unlikely cause for this decline. Toxicological effects on abundance of prey are likely the main cause for the flamingo absence. This reduced PFAS exposure via food and thus risk towards flamingos during the first years after the fires...
July 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707494/dry-coating-of-solid-dosage-forms-an-overview-of-processes-and-applications
#6
Anastasia Foppoli, Alessandra Maroni, Matteo Cerea, Lucia Zema, Andrea Gazzaniga
Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental and safety-related issues on one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics...
July 14, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707493/ab-chminaca-induced-sudden-death-from-non-cardiogenic-pulmonary-edema
#7
Hideyuki Maeda, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Maiko Kawamura, Erika Nagashima, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
CONTEXT: Despite widespread use of diverse synthetic cannabinoid (sCB) compounds, the pathophysiology associated with intoxication with many sCB compounds, including AB-CHMINACA, is poorly understood, as is their metabolism and distribution into blood and organs. CASE DETAILS: A young man died shortly after ingesting an herb product containing sCB compounds. Toxicological analyses of blood samples revealed high levels of AB-CHMINACA (7.61 ± 0.59 ng/mL) and its metabolites (M2, 56...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703896/differential-uptake-of-gold-nanoparticles-by-two-species-of-tadpole-the-wood-frog-lithobates-sylvaticus-and-the-bullfrog-l-catesbeianus
#8
Lucas B Thompson, Gerardo L F Carfagno, Kurt Andresen, Andrea J Sitton, Taylor Bury, Laura L Lee, Kevin T Lerner, Peter P Fong
Engineered nanoparticles are aquatic contaminants of emerging concern exerting ecotoxicological effects on a wide variety of organisms. We exposed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide capped spherical gold nanoparticles to wood frog and bullfrog tadpoles with conspecifics and in combination with the other species continuously for 21 days, then measured uptake and localization of gold. Wood frog tadpoles alone and in combination with bullfrog tadpoles took up significantly more gold than bullfrogs. Bullfrog tadpoles in combination with wood frogs took up significantly more gold than controls...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697389/interaction-patterns-and-toxicities-of-binary-and-ternary-pesticide-mixtures-to-daphnia-magna-estimated-by-an-accelerated-failure-time-model
#9
Xuchun Qiu, Wataru Tanoue, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Takashi Yanagawa, Masanori Seki, Yohei Shimasaki, Tsuneo Honjo, Yuji Oshima
Organisms in natural environments are often exposed to a broad variety of chemicals, and the multi-chemical mixtures exposure may produce significant toxic effects, even though the individual chemicals are present at concentrations below their no-observed-effect concentrations. This study represents the first attempt that uses the accelerated failure time (AFT) model to quantify the interaction and toxicity of multi-chemical mixtures in environmental toxicology. We firstly conducted the acute immobilization tests with Daphnia magna exposed to mixtures of diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (MEP); and thiobencarb (TB) in single, binary, and ternary formulations, and then fitted the results to the AFT model...
July 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696678/benchmarking-water-quality-from-wastewater-to-drinking-waters-using-reduced-transcriptome-of-human-cells
#10
Pu Xia, Xiaowei Zhang, Hanxin Zhang, Pingping Wang, Mingming Tian, Hongxia Yu
One of the major challenge in environmental science is how to monitor and assess the risk of complex environmental mixtures. In vitro bioassays with limited key toxicological endpoints have been shown to be suitable to evaluate mixtures of organic pollutants in wastewater and recycled water. Omics approaches such as transcriptomics can monitor biological effects at genome-scale. However, few studies have applied omics approach in the assessment of mixtures of organic micropollutants. Here, an omics approach was developed for profiling bioactivity of ten water samples ranging from wastewater to drinking water in human cells by a reduced human transcriptome (RHT) method and dose response modeling...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694970/increasing-evidence-indicates-low-bioaccumulation-of-carbon-nanotubes
#11
Rhema Bjorkland, David Tobias, Elijah J Petersen
As the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) expands, so might the potential for release into the environment. The possibility of bioaccumulation and toxicological effects has prompted research on their fate and potential ecological effects. For many organic chemicals, bioaccumulation properties are associated with lipid-water partitioning properties. However, predictions based on phase partitioning provide a poor fit for nanomaterials. In the absence of data on the bioaccumulation and other properties of CNTs, the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subjects new pre-manufacture submissions for all nanomaterials to a higher-level review...
2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691951/fatal-self-poisoning-with-massive-propranolol-ingestion-in-a-young-male-physician
#12
Supawon Srettabunjong
Suicidal intoxication from massive propranolol ingestion is rare. Surprisingly, no reported cases have involved physicians. The author herein reports a case of self-poisoning death due to ingestion of propranolol by a young male physician. A 31-year-old man with major depressive disorder was found dead in his dormitory room. Fifteen empty packages, each having contained ten 40-mg propranolol tablets, were found without any tablets leftover in his room. A suicide note was also found in his room. He was thus alleged to have ingested 6 g of propranolol for self-poisoning...
July 4, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687882/determination-of-benzothiazoles-in-seafood-species-by-subcritical-water-extraction-followed-by-solid-phase-microextraction-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-estimating-the-dietary-intake
#13
Laura Trabalón, Martí Nadal, Francesc Borrull, Eva Pocurull
Benzothiazoles are high production volume chemicals widely used in many industrial and household applications. However, information on their occurrence in aquatic organisms is very limited, although a high level of bioaccumulation is expected. In this study and for the first time, a method was developed involving subcritical water extraction followed by solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of five benzothiazoles in seafood. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were under 21% (%RSD, n = 5, 100 ng g(-1) (dw)), while method detection limits and method quantification limits were between 0...
July 7, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685923/interactions-and-effects-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-on-microorganisms-involved-in-biological-wastewater-treatment
#14
Pabel Cervantes-Avilés, Enrique Díaz Barriga-Castro, Lourdes Palma-Tirado, Germán Cuevas-Rodríguez
To clarify the toxicological effects of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on microorganisms with environmental relevance, it is necessary to understand their interactions. In this work, they were studied the effects and the morphological interactions of two metal oxide NPs (ZnO and TiO2 ) with microorganisms, during aerobic treatment of wastewater. The effects were evaluated according to nutrient removal from wastewater, while morphological interactions were determined by three different techniques such as TEM, HAADF-STEM, as well as an elemental mapping...
July 7, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685681/exploiting-cancer-metal-metabolism-using-anti-cancer-metal-binding-agents
#15
Angelica Merlot, Danuta Kalinowski, Zaklina Kovacevic, Patric Jansson, Sumit Sahni, Michael Huang, Darius Lane, Hiu Lok, Des Richardson
Metals are vital cellular elements necessary for multiple indispensable biological processes of living organisms, including energy transduction and cell proliferation. Interestingly, alterations in metal levels and also changes in the expression of proteins involved in metal metabolism have been demonstrated in a variety of cancers. Considering this and the important role of metals for cell growth, the development of drugs that sequester metals have become an attractive target for the development of novel anti-cancer agents...
July 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684318/the-juvenile-toxicity-study-as-a-tool-for-a-science-based-risk-assessment-in-the-children-population-group
#16
REVIEW
Laura Narciso, Tiziana Catone, Gabriele Aquilina, Leonello Attias, Isabella De Angelis, Maria Grazia Iuliano, Roberta Tassinari, Alberto Mantovani, Francesca Maranghi
Children show unique features concerning chemical hazards and risks, due to different exposure scenarios, age-related metabolic capacity and biological susceptibility linked to post-natal development. Chemical Regulatory frameworks state the need of children risk characterization. Current testing guidelines covering post-natal development are not routinely required by regulatory applications other than pesticides and biocides. Juvenile toxicity studies are foreseen for paediatric drugs: the toxicological repeated-dose tests don't allow accurate evaluations of effects upon direct exposure of immature organism...
July 3, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678887/oil-droplet-fouling-and-differential-toxicokinetics-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-embryos-of-atlantic-haddock-and-cod
#17
Lisbet Sørensen, Elin Sørhus, Trond Nordtug, John P Incardona, Tiffany L Linbo, Laura Giovanetti, Ørjan Karlsen, Sonnich Meier
The impact of crude oil pollution on early life stages (ELS) of fish, including larvae and embryos, has received considerable attention in recent years. Of the organic components present in crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered the main class of compounds responsible for toxic effects in marine organisms. Although evidence suggests that they are more toxic, alkylated PAHs remain much less studied than their unsubstituted congeners. Recently, it was established that embryos of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) are particularly sensitive to dispersed crude oil, and it was hypothesized that this was caused by direct interaction with crude oil droplets, which adhered to the chorion of exposed embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676114/antibacterial-activities-and-toxicological-study-of-the-aqueous-extract-from-leaves-of-alchornea-cordifolia-euphorbiaceae
#18
Merline Namekong Djimeli, Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Guy Sedar Singor Njateng, Charles Fokunang, Donald Sedric Tala, Fabrice Kengni, Donatien Gatsing
BACKGROUND: A. cordifolia is a plant widely used in Africa to solve many health problems. In Cameroon, it is used in the treatment of urogenital infections. As a continuation of our search for pharmacologically active agents from natural sources, the antimicrobial activity of A. cordifolia leaf extracts against E. coli and the toxicity of this extract were investigated. METHODS: The antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract from leaves of Alchornea cordifolia was carried out in vitro on Escherichia coli, as well as in vivo on E...
July 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672228/uranium-mining-wastes-the-use-of-the-fish-embryo-acute-toxicity-test-fet-test-to-evaluate-toxicity-and-risk-of-environmental-discharge
#19
J Lourenço, S Marques, F P Carvalho, J Oliveira, M Malta, M Santos, F Gonçalves, R Pereira, S Mendo
Active and abandoned uranium mining sites often create environmentally problematic situations, since they cause the contamination of all environmental matrices (air, soil and water) with stable metals and radionuclides. Due to their cytotoxic, genotoxic and teratogenic properties, the exposure to these contaminants may cause several harmful effects in living organisms. The Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test (FET) test was employed to evaluate the genotoxic and teratogenic potential of mine liquid effluents and sludge elutriates from a deactivated uranium mine...
June 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672149/enantiomeric-profiling-of-a-chemically-diverse-mixture-of-chiral-pharmaceuticals-in-urban-water
#20
S Evans, J Bagnall, B Kasprzyk-Hordern
Due to concerns regarding the release of pharmaceuticals into the environment and the understudied impact of stereochemistry of pharmaceuticals on their fate and biological potency, we focussed in this paper on stereoselective transformation pathways of selected chiral pharmaceuticals (16 pairs) at both microcosm (receiving waters and activated sludge wastewater treatment simulating microcosms) and macrocosm (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) utilising activated sludge technology and receiving waters) scales in order to test the hypothesis that biodegradation of chiral drugs is stereoselective...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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