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organic toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430301/towards-a-bioengineered-kidney-recellularization-strategies-for-decellularized-native-kidney-scaffolds
#1
Michele Fedecostante, Oana G Onciu, Koen G C Westphal, Rosalinde Masereeuw
Patients with end-stage renal disease often undergo dialysis as a partial substitute for kidney function while waiting for their only treatment option: a kidney transplant. Several research directions emerged for alternatives in support of the ever-growing numbers of patients. Recent years brought big steps forward in the field, with researchers questioning and improving the current dialysis devices as well as moving towards the design of a bioengineered kidney. Whole-organ engineering is also being explored as a possibility, making use of animal or human kidney scaffolds for engineering a transplantable organ...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428958/debromoaplysiatoxin-as-the-causative-agent-of-dermatitis-in-a-dog-after-exposure-to-freshwater-in-california
#2
Birgit Puschner, Adrienne C Bautista, Chris Wong
Contamination of recreational waters with cyanobacterial toxins continues to increase and presents a risk to animals and humans. Although cases of acute hepato- and neurotoxicoses in dogs following cyanotoxin exposure exist, no reports of skin-related reactions in dogs exist. A 5-year-old female spayed 34 kg Bracco Italiano was initially presented for rapid onset of severe pruritus and urticaria. Marked excoriation and erythema were noted over the chest and neck, while urticaria was noted in the inguinal regions and ventral abdomen...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424823/-coma-in-the-emergency-room
#3
M Braun, C J Ploner, T Lindner, M Möckel, W U Schmidt
Coma of unknown origin (CUO) is a frequent unspecific emergency symptom associated with a high mortality. A fast diagnostic work-up is essential given the wide spectrum of underlying diagnoses that are made up of approximately 50% primary central nervous system (CNS) pathologies and approximately 50% extracerebral, almost exclusively internal medical causes. Despite the high mortality associated with this symptom, there are currently no generally accepted management guidelines for adult patients presenting with CUO...
April 19, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409343/use-of-xenopus-frogs-to-study-renal-development-repair
#4
Shoshoni T Droz, Kelly A McLaughlin
The Xenopus genus includes several members of aquatic frogs native to Africa but is perhaps best known for the species Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis. These species were popularized as model organisms from as early as the 1800s and have been instrumental in expanding several biological fields including cell biology, environmental toxicology, regenerative biology, and developmental biology. In fact, much of what we know about the formation and maturation of the vertebrate renal system has been acquired by examining the intricate genetic and morphological patterns that epitomize nephrogenesis in Xenopus...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407592/different-effects-of-bisphenol-a-and-its-halogenated-derivatives-on-the-reproduction-and-development-of-oryzias-melastigma-under-environmentally-relevant-doses
#5
Qiansheng Huang, Yajie Chen, Lifeng Lin, Yiyao Liu, Yulang Chi, Yi Lin, Guozhu Ye, Huiming Zhu, Sijun Dong
Bisphenol A (BPA) and its halogenated compounds (H-BPAs) are widely detected in the environmental media and organisms. However, their toxicological effects, especially chronic exposure at low doses, have not been fully compared. In this study, the effects of BPA and H-BPAs on the reproduction and development of Oryzias melastigma were systematically assessed and compared at various developmental stages. BPA and its derivatives tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) elicited the acceleration of embryonic heartbeat...
April 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403741/impact-of-acrylamide-on-calcium-signaling-and-cytoskeletal-filaments-in-testes-from-f344-rat
#6
Leslie Recio, Marvin Friedman, Dennis Marroni, Timothy Maynor, Nikolai L Chepelev
Acrylamide (AA) at high exposure levels is neurotoxic, induces testicular toxicity, and increases dominant lethal mutations in rats. RNA-sequencing in testes was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG), explore AA-induced pathway perturbations that could contribute to AA-induced testicular toxicity and then used to derive a benchmark dose (BMD). Male F344/DuCrl rats were administered 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, or 12.0 mg AA/kg bw/d in drinking water for 5, 15, or 31 days. The experimental design used exposure levels that spanned and exceeded the exposure levels used in the rat dominant lethal, 2-generation reproductive toxicology, and cancer bioassays...
March 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400834/comparison-of-commonly-used-icr-stocks-and-the-characterization-of-korl-icr
#7
Hye-Jun Shin, Young Min Cho, Hee Jung Shin, Hae Deun Kim, Kyung Min Choi, Mi Gyeong Kim, Hyoung Doo Shin, Myeon-Woo Chung
Mouse is a commonly used animal in life science studies and is classified as outbred if genetically diverse and inbred if genetically homogeneous. Outbred mouse stocks, are used in toxicology, oncology, infection and pharmacology research. The National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS; former the Korea National Institute of Health) have bred ICR mice for more than 50 years. We investigated to provide users with information and promote accountability to the Korl:ICR. To secure the indigenous data, biological characteristics of Korl:ICR were identified by comparing with other ICR stocks...
March 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397762/cellular-models-and-in-vitro-assays-for-the-screening-of-modulators-of-p-gp-mrp1-and-bcrp
#8
REVIEW
Mariline Gameiro, Renata Silva, Carolina Rocha-Pereira, Helena Carmo, Félix Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Fernando Remião
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are highly expressed in tumor cells, as well as in organs involved in absorption and secretion processes, mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of compounds, both endogenous substances and xenobiotics, including drugs. Their expression and activity levels are modulated by the presence of inhibitors, inducers and/or activators. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies with both known and newly synthesized P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inducers and/or activators have shown the usefulness of these transport mechanisms in reducing the systemic exposure and specific tissue access of potentially harmful compounds...
April 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397249/safety-issues-of-compounds-acting-on-adenosinergic-signalling
#9
REVIEW
Jan Schmidt, Polonca Ferk
OBJECTIVES: Much research has been performed on the field of identifying the roles of adenosine and adenosinergic signalling, but a relatively low number of marketing authorizations have been granted for adenosine receptor (AdR) ligands. In part, this could be related to their safety issues; therefore, our aim was to examine the toxicological and adverse effects data of different compounds acting on adenosinergic signalling, including different AdR ligands and compounds resembling the structure of adenosine...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391461/toxicological-assessment-of-tungsten-oxide-nanoparticles-in-rats-after-acute-oral-exposure
#10
Srinivas Chinde, Naresh Dumala, Mohammed Fazlur Rahman, Sarika Srinivas Kalyan Kamal, Srinivas Indu Kumari, Mohammed Mahboob, Paramjit Grover
Advances in and the rapid growth of the nanotechnology sector have escalated manufacture of nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in a significant increase in the probability of exposure of humans and wildlife to these materials. Many NPs have been found to exert genotoxicity. Therefore, genotoxicity studies are mandatory to assess the toxicity of NPs as a concern of succumbing to genetic diseases and cancers are universal. Tungsten oxide (WO3) NPs are being explored extensively in various fields. However, the toxicological data of WO3 NPs by oral route in mammals is limited...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390288/automatic-classification-of-human-sperm-head-morphology
#11
Violeta Chang, Laurent Heutte, Caroline Petitjean, Steffen Härtel, Nancy Hitschfeld
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Infertility is a problem that affects up to 15% of couples worldwide with emotional and physiological implications and semen analysis is the first step in the evaluation of an infertile couple. Indeed the morphology of human sperm cells is considered to be a clinical tool dedicated to the fertility prognosis and serves, mainly, for making decisions regarding the options of assisted reproduction technologies. Therefore, a complete analysis of not only normal sperm but also abnormal sperm turns out to be critical in this context...
April 2, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389990/high-mobility-group-box-1-regulates-cytoprotective-autophagy-in-a-mouse-spermatocyte-cell-line-gc-2spd-exposed-to-cadmium
#12
Z Ou, Y Chen, X Niu, W He, B Song, D Fan, X Sun
BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that induces a broad spectrum of toxicological effects, influences a variety of human organs, and is associated with poor semen quality and male infertility. Increasing evidence demonstrates that Cd induces testicular germ cell apoptosis in rodent animals. However, the specific effect of Cd exposure on autophagy in germ cells is poorly understood. METHODS: We investigate the role of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, on Cd-evoked autophagy in a mouse spermatocyte cell line (GC-2spd)...
April 7, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387336/using-energy-budgets-to-combine-ecology-and-toxicology-in-a-mammalian-sentinel-species
#13
Jean-Pierre W Desforges, Christian Sonne, Rune Dietz
Process-driven modelling approaches can resolve many of the shortcomings of traditional descriptive and non-mechanistic toxicology. We developed a simple dynamic energy budget (DEB) model for the mink (Mustela vison), a sentinel species in mammalian toxicology, which coupled animal physiology, ecology and toxicology, in order to mechanistically investigate the accumulation and adverse effects of lifelong dietary exposure to persistent environmental toxicants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our novel mammalian DEB model accurately predicted, based on energy allocations to the interconnected metabolic processes of growth, development, maintenance and reproduction, lifelong patterns in mink growth, reproductive performance and dietary accumulation of PCBs as reported in the literature...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382549/microcystins-and-cyanophyte-extracts-inhibit-or-promote-the-photosynthesis-of-fluvial-algae-ecological-and-management-implications
#14
Laura García-Espín, Enrique A Cantoral, Antonia D Asencio, Marina Aboal
The ecological influence of cyanotoxins on aquatic biota remains unclear despite the numerous published references on toxicological and sanitary problems related with cyanophyte proliferation. The effects of microcystins and cyanophyte extracts on the photosynthesis of the algae that belong to two taxonomic groups, Rhodophyta and Bacillariophyta, were studied in an attempt to elucidate their role in the intraspecific competence and physiognomy of fluvial communities. The data showed that both cyanobacteria extracts and pure microcystin-LR affected the photosynthetic activity of all the tested organisms, diatoms (Fistulifera pelliculosa, Gomphonema parvulum, Nitzschia frustulum and Stephanodiscus minutulus) and red algae (Chroothece richteriana) at environmentally relevant concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381359/chemical-characterisation-of-aerosols-emitted-by-electronic-cigarettes-using-thermal-desorption-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#15
Christopher Rawlinson, Stuart Martin, Justin Frosina, Chris Wright
A non-targeted analytical method, using thermal desorption - gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry, to detect, identify and semi-quantify volatile and semi-volatile organic constituents of e-cigarette aerosols is presented. A heart-cutting process with a Deans Switch has been applied to avoid saturation of the mass analyser by high-abundance bulk components. Between 30 and 90 compounds were detected in four aerosol samples generated by e-cigarettes, depending on the added flavourings. The method analyses in a single 80mL, 3-s puff, GC-amenable compounds with volatilities ranging between those of propane (C3) and octacosane (C28) and abundance greater than approximately 5ng...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370236/toxicological-effects-of-fungicide-mixtures-on-the-amphipod-austrochiltonia-subtenuis
#16
Hung T Vu, Michael J Keough, Sara M Long, Vincent J Pettigrove
Approaches to assess the toxicity of mixtures often use predictive models with acute mortality as an endpoint at relatively high concentrations. However, these approaches do not reflect realistic situations where organisms could be exposed to chemical mixtures over long periods at low concentrations at which no significant mortalities occur. The present study investigated chronic effects of 2 common fungicides, Filan® (active ingredient [a.i]) boscalid) and Systhane™ (a.i. myclobutanil), on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis at environmentally relevant concentrations under laboratory conditions...
March 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366709/architecture-in-3d-cell-culture-an-essential-feature-for-in-vitro-toxicology
#17
Sophie A Lelièvre, Tim Kwok, Shirisha Chittiboyina
Three-dimensional cell culture has the potential to revolutionize toxicology studies by allowing human-based reproduction of essential elements of organs. Beyond the study of toxicants on the most susceptible organs such as liver, kidney, skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, testis, heart and brain, carcinogenesis research will also greatly benefit from 3D cell culture models representing any normal tissue. No tissue function can be suitably reproduced without the appropriate tissue architecture whether mimicking acini, ducts or tubes, sheets of cells or more complex cellular organizations like hepatic cords...
March 30, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363182/sulfate-radical-based-oxidation-of-antibiotics-sulfamethazine-sulfapyridine-sulfadiazine-sulfadimethoxine-and-sulfachloropyridazine-formation-of-so2-extrusion-products-and-effects-of-natural-organic-matter
#18
Yuefei Ji, Yuanyuan Shi, Lu Wang, Junhe Lu, Corinne Ferronato, Jean-Marc Chovelon
The widespread occurrence of sulfonamide antibiotics in the environment has raised great concerns about their potential to proliferate antibacterial resistance. Sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) are promising in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) technologies for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by antibiotics. The present study reported that thermally activated persulfate oxidation of sulfonamides (SAs) bearing six-membered heterocyclic rings, e.g., sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfapyridine (SPD), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP), all produced SO2 extrusion products (SEPs), a phenomenon that is of potential importance, but not systematically studied...
March 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363143/nanotoxicity-of-graphene-oxide-assessing-the-influence-of-oxidation-debris-in-the-presence-of-humic-acid
#19
Zaira Clemente, Vera Lúcia S S Castro, Lidiane S Franqui, Cristiane A Silva, Diego Stéfani T Martinez
This study sought to evaluate the toxicological effects of graphene oxide (GO) through tests with Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos, considering the influence of the base washing treatment and the interaction with natural organic matter (i.e., humic acid, HA). A commercial sample of GO was refluxed with NaOH to remove oxidation debris (OD) byproducts, which resulted in a base washed GO sample (bw-GO). This process decreased the total oxygenated groups in bw-GO and its stability in water compared to GO. When tested in the presence of HA, both GO and bw-GO stabilities were enhanced in water...
March 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363126/interaction-between-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-organic-cation-transporter-1-oct1-and-endo-and-xenobiotics
#20
Ivan Mihaljević, Marta Popović, Roko Žaja, Nikola Maraković, Goran Šinko, Tvrtko Smital
Organic cation transporters (OCTs) serve as uptake transporters of numerous endo- and xenobiotics. They have been in the focus of medical toxicological research for more than a decade due to their key role in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion due to their expression on basolateral membranes of various barrier tissues. OCTs belong to the SLC22A family within the SLC (Solute carrier) protein superfamily, with three co-orthologs identified in humans (OCT1, 2 and 3), and two Oct orthologs in zebrafish (Oct1 and Oct2)...
March 18, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
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