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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155174/ethnopharmacology-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-cornus-officinalis-sieb-et-zucc
#1
REVIEW
Jun Huang, Yiwei Zhang, Lin Dong, Qinghan Gao, Lei Yin, Hongfeng Quan, Rong Chen, Xueyan Fu, Dingbo Lin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus officinalis (Cornaceae), known in Chinese as "Shanzhuyu," is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine. It tastes sour and is astringent and slightly warm in nature. Its fruits have long been used to treat kidney deficiency, high blood pressure, waist and knee pain, dizziness, tinnitus, impotence, spermatorrhea, menorrhagia, and other diseases in China. The main distribution areas are Shanxi and Gansu. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review focused on the ethnopharmacological uses of the herb...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155131/human-lung-epithelial-cell-cultures-for-analysis-of-inhaled-toxicants-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#2
REVIEW
Pieter S Hiemstra, Gwendolynn Grootaers, Anne M van der Does, Cyrille A M Krul, Ingeborg M Kooter
The epithelium that covers the conducting airways and alveoli is a primary target for inhaled toxic substances, and therefore a focus in inhalation toxicology. The increasing concern about the use of animal models has stimulated the development of in vitro cell culture models for analysis of the biological effects of inhaled toxicants. However, the validity of the current in vitro models and their acceptance by regulatory authorities as an alternative to animal models is a reason for concern, and requires a critical review...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155077/subchronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-korean-red-ginseng-extract-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-a-4-week-recovery-period
#3
Sang-Jin Park, JeongHo Noh, Eun Ju Jeong, Yong-Soon Kim, Byung-Cheol Han, Seung-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Sik Moon
Ginseng is a major herbal remedy used in Asian countries for thousands of years and known to restore and enhance vital energy. Korean red ginseng, which is processed by steaming and drying fresh Panax ginseng, is most popular and contains unique ginsenosides, which have anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the repeated oral dose toxicity of Korean red ginseng extract. The test article was administered orally once a day to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day for 13 consecutive weeks (15 animals/sex/group in the vehicle control and 2000 mg/kg/day groups, and 10 animals/sex/group in the 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day groups)...
November 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145783/ntp-niehs-global-contributions-to-toxicologic-pathology
#4
Robert Sills, Amy Brix, Mark Cesta, Sheba R Churchill, Michelle C Cora, Darlene Dixon, Michael Dykstra, Gordon Flake, Ron Herbert, Ramesh Kovi, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Angela King-Herbert, David Malarkey, Arun Pandiri, Greg Travlos, Cynthia Willson, Susan A Elmore
National Toxicology Program (NTP) pathologists are engaged in important initiatives that have significant global impact. These initiatives build on its leadership in pathology peer review and publications in the areas of toxicologic pathology, clinical pathology, and laboratory animal medicine. Over the past decade, NTP/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research initiatives have focused on cancer and noncancer hazard identification, with the goal of understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144073/evaluation-of-certain-food-additives
#5
(no author information available yet)
This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for 10 food additives (Allura Red AC; carob bean gum; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid (OSA)– modified gum arabic; pectin; Quinoline Yellow; rosemary extract; steviol glycosides; tartrazine; and xanthan gum) and five groups of flavouring agents (alicyclic, alicyclic-fused and aromatic-fused ring lactones; aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; cinnamyl alcohol and related substances; and tetrahydrofuran and furanone derivatives)...
2017: World Health Organization Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144071/evaluation-of-certain-contaminants-in-food
#6
(no author information available yet)
This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various contaminants or groups of contaminants in food. The first part of the report contains a brief description of general considerations addressed at the meeting, including updates on matters of interest to the work of the Committee. A summary follows of the Committee’s evaluations of technical, toxicological and/or dietary exposure data for six contaminants or groups of contaminants (aflatoxins, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisins, glycidyl esters, 3-MCPD esters and 3-MCPD, sterigmatocystin) as well as an evaluation of co-exposure of fumonisins with aflatoxins...
2017: World Health Organization Technical Report Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143967/thirteen-week-toxicity-study-of-dietary-l-tryptophan-in-rats-with-a-recovery-period-of-5%C3%A2-weeks
#7
Yusuke Shibui, Hideki Matsumoto, Yoko Masuzawa, Takumi Ohishi, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Katsumi Shibata, Ryosei Sakai
Although l-tryptophan is nutritionally important and widely used in medical applications, toxicity data for its oral administration are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of an experimental diet containing added l-tryptophan at doses of 0 (basal diet), 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% when administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 13 weeks. There were no toxicological changes in clinical signs, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology between control rats and those fed additional l-tryptophan...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143053/recent-advances-in-microfluidic-technologies-for-cell-to-cell-interaction-studies
#8
REVIEW
Mario Rothbauer, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Microfluidic cell cultures are ideally positioned to become the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tools for biomedical research, where key biological processes such as cell signalling and dynamic cell-to-cell interactions can be reliably analysed under reproducible physiological cell culture conditions. In the last decade, a large number of microfluidic cell analysis systems have been developed for a variety of applications including drug target optimization, drug screening and toxicological testing. More recently, advanced in vitro microfluidic cell culture systems have emerged that are capable of replicating the complex three-dimensional architectures of tissues and organs and thus represent valid biological models for investigating the mechanism and function of human tissue structures, as well as studying the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer...
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137941/acute-and-sub-acute-oral-toxicity-studies-of-the-aqueous-extract-from-radix-radix-with-cortex-and-cortex-of-psammosilene-tunicoides-in-mice-and-rats
#9
Yi-Chen, Min-Xuan Wu, Jie-Liu, Xiao-Jie Ma, Jin-Li Shi, Sheng-Nan Wang, Zhi-Quan Zheng, Jian-You Guo
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Psammosilene tunicoides is one of the important ingredients of a famous Chinese traditional medicine formulation "Yunnan Baiyao". Also, this plant is commonly used as an anodyne and hemostatic agent in southwest China. Currently, little toxicological information is available on its safety following prolonged use. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we sought to evaluate the toxicity of the three different parts of Psammosilene tunicoides: Psammosilenes Radix (PR), Psammosilenes Radix with Cortex (PRC) and Psammosilenes Cortex (PC) by acute and sub-acute toxicity studies...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136534/investigating-the-potential-impact-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-on-gene-biomarker-expression-and-global-dna-methylation-in-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-from-the-adriatic-sea
#10
Paolo Cocci, Gilberto Mosconi, Luca Bracchetti, John Mark Nalocca, Emanuela Frapiccini, Mauro Marini, Giovanni Caprioli, Gianni Sagratini, Francesco Alessandro Palermo
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are priority contaminants that bioaccumulate through the food webs and affect the biology of a variety of resident and migratory species, including sea turtles. Few studies have evaluated toxicological biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and PCBs in these animals. The present paper reports the results of an initial field study to quantify the association between plasma concentrations of PAHs/PCBs and whole blood cell expression of gene biomarkers in juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) rescued along the Italian coasts of the northern and central areas of the Adriatic Sea...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131987/quantifying-the-interactions-among-metal-mixtures-in-toxicodynamic-process-with-generalized-linear-model
#11
Jianfeng Feng, Yongfei Gao, Yijun Ji, Lin Zhu
Predicting the toxicity of chemical mixtures is difficult because of the additive, antagonistic, or synergistic interactions among the mixture components. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions are dominant in metal mixtures, and their distributions may correlate with exposure concentrations. However, whether the interaction types of metal mixtures change at different time points during toxicodynamic (TD) processes is undetermined because of insufficient appropriate models and metal bioaccumulation data at different time points...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128604/influence-of-maternal-age-on-the-effects-of-seleno-l-methionine-in-the-model-organism-daphnia-pulex-under-standard-and-heat-stress-conditions
#12
Jordan R Nelson, Tonia S Schwartz, Julia M Gohlke
Selenium deficiency and toxicity increase the risk of adverse developmental and reproductive outcomes; however, few multi-stressor studies have evaluated the influence of maternal age on organic selenium dose-response and additional stressors over the life course. While multi-stressor research in mammalian models is time-consuming and expensive, use of alternative models can efficiently produce screening data for prioritizing research in mammalian systems. As a well-known eco-toxicological model, Daphnia pulex, may offer advantages in screening for impacts of multi-stressor exposures...
November 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128247/diagnosis-of-complex-mixture-toxicity-in-sediments-application-of-toxicity-identification-evaluation-tie-and-effect-directed-analysis-eda
#13
REVIEW
Huizhen Li, Jie Zhang, Jing You
Determining causality of sediment toxicity is of great importance in aquatic risk assessment, but there are tremendous challenges due to joint toxicity of trace pollutants in complex sediment matrices. Two approaches, namely toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and effect-directed analysis (EDA) have been developed. Conventional sediment TIEs take the advantage of environmental relevance by using whole organism bioassays; however, they suffer from lack of effective methods for specifically identifying major contributors as it typically only evaluates contaminant class rather than specific contaminants...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126988/morinda-officinalis-how-a-comprehensive-review-of-traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology
#14
REVIEW
Jian-Hua Zhang, Hai-Liang Xin, Yue-Ming Xu, Yi Shen, Yu-Qiong He, Hsien-Yeh, Bing Lin, Hong-Tao Song, Juan-Liu, Hai-Yue Yang, Lu-Ping Qin, Qiao-Yan Zhang, Juan Du
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal plant Morinda officinalisHow. (MO) and its root have long been used in traditional medicines in China and northeast Asia as tonics for nourishing the kidney, strengthening the bone and enhancing immunofunction in the treatment of impotence, osteoporosis, depression and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of MO and provide insights intopotential opportunities for future research and development of this plant...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126092/environmental-concentrations-and-toxicology-of-2-4-6-tribromophenol-tbp
#15
REVIEW
Christoph Koch, Bernd Sures
2,4,6-Tribromophenol is the most widely produced brominated phenol. In the present review, we summarize studies dealing with this substance from an environmental point of view. We cover concentrations in the abiotic and biotic environment including humans, toxicokinetics as well as toxicodynamics, and show gaps of the current knowledge about this chemical. 2,4,6-Tribomophenol occurs as an intermediate during the synthesis of brominated flame retardants and it similarly represents a degradation product of these substances...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125650/combination-of-hplc-with-organic-and-inorganic-mass-spectrometry-to-study-the-metabolic-response-of-the-clam-scrobicularia-plana-to-arsenic-exposure
#16
Gema Rodríguez-Moro, Tamara García-Barrera, Chiara Trombini, Julián Blasco, José Luis Gómez-Ariza
Arsenic is a toxic element extensively studied in the marine environment due to differential toxicological effects of inorganic and organic species. In the present work, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana was exposed to As(V) (10 and 100 μg·L(-1) ) for 14 days to evaluate the metabolic perturbations caused by this element. Arsenic speciation and metabolomic analysis were performed in the digestive gland of the bivalve using two complementary analytical platforms based on inorganic and organic mass spectrometry...
November 10, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121564/effect-of-1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium-bromide-on-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Cheng Zhang, Jinhua Wang, Miao Dong, Jun Wang, Zhongkun Du, Bing Li, Lusheng Zhu
Room-temperature ionic liquids, generally referred to ionic liquids (ILs), are "green solvents". Antioxidant responses and DNA damage in zebrafish livers exposed to 1-methyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide ([C6mim]Br) were evaluated at various doses (5-40 mg/L) for a 28-day IL-exposure. A significant decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was exhibited, and catalase (CAT) was inhibited at the highest dose (40 mg/L). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were significantly promoted at most exposure interval times except for the dose of 5 mg/L on day 21 in male and days 21 and 28 in female...
November 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121563/benthic-invertebrate-exposure-and-chronic-toxicity-risk-analysis-for-cyclic-volatile-methylsiloxanes-comparison-of-hazard-quotient-and-probabilistic-risk-assessment-approaches
#18
Kent B Woodburn, Rita M Seston, Jaeshin Kim, David E Powell
This study utilized probabilistic risk assessment techniques to compare field sediment concentrations of the cyclic volatile methylsiloxane (cVMS) materials octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4, CAS # 556-67-2), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5, CAS # 541-02-6), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6, CAS # 540-97-6) to effect levels for these compounds determined in laboratory chronic toxicity tests with benthic organisms. The concentration data for D4/D5/D6 in sediment were individually sorted and the 95th centile concentrations determined in sediment on an organic carbon (OC) fugacity basis...
October 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113559/proceedings-of-the-2017-national-toxicology-program-satellite-symposium
#19
Susan A Elmore, Famke Aeffner, Dinesh S Bangari, Torrie A Crabbs, Stacey Fossey, Shayne C Gad, Wanda M Haschek, Jessica S Hoane, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Ramesh C Kovi, Gail Pearse, Lyn M Wancket, Erin M Quist
The 2017 annual National Toxicology Program Satellite Symposium, entitled "Pathology Potpourri," was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada at the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 36th annual meeting. The goal of this symposium was to present and discuss challenging diagnostic pathology and/or nomenclature issues. This article presents summaries of the speakers' talks along with select images that were used by the audience for voting and discussion. Various lesions and other topics covered during the symposium included renal papillary degeneration in perinatally exposed animals, an atriocaval mesothelioma, an unusual presentation of an alveolar-bronchiolar carcinoma, a paraganglioma of the organ of Zuckerkandl (also called an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma), the use of human muscle samples to illustrate the challenges of manual scoring of fluorescent staining, intertubular spermatocytic seminomas, medical device pathology assessment and discussion of the approval process, collagen-induced arthritis, incisor denticles, ameloblast degeneration and poorly mineralized enamel matrix, connective tissue paragangliomas, microcystin-LR toxicity, perivascular mast cells in the forebrain thalamus unrelated to treatment, and 2 cases that provided a review of the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) bone nomenclature and recommended application of the terminology in routine nonclinical toxicity studies...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112844/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-house-dust-and-surface-soil-in-major-urban-regions-of-nepal-implication-on-source-apportionment-and-toxicological-effect
#20
Ishwar Chandra Yadav, Ningombam Linthoingambi Devi, Jun Li, Gan Zhang
Urban centers have turned to be the provincial store for resource consumptions and source releases of different types of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), bringing about boundless environmental pollutions, among different issues. Human prosperity inside urban communities is unambiguously dependent on the status of urban soils and house dusts. However, environmental occurrence and sources of release of these SVOCs are challenging in Nepalese cities, as exceptionally very limited data are accessible...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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