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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936424/acid-stress-response-mechanisms-of-group-b-streptococci
#1
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935959/the-crystal-structure-of-the-regulatory-domain-of-the-human-sodium-driven-chloride-bicarbonate-exchanger
#2
Carolina M Alvadia, Theis Sommer, Kaare Bjerregaard-Andersen, Helle Hasager Damkier, Michele Montrasio, Christian Aalkjaer, J Preben Morth
The sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE) is essential for maintaining homeostatic pH in neurons. The crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution of the regulatory N-terminal domain of human NDCBE represents the first crystal structure of an electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter. The crystal structure forms an equivalent dimeric interface as observed for the cytoplasmic domain of Band 3, and thus establishes that the consensus motif VTVLP is the key minimal dimerization motif. The VTVLP motif is highly conserved and likely to be the physiologically relevant interface for all other members of the SLC4 family...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929448/acid-rock-drainage-in-nevado-pastoruri-glacier-area-huascar%C3%A3-n-national-park-per%C3%A3%C2%BA-hydrochemical-and-mineralogical-characterization-and-associated-environmental-implications
#3
Esther Santofimia, Enrique López-Pamo, Edwin Julio Palomino, Elena González-Toril, Ángeles Aguilera
The generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) was observed in an area of Nevado Pastoruri as a result of the oxidative dissolution of pyrite-rich lutites and sandstones. These ARDs are generated as abundant pyrite becomes exposed to atmospheric conditions as a result of glacier retreat. The proglacial zone contains lagoons, springs, streams and wetlands, scant vegetation, and intense fluvioglacial erosion. This work reports a comprehensive identification and the results of sampling of the lagoons and springs belonging to the microbasin, which is the headwaters of the Pachacoto River, as well as mapping results based on the hydrochemical data obtained in our study...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929019/heterologous-expression-of-plasmodium-vivax-apical-membrane-antigen-1-pvama1-for-binding-peptide-selection
#4
Ching Hoong Chew, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Kek Heng Chua
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium is an obligate intracellular parasite. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is the most prominent and well characterized malarial surface antigen that is essential for parasite-host cell invasion, i.e., for sporozoite to invade and replicate within hepatocytes in the liver stage and merozoite to penetrate and replicate within erythrocytes in the blood stage. AMA1 has long served as a potent antimalarial drug target and is a pivotal vaccine candidate. A good understanding of the structure and molecular function of this Plasmodium protein, particularly its involvement in host-cell adhesion and invasion, is of great interest and hence it offers an attractive target for the development of novel therapeutics...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922760/the-roles-of-pleiotropy-and-close-linkage-as-revealed-by-association-mapping-of-yield-and-correlated-traits-of-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#5
Albert W Schulthess, Jochen C Reif, Jie Ling, Jörg Plieske, Sonja Kollers, Erhard Ebmeyer, Viktor Korzun, Odile Argillier, Gunther Stiewe, Martin W Ganal, Marion S Röder, Yong Jiang
Grain yield (GY) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is quantitatively inherited. Correlated GY-syndrome traits such as plant height (PH), heading date (HD), thousand grain weight (TGW), test weight (TW), grains per ear (GPE), and ear weight (EW) influence GY. Most quantitative genetics studies assessed the multiple-trait (MT) complex of GY-syndrome using single-trait approaches, and little is known about its underlying pleiotropic architecture. We investigated the pleiotropic architecture of wheat GY-syndrome through MT association mapping (MT-GWAS) using 372 varieties phenotyped in up to eight environments and genotyped with 18 832 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus 24 polymorphic functional markers...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920437/real-time-metabolic-interactions-between-two-bacterial-species-using-a-carbon-based-ph-microsensor-as-a-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy-secm-probe
#6
Vrushali Subhash Joshi, Partha Sarathi Sheet, Nyssa Cullin, Jens Kreth, Dipankar Koley
We have developed a carbon-based, fast-response potentiometric pH microsensor for use as a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) chemical probe to quantitatively map the microbial metabolic exchange between two bacterial species, commensal Streptococcus gordonii and pathogenic Streptococcus mutans. The 25-μm diameter H+ ion-selective microelectrode or pH microprobe showed a Nernstian slope of 59 mV/pH and high selectivity against major ions such Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. In addition, the unique conductive membrane composition aided us in performing an amperometric approach curve to position the probe and obtain a high-resolution pH map of the microenvironment produced by the lactate-producing S...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913169/a-semi-virtual-two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-if-esi-lc-ms-ms
#7
Stanislav Naryzhny, Victor Zgoda, Artur Kopylov, Elena Petrenko, Аlexander Archakov
A method for increasing the productivity of ESI LC-MS/MS (electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) was proposed and applied. After IF (isoelectric focusing) of the sample using IPG (immobilized pH gradient) strip, the strip was cut to sections, and every section was treated according to trypsinolysis protocol for MS/MS analysis. The peptides produced were further analyzed by ESI LC-MS/MS. The procedure allows to: •identify many more proteins and proteoforms compared to shotgun analysis of extracts...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900832/spatial-discrimination-of-glioblastoma-and-treatment-effect-with-histologically-validated-perfusion-and-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-metrics
#8
Melissa A Prah, Mona M Al-Gizawiy, Wade M Mueller, Elizabeth J Cochran, Raymond G Hoffmann, Jennifer M Connelly, Kathleen M Schmainda
The goal of this study is to spatially discriminate tumor from treatment effect (TE), within the contrast-enhancing lesion, for brain tumor patients at all stages of treatment. To this end, the diagnostic accuracy of MRI-derived diffusion and perfusion parameters to distinguish pure TE from pure glioblastoma (GBM) was determined utilizing spatially-correlated biopsy samples. From July 2010 through June 2015, brain tumor patients who underwent pre-operative DWI and DSC-MRI and stereotactic image-guided biopsy were considered for inclusion in this IRB-approved study...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888712/simultaneous-optimization-of-ph-and-binary-organic-composition-by-grid-form-modeling-of-the-retention-behavior-in-reversed-phase-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#9
Tsukasa Sasaki, Kenichiro Todoroki, Toshimasa Toyo'oka
A novel computer-assisted methodology for the simultaneous optimization of aqueous pH and binary organic eluent composition through a broad range of analytical conditions of reversed-phase ultra high-performance liquid chromatography is proposed. Two of nonlinear prediction models were employed to fit into the retention time (tR) on a linear gradient elution with a predefined slope. One model was derived from Bernoulli-type probability distribution to predict the value of tR against the pH value of the aqueous eluent...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888234/disseminating-near-real-time-hazards-information-and-flood-maps-in-the-philippines-through-web-gis
#10
Alfredo Mahar Francisco A Lagmay, Bernard Alan Racoma, Ken Adrian Aracan, Jenalyn Alconis-Ayco, Ivan Lester Saddi
The Philippines being a locus of tropical cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. These natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property. Situated in a region where climate and geophysical tempest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883396/in-vivo-quantitative-imaging-of-tumor-ph-by-nanosonophore-assisted-multispectral-photoacoustic-imaging
#11
Janggun Jo, Chang H Lee, Raoul Kopelman, Xueding Wang
Changes of physiological pH are correlated with several pathologies, therefore the development of more effective medical pH imaging methods is of paramount importance. Here, we report on an in vivo pH mapping nanotechnology. This subsurface chemical imaging is based on tumor-targeted, pH sensing nanoprobes and multi-wavelength photoacoustic imaging (PAI). The nanotechnology consists of an optical pH indicator, SNARF-5F, 5-(and-6)-Carboxylic Acid, encapsulated into polyacrylamide nanoparticles with surface modification for tumor targeting...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881204/gelation-mechanism-of-cellulose-nanofibre-gels-a-colloids-and-interfacial-perspective
#12
Llyza Mendoza, Warren Batchelor, Rico F Tabor, Gil Garnier
HYPOTHESIS: Nanocellulose gels form a new category of sustainable soft materials of industrial interest for a wide range of applications. There is a need to map the rheological properties and understand the mechanism which provides the colloidal stability and gelation of these nanofibre suspensions. EXPERIMENTS: TEMPO (2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl)-oxidised cellulose nanofibre gels were investigated at different fibre concentrations, pH and ionic strength...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880549/binding-and-release-between-polymeric-carrier-and-protein-drug-ph-mediated-interplay-of-coulomb-forces-hydrogen-bonding-van-der-waals-interactions-and-entropy
#13
Sergio De Luca, Fan Chen, Prasenjit Seal, Martina H Stenzel, Sean C Smith
The accelerating search for new types of drugs and delivery strategies poses the challenge to understand the mechanism of delivery. To this end, a detailed atomistic picture of binding between the drug and the carrier is quintessential. While many studies focus on the electrostatics of drug-vector interactions, it has also been pointed out that entropic factors relating to water and counter ions can play an important role. By carrying out extensive molecular dynamics simulations and subsequently validating with experiment, we shed light herein on the binding in aqueous solution between a protein drug and a polymeric carrier...
September 7, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871484/epr-oximetry-sensor-developing-a-tam-derivative-for-in-vivo-studies
#14
Agnieszka Boś-Liedke, Magdalena Walawender, Anna Woźniak, Dorota Flak, Jacek Gapiński, Stefan Jurga, Małgorzata Kucińska, Adam Plewiński, Marek Murias, Marwa Elewa, Lisa Lampp, Peter Imming, Krzysztof Tadyszak
Oxygenation is one of the most important physiological parameters of biological systems. Low oxygen concentration (hypoxia) is associated with various pathophysiological processes in different organs. Hypoxia is of special importance in tumor therapy, causing poor response to treatment. Triaryl methyl (TAM) derivative radicals are commonly used in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as sensors for quantitative spatial tissue oxygen mapping. They are also known as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and fluorescence imaging compounds...
September 4, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871252/development-and-characterization-of-a-camelid-single-domain-antibody-urease-conjugate-that-targets-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-2
#15
Baomin Tian, Wah Yau Wong, Marni D Uger, Pawel Wisniewski, Heman Chao
Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). In this study, we describe the development and characterization of V21-DOS47, an immunoconjugate that targets VEGFR2. V21-DOS47 is composed of a camelid single domain anti-VEGFR2 antibody (V21) and the enzyme urease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866811/release-of-phosphorus-from-sewage-sludge-during-ozonation-and-removal-by-magnesium-ammonium-phosphate
#16
Jian Zhang, Yu Tian, Jun Zhang
The release rule of phosphorus from sewage sludge during ozonation and removal by the magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) method were investigated. The results showed that the concentrations of total phosphorus in aqueous phase (TP(A)) and orthophosphate (PO4(3-)-P) in ozonized sludge supernatant rose obviously with increasing ozone dose when ozone dose was below 61.2 mg O3/gSS then almost kept constant. The TP(A) and PO4(3-)-P contents in the ozonized sludge supernatant were 70.9 and 63.3 mg/L when ozone dose was 61...
September 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859478/computationally-mapping-pka-shifts-due-to-the-presence-of-a-polyelectrolyte-chain-around-whey-proteins
#17
Deepti Srivastava, Erik Santiso, Keith Gubbins, Fernando Luís Barroso da Silva
Experimental studies have shown the formation of soluble complexes in the pure repulsive Coulombic regime even when the net charges of the protein and the polyelectrolyte have the same sign ( De Kruif et al. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 2004 , 9 , 340 ; De Vries et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2003 , 118 , 4649 ; Grymonpre et al. Biomacromolecules 2001 , 2 , 422 ; Hattori et al. Langmuir 2000 , 16 , 9738 ). This attractive phenomenon has often been described as "complexation on the wrong side of pI". While one theory assumes the existence of "charged patches" on the protein surface from ion-dipole interactions, thus allowing a polyelectrolyte to bind to an oppositely heterogeneous charged protein region, another theoretical view considers the induced-charge interactions to be the dominant factor in these complexations...
September 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845451/extensive-arsenic-contamination-in-high-ph-unconfined-aquifers-in-the-indus-valley
#18
Joel E Podgorski, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Tasawar Khanam, Rizwan Ullah, Heqing Shen, Michael Berg
Arsenic-contaminated aquifers are currently estimated to affect ~150 million people around the world. However, the full extent of the problem remains elusive. This is also the case in Pakistan, where previous studies focused on isolated areas. Using a new data set of nearly 1200 groundwater quality samples throughout Pakistan, we have created state-of-the-art hazard and risk maps of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for thresholds of 10 and 50 μg/liter. Logistic regression analysis was used with 1000 iterations, where surface slope, geology, and soil parameters were major predictor variables...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842583/responses-of-renal-hemodynamics-and-tubular-functions-to-acute-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-administration-in-non-diabetic-anesthetized-rats
#19
Tuba M Ansary, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Asadur Rahman, Daisuke Nakano, Hirofumi Hitomi, Hideki Kobara, Tsutomu Masaki, Jens M Titze, Kento Kitada, Akira Nishiyama
The aim of this study is to examine the effects of acute administration of luseogliflozin, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, on renal hemodynamics and tubular functions in anesthetized non-diabetic Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) SD rats. Renal blood flow (RBF), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured and urine was collected directly from the left ureter. Intraperitoneal injection of luseogliflozin (0.9 mg kg(-1)) did not change MAP, HR, RBF, or creatinine clearance (CrCl) in SD rats (n = 7)...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841293/heading-toward-macromolecular-and-nanosized-bioresponsive-mri-probes-for-successful-functional-imaging
#20
Goran Angelovski
The quest for bioresponsive or smart contrast agents (SCAs) in molecular imaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is progressively increasing since they allow for the monitoring of essential biological processes on molecular and cellular levels in a dynamic fashion. These are offshoot molecules of common contrast agents that are sensitive to biochemical changes in their environment, capable of reporting on such changes by inducing MRI signal alteration. Various mechanistic approaches and different types of SCAs have been developed in order to visualize desired processes, using diverse imaging protocols and methods...
August 25, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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