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pH mapping

Xin Yi, Jingye Cheng, Zhengning Jiang, Wenjing Hu, Tongde Bie, Derong Gao, Dongsheng Li, Ronglin Wu, Yuling Li, Shulin Chen, Xiaoming Cheng, Jian Liu, Yong Zhang, Shunhe Cheng
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive wheat disease present throughout the world, and host resistance is an effective and economical strategy used to control FHB. Lack of adequate resistance resource is still a main bottleneck for FHB genetics and wheat breeding research. The synthetic-derived bread wheat line C615, which does not carry the Fhb1 gene, is a promising source of FHB resistance for breeding. A population of 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced by crossing C615 with the susceptible cultivar Yangmai 13 was evaluated for FHB response using point and spray inoculations...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiao-Yue Huang, Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
Solid phase reactions of Cr(VI) with Fe(0) were investigated with spherical-aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM) integrated with X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). Near-atomic resolution elemental mappings of Cr(VI)-Fe(0) reactions were acquired. Experimental results show that rate and extent of Cr(VI) encapsulation are strongly dependent on the initial concentration of Cr(VI) in solution. Low Cr loading in nZVI (<1.0wt%) promotes the electrochemical oxidation and continuous corrosion of nZVI while high Cr loading (>1...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Xiaofei Shi, Zhihao Wang, Toshiaki Takei, Xuejiao Wang, Qi Zhu, Xiaodong Li, Byung-Nam Kim, Xudong Sun, Ji-Guang Li
Hydrothermal reaction at 200 °C was systematically undertaken in wide ranges of solution pH (4-13) and W/La molar ratio ( R = 0.5-2), without using any organic additive, to investigate the effect of hydrothermal parameter on product property and the underlying mechanism. Combined analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy, elemental mapping, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that either a decreasing pH or increasing R value yielded a product richer in W and, conversely, richer in La...
May 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Jerzy Lipiec, Bogusław Usowicz
Sandy soils occupy large area in Poland (about 50%) and in the world. This study aimed at determining spatial relationships of cereal yields and the selected soil physical and chemical properties in three study years (2001-2003) on low productive sandy Podzol soil (Podlasie, Poland). The yields and soil properties in plough and subsoil layers were determined at 72-150 points. The test crops were: wheat, wheat and barley mixture and oats. To explore the spatial relationship between cereal yields and each soil property spatial statistics was used...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christina Wilkens Olesen, Jens Vogensen, Ida Axholm, Marc Severin, Julie Schnipper, Isabella Skandorff Pedersen, Jakob Hjorth von Stemann, Jacob Morville Schrøder, Dan Ploug Christensen, Stine Falsig Pedersen
The Na+;HCO3- co-transporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) is a major regulator of intracellular pH yet its trafficking and turnover are essentially unstudied. Here, we used MDCK-II and MCF-7 cells to investigate these processes in epithelial cells. GFP-NBCn1 membrane localization was abolished by truncation of the full NBCn1 C-terminal tail (C-tail) yet did not require the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (ETSL). Glutathione-S-Transferase-pulldown of the C-tail followed by mass spectrometry analysis revealed putative interactions with multiple sorting-, degradation- and retention factors, including the scaffolding protein RACK1...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Vincent Vagni, Shawn E Kotermanski, Edwin K Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
Suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) (a.k.a. PHLPP1) regulates long-term memory consolidation in the brain. Using a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) we tested if (1) brain tissue levels of SCOP/PHLPP1 increase after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and (2) if SCOP/PHLPP1 gene knockout (KO) mice have improved (or worse) neurologic outcomes. Blood chemistry (pH, pCO2 , pO2 , pSO2 , base excess, sodium bicarbonate, and osmolarity) and arterial pressure (MAP) differed in isoflurane anesthetized WT vs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
André M Santana, Funmilola C Thomas, Daniela G Silva, Eilidh McCulloch, Ana M C Vidal, Richard J S Burchmore, José J Fagliari, Peter D Eckersall
The aim of this study was to identify potential disease related proteins in milk whey of lactating buffaloes and blood serum of buffalo calves, in order to define a reference electrophoresis map for 1-DE and 2-DE. Additionally, changes in some protein patterns from buffalo calves during salmonellosis and lactating buffaloes during mastitis are presented. Milk samples were collected and distributed into groups: Milk samples from healthy buffaloes (SCC < 100.000 cells/ml, negative microbiology and CMT) (G1, n = 5) and buffaloes with subclinical mastitis (SCC > 500...
April 26, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Mingkai Qu, Yan Wang, Biao Huang, Yongcun Zhao
Spatial uncertainty information of the environmental risk of soil heavy metal is crucial for precise environmental management. This study first compared three geostatistical methods for spatial simulation of soil Copper (Cu) in a peri-urban agriculture area of Wuhan city, China, that are sequential Gaussian co-simulation (CoSGS) with auxiliary in-situ portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) data (CoSGS_in-situ), CoSGS with auxiliary ex-situ PXRF data (CoSGS_ex-situ), and sequential Gaussian simulation without auxiliary data (SGS)...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Khadiga Alharbi, Adel Ghoneim, Azza Ebid, Hany El-Hamshary, Mohamed H El-Newehy
A controlled release fertilizer system based on phosphate bound-carboxymethyl starch-graft-polyacrylamide (P-CMS-g-PAM) has been prepared in order to deliver the phosphate fertilizer to the plant at a constant rate thereby. This system aims to increase fertilizer phosphorus use efficiency (FPUE) and maintaining a hydration level for the plant at the same time. Two types of starch phosphate monoesters were prepared using mono-ammonium (MAP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). First, starch was converted to carboxymethyl starch and then was phosphorylated with mono-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and di-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bilal Aftab, Hyun-Sang Shin, Jin Hur
In this work, the changes of different organic constituents in landfill leachate were tracked in Fenton oxidation processes with different operation parameters including H2 O2 doses, pH, and the ratios of [H2 O2 ]/[Fe] via fluorescence excitation emission matrix - parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). One tryptophan-like (C1), one fulvic-like (C2), and one humic-like (C3) components were identified in the leachates. The removal behaviors of the individual fluorescent components were dependent upon the operation conditions, suggesting the existence of unique characteristics with respect to the responses to the oxidation mechanisms, which were likely altered by different operation conditions...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Javier García-Nafría, Yang Lee, Xiaochen Bai, Byron Carpenter, Christopher G Tate
The adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that couples to the heterotrimeric G protein GS . Here we determine the structure by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) of A2A R at pH 7.5 bound to the small molecule agonist NECA and coupled to an engineered heterotrimeric G protein, which contains mini-GS , the βγ subunits and nanobody Nb35. Most regions of the complex have a resolution of ~3.8 Å or better. Comparison with the 3.4 Å resolution crystal structure shows that the receptor and mini-GS are virtually identical and that the density of the side chains and ligand are of comparable quality...
May 4, 2018: ELife
Cristiano Ballabio, Panos Panagos, Emanuele Lugato, Jen-How Huang, Alberto Orgiazzi, Arwyn Jones, Oihane Fernández-Ugalde, Pasquale Borrelli, Luca Montanarella
Copper (Cu) distribution in soil is influenced by climatic, geological and pedological factors. Apart from geological sources and industrial pollution, other anthropogenic sources, related to the agricultural activity, may increase copper levels in soils, especially in permanent crops such as olive groves and vineyards. This study uses 21,682 soil samples from the LUCAS topsoil survey to investigate copper distribution in the soils of 25 European Union (EU) Member States. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) were used to investigate the factors driving copper distribution in EU soils...
April 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
C Spanu, F Piras, A M Mocci, G Nieddu, E P L De Santis, C Scarano
Ricotta fresca is a whey cheese susceptible of secondary contamination, mainly from Pseudomonas spp. The extension of the shelf life of refrigerated ricotta fresca could be obtained using protective cultures inhibiting the growth of this spoilage microorganism. A commercial biopreservative, Lyofast CNBAL, comprising Carnobacterium spp was tested against Pseudomonas spp. The surface of ricotta fresca samples were inoculated either with Pseudomonas spp or Pseudomonas and Carnobacterium spp. Samples were MAP packed, stored at 4 °C and analyzed the day of the inoculum and 7, 14 and 21 days after the contamination...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
Xiang Li, Minghua Zhou, Yuwei Pan
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most applicable herbicides in the world, its residue in aquatic environment threatens the human health and ecosystems. In this study, for the first time, inexpensive Fe-C after pre-magnetization (Pre-Fe-C) was used as the heterogeneous catalyst to activate persulfate (PS) for 2,4-D degradation, proving that Pre-Fe-C could significantly improve the degradation and dechlorination. The results indicated the stability and reusability of Pre-Fe-C were much better than pre-magnetization Fe0 (Pre-Fe0 ), while the leaching iron ion was lower, indicating that using Pre-Fe-C not only reduced the post-treatment cost, but also enhanced the removal and dechlorination efficiency of 2,4-D...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Gianluigi De Benedetto, Laura Salvini, Stefano Gotta, Paola Cescutti, Francesca Micoli
Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, for which licensed vaccines are not available, is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa. The O-antigen portion of lipopolysaccharide is a good target for protective immunity. Covalent conjugation of the O-antigen to a carrier protein increases its immunogenicity and O-antigen based glycoconjugate vaccines are currently under investigation at the preclinical stage. We developed a conjugation chemistry for linking O-antigen to CRM197 carrier protein, through sequential insertion of adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) and adipic acid bis-(N-hydroxysuccinimide) ester (SIDEA) as linkers, without impacting on O-antigen chain epitopes...
April 26, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Adrian Kölsch, Mahdi Hejazi, Kai R Stieger, Sven C Feifel, Jan F Kern, Frank Müh, Fred Lisdat, Heiko Lokstein, Athina Zouni
The binding of photosystem I (PS I) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus to the native cytochrome (cyt) c 6 and cyt c from horse heart (cyt c HH ), is analyzed by oxygen consumption measurements, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and rigid body docking combined with electrostatic computations of binding energies. While PS I has a higher affinity for cyt c HH than for cyt c 6 , the influence of ionic strength and pH on binding is different in the two cases. ITC and theoretical computations reveal the existence of unspecific binding sites for cyt c HH , besides one specific binding site close to P700 Binding to PS I is found to be the same for reduced and oxidized cyt c HH Based on this information, suitable conditions for a co-crystallization of cyt c HH with PS I have been found, resulting in crystals with a PS I:cyt c HH ratio of 1:1...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yinjun Zhang, Yicheng Fan, Wei Zhang, Guanzhong Wu, Jinghong Wang, Feng Cheng, Jianyong Zheng, Zhao Wang
Methyl (R)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)alaninate ((R)-DMPM) is a key chiral intermediate for the production of (R)-metalaxyl, which is one of the best-selling fungicides. A new strain, Pseudochrobactrum asaccharolyticum WZZ003, was identified as a biocatalyst for the enantioselective hydrolysis of (R,S)-DMPM. The key parameters including pH, temperature, rotation speed and substrate concentrations were optimized in the enantioselective hydrolysis of (R,S)-DMPM. After the 48 h hydrolysis of 256 mM (R,S)-DMPM under the optimized reaction conditions, the enantiomeric excess of product (e...
April 25, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
S Knaga, M Siwek, S Tavaniello, G Maiorano, A Witkowski, G Jezewska-Witkowska, M Bednarczyk, G Zieba
The objective of the current study was to identify QTL associated with body weight, growth rate, egg quality traits, concentration of selected blood plasma, and yolk lipids as well as concentration of selected macro- and microelements, color, pH, basic chemical composition, and drip loss of breast muscle of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Twenty-two meat-type males (line F33) were crossed with twenty-two laying-type females (line S22) to produce a generation of F1 hybrids. The F2 generation was created by mating 44 randomly chosen F1 hybrids, which were full siblings...
April 17, 2018: Poultry Science
Luling Wu, Yang Wang, Tony D James, Nengqin Jia, Chusen Huang
Heat stroke is a lethal condition which can cause dysfunction in the central nervous system, multi-organ damage and even death. However, there is still limited knowledge of the detailed mechanism about the roles of lysosomes in heat stroke due to lack of effective tools. Herein, we introduce our previously developed hemicyanine with a large D-π-A structure as the key fluorophore to develop a new fluorescent probe (CPY) for ratiometric mapping of lysosomal pH changes in live cells under a heat shock stimulus...
April 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Petr Kralik, Vladimir Babak, Radka Dziedzinska
Cell-free supernatants (CFSs) extracted from various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures were applied to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells to determine their effect on MAP viability. In addition, 5% lactic acid (LA; pH 3) and commercially synthetized nisin bacteriocin were also tested. This procedure was chosen in order to mimic the influence of LAB compounds during the production and storage of fermented milk products, which can be contaminated by MAP. Its presence in milk and milk products is of public concern due to the possible ingestion of MAP by consumers and the discussed role of MAP in Crohn's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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