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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333468/alkyl-chain-length-dependent-structural-and-orientational-transformations-of-water-at-alcohol-water-interfaces-and-its-relevance-to-atmospheric-aerosols
#1
Jahur A Mondal, Vinu Namboodiri, Mathi Pandiyathuray, Ajay K Singh
Although the hydrophobic size of an amphiphile plays a key role in various chemical, biological, and atmospheric processes, its effect at macroscopic aqueous interfaces (e.g. air-water, oil-water, cell membrane-water, etc.) which are ubiquitous in nature is not well understood. Here we report the hydrophobic alkyl chain length dependent structural and orientational transformations of water at alcohol (CnH2n+1OH, n = 1-12)-water interfaces using interface-selective heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (HD-VSFG) and Raman multivariate curve resolution (Raman-MCR) spectroscopic techniques...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321965/robust-presurgical-functional-mri-at-7-t-using-response-consistency
#2
Pedro Lima Cardoso, Florian Ph S Fischmeister, Barbara Dymerska, Alexander Geißler, Moritz Wurnig, Siegfried Trattnig, Roland Beisteiner, Simon Daniel Robinson
Functional MRI is valuable in presurgical planning due to its non-invasive nature, repeatability, and broad availability. Using ultra-high field MRI increases the specificity and sensitivity, increasing the localization reliability and reducing scan time. Ideally, fMRI analysis for this application should identify unreliable runs and work even if the patient deviates from the prescribed task timing or if there are changes to the hemodynamic response due to pathology. In this study, a model-free analysis method-UNBIASED-based on the consistency of fMRI responses over runs was applied, to ultra-high field fMRI localizations of the hand area...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301927/molecular-mechanism-underlying-the-action-of-the-influenza-a-virus-fusion-inhibitor-mbx2546
#3
Arnab Basu, Gloria Komazin-Meredith, Courtney McCarthy, Aleksandar Antanasijevic, Steven C Cardinale, Rama K Mishra, Dale L Barnard, Michael Caffrey, Lijun Rong, Terry L Bowlin
Influenza A virus envelop protein, Hemagglutinin (HA), plays important roles in viral entry. We previously have reported that MBX2546, a novel influenza A virus inhibitor, binds to HA and inhibits HA-mediated membrane fusion. In this report, we show that (i) both binding and stabilization of HA by MBX2546 is required for inhibition of viral infection, and (ii) binding of HA by MBX2546 represses the low-pH-induced conformational change of the HA which is a prerequisite for membrane fusion. Mutations in MBX2546-resistant influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) viruses are mapped in the HA stem region near the amino terminus of HA2...
March 16, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285109/stabilization-of-nanoscale-zero-valent-iron-nzvi-with-modified-biochar-for-cr-vi-removal-from-aqueous-solution
#4
Haoran Dong, Junmin Deng, Yankai Xie, Cong Zhang, Zhao Jiang, Yujun Cheng, Kunjie Hou, Guangming Zeng
Three types of modified biochar (BC) were produced respectively with acid (HCl) treatment (HCl-BC), base (KOH) treatment (KOH-BC) and oxidation (H2O2) treatment (H2O2-BC) of raw biochar. Both the raw biochar and modified biochars supported zero valent iron nanopartilces (nZVI) (i.e. nZVI@BC, nZVI@HCl-BC, nZVI@KOH-BC and nZVI@H2O2-BC) were synthesized and their capacities for Cr(VI) removal were compared. The results showed that the nZVI@HCl-BC exhibited the best performance and the underlying mechanisms were discussed...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274724/characterization-of-succinimide-stability-during-trypsin-digestion-for-lc-ms-analysis
#5
Christine Nowak, Gomathinayagam Ponniah, Alyssa Neill, Hongcheng Liu
LC-MS peptide mapping is the most commonly used method to analyze protein modifications. The proteins are generally digested using trypsin at a slightly basic pH at 37 °C from several hours to overnight. Assay-induced artifacts can be generated during this procedure, potentially causing false-positive or false-negative results for a given modification. Unfortunately, for the analysis of succinimide, both false-negative and false-positive results can be generated within the same procedure. This study evaluates the stability of succinimide during the peptide mapping procedure and has demonstrated that up to 13% of pre-existing succinimide was lost during a 4 h trypsin digestion at pH 5...
March 6, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274489/re-mineralizing-dentin-using-an-experimental-tricalcium-silicate-cement-with-biomimetic-analogs
#6
Xin Li, Jan De Munck, Kumiko Yoshihara, Mariano Pedano, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Zhi Chen, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the re-mineralization potential of an experimental zirconium oxide (ZrO2) containing tricalcium silicate (TCS) cement, TCS 50, with the incorporation of biomimetic analogs at demineralized dentin. METHODS: Class-I cavities were prepared in non- carious human third molars. The dentin cavities were demineralized using a pH-cycling protocol, involving 50 cyclic immersions in pH-4.8 and pH-7 baths for 0.5h and 2.5h, successively. The cavities were filled with TCS 50 with/without biomimetic analogs (3% polyacrylic acid, 8% sodium trimetaphosphate) being added to the mixed TCS 50 cement prior to application...
March 5, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262359/assessing-soil-biodiversity-potentials-in-europe
#7
Ece Aksoy, Geertrui Louwagie, Ciro Gardi, Mirko Gregor, Christoph Schröder, Manuel Löhnertz
Soil is important as a critical component for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The largest part of the terrestrial biodiversity relies, directly or indirectly, on soil. Furthermore, soil itself is habitat to a great diversity of organisms. The suitability of soil to host such a diversity is strongly related to its physico-chemical features and environmental properties. However, due to the complexity of both soil and biodiversity, it is difficult to identify a clear and unambiguous relationship between environmental parameters and soil biota...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258546/beneficial-and-safety-properties-of-a-corynebacterium-vitaeruminis-strain-isolated-from-the-cow-rumen
#8
M Colombo, N P A Castilho, S D Todorov, L A Nero
Corynebacterium vitaeruminis MRU4 was isolated from the cow rumen and was differentiated from other isolates by rep-PCR and RAPD and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. This strain presented higher survival rates for low pH and bile salts treatments, and it was able to survive and multiply in simulated gastric and intestinal environments. C. vitaeruminis MRU4 had a 53.2% auto-aggregation rate, 42.4% co-aggregation rate with Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, 41.6% co-aggregation rate with Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19443, 10...
March 3, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255859/targeting-domain-iii-hinging-of-dengue-envelope-denv-2-protein-by-md-simulations-docking-and-free-energy-calculations
#9
Kshatresh Dutta Dubey, Gargi Tiwari, Rajendra Prasad Ojha
The entry of the dengue virus is mediated by the conformational change in the envelope protein due to change in the endosomal pH. The structural study reveals that domain-III of the dengue envelope protein (DENV) shows the largest shift in its position during the entry of the virus. Therefore, targeting the hinge region of the domain-III may block the conformational changes in the DENV. In the present work, we have targeted the domain I/III hinge region using four known ligands used for the dengue envelope protein (serotype-2) and have intended to explore the specificity of one ligand R1 (5-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-(2-phenyl-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-6-yl)furan-2-carboxamide) that succeeded the dengue inhibition by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction of the molecular docking and the binding free energy calculations...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250418/pado-a-fluorescent-protein-with-proton-channel-activity-can-optically-monitor-membrane-potential-intracellular-ph-and-map-gap-junctions
#10
Bok Eum Kang, Bradley J Baker
An in silico search strategy was developed to identify potential voltage-sensing domains (VSD) for the development of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs). Using a conserved charge distribution in the S2 α-helix, a single in silico search yielded most voltage-sensing proteins including voltage-gated potassium channels, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated proton channels, and voltage-sensing phosphatases from organisms ranging from mammals to bacteria and plants...
July 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241374/linking-above-and-belowground-traits-to-soil-and-climate-variables-an-integrated-database-on-china-s-grassland-species
#11
Yan Geng, Wenhong Ma, Liang Wang, Frank Baumann, Peter Kühn, Thomas Scholten, Jin-Sheng He
Knowledge of plant functional traits and trait-environment interactions is important for characterizing species strategies and understanding ecological processes. However, comprehensive field data on both above- and belowground traits, together with their environmental variables are scarce. Biome-scale studies are particularly lacking. Here we present two large-scale datasets that include functional traits of leaves and fine roots and their corresponding soil and climatic variables in China's grasslands. Leaf, fine root and soil samples were collected in three biogeographic regions: temperate grassland on the Inner Mongolia Plateau, alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau, and mountain grassland in the Xinjiang mountain areas...
February 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214583/remediation-of-fluoride-from-drinking-water-using-magnetic-iron-oxide-coated-hydrotalcite-chitosan-composite
#12
Kalimuthu Pandi, Soodamani Periyasamy, Natrayasamy Viswanathan
The present study was performed to examine the probability of magnetic iron oxide fabricated hydrotalcite/chitosan (Fe3O4@HTCS) composite for the removal of excess fluoride content from drinking water. The developed Fe3O4@HTCS composite not only demonstrate the good separation ability but also display an extreme enhanced defluoridation capacity (DC) when compared to other base components and composite. The DCs of Fe3O4@HTCS composite, Fe3O4@HT composite, Fe3O4, HT and CS was found to be 5032, 3041, 1050, 1030 and 52 mgF(-)/kg respectively...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207752/soilgrids250m-global-gridded-soil-information-based-on-machine-learning
#13
Tomislav Hengl, Jorge Mendes de Jesus, Gerard B M Heuvelink, Maria Ruiperez Gonzalez, Milan Kilibarda, Aleksandar Blagotić, Wei Shangguan, Marvin N Wright, Xiaoyuan Geng, Bernhard Bauer-Marschallinger, Mario Antonio Guevara, Rodrigo Vargas, Robert A MacMillan, Niels H Batjes, Johan G B Leenaars, Eloi Ribeiro, Ichsani Wheeler, Stephan Mantel, Bas Kempen
This paper describes the technical development and accuracy assessment of the most recent and improved version of the SoilGrids system at 250m resolution (June 2016 update). SoilGrids provides global predictions for standard numeric soil properties (organic carbon, bulk density, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), pH, soil texture fractions and coarse fragments) at seven standard depths (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm), in addition to predictions of depth to bedrock and distribution of soil classes based on the World Reference Base (WRB) and USDA classification systems (ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193432/biochemical-and-milk-clotting-properties-and-mapping-of-catalytic-subsites-of-an-extracellular-aspartic-peptidase-from-basidiomycete-fungus-phanerochaete-chrysosporium
#14
Ronivaldo Rodrigues da Silva, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Luiz Juliano, Arthur H C de Oliveira, Jose C Rosa, Hamilton Cabral
For a long time, proteolytic enzymes have been employed as key tools of industrial processes, especially in the dairy industry. In the present work, we used Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biochemical characterization and analysis of catalytic specificity of an aspartic peptidase. Our results revealed an aspartic peptidase with molecular mass ∼38kDa, maximal activity at pH 4.5 and 50°C, and stability above 80% in the pH range of 3-8 and temperature up to 55°C for 1h. In a milk-clotting assay, this peptidase showed maximal milk clotting activity at 60-65°C and maintenance of enzymatic activity above 80% in the presence of 20mM CaCl2...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187536/five-new-species-of-the-genus-i-philydrodes-i-bernhauer-1929-from-china-coleoptera-staphylinidae-omaliinae-anthophagini
#15
Alexey V Shavrin
Five new species of the subgenus Minyphilydrodes of the genus Philydrodes Bernhauer, 1929 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Omaliinae: Anthophagini) from China are described and illustrated: Ph. tridentatus sp.n. (Hubei, Gansu, Shaanxi and Sichuan), Ph. tibetanus sp.n. (Yunnan), Ph. reticulatus sp.n. (Shaanxi), Ph. wrasei sp.n. (Sichuan) and Ph. michaeli sp.n. (Sichuan). The morphological features of Philydrodes, differences between Japanese and Chinese species, the relations of the genus with other taxa of the tribe Anthophagini Thomson, 1859 are briefly discussed...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186215/in-vivo-aggregation-induced-transition-between-t1-and-t2-relaxations-of-magnetic-ultra-small-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-tumor-microenvironment
#16
Huige Zhou, Jinglong Tang, Jiayang Li, Wanqi Li, Ying Liu, Chunying Chen
Surface ligands and their densities may significantly influence the optic, electric, and stable properties of inorganic nanoparticles as well as their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characters. In this study, ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid as surface ligand (Fe3O4@HA) were designed to target tumor cells and tune the T1- and T2-weighted MRI by aggregating in the tumor microenvironment via the degradation of HA upon exposure to hyaluronidase (HAase) with decreasing pH. To realize this purpose, four kinds of Fe3O4@HA nanoparticles with increasing HA density were synthesized and characterized...
February 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181800/vanadium-geochemistry-of-oil-sands-fluid-petroleum-coke
#17
Jake A Nesbitt, Matthew B J Lindsay
Vanadium has previously been linked to elevated toxicity of leachates derived from oil sands petroleum coke. However, geochemical controls on V mobility within coke deposits remain poorly constrained. Detailed examinations of porewater and solid-phase V geochemistry were therefore performed on oil sands fluid petroleum coke deposits in Alberta, Canada. Sample collection focused on both active and reclaimed deposits, which contained more than 3 × 10(7) m(3) of fluid petroleum coke. Dissolved V concentrations were highest (up to 3...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178635/br-padap-embedded-in-cellulose-acetate-electrospun-nanofibers-colorimetric-sensor-strips-for-visual-uranyl-recognition
#18
Lin Hu, Xue-Wu Yan, Qi Li, Xue-Ji Zhang, Dan Shan
In this work, a new visual colorimetric strip based on cellulose acetate nanofiber mats modified by 2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino) phenol was successfully prepared via electrospinning technology. The prepared colorimetric strip showed high sensitivity towards UO2(2+) with the yellow-to-purple color change signal. Upon the optimal conditions of solution pH at 6.0 and response time for 80min, the detection limit for UO2(2+) can reach 50 ppb. Moreover, the strip also exhibited excellent anti-interference ability in the presence of other metal ions...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178296/identification-of-a-vacuolar-proton-channel-that-triggers-the-bioluminescent-flash-in-dinoflagellates
#19
Juan D Rodriguez, Saddef Haq, Tsvetan Bachvaroff, Kristine F Nowak, Scott J Nowak, Deri Morgan, Vladimir V Cherny, Maredith M Sapp, Steven Bernstein, Andrew Bolt, Thomas E DeCoursey, Allen R Place, Susan M E Smith
In 1972, J. Woodland Hastings and colleagues predicted the existence of a proton selective channel (HV1) that opens in response to depolarizing voltage across the vacuole membrane of bioluminescent dinoflagellates and conducts protons into specialized luminescence compartments (scintillons), thereby causing a pH drop that triggers light emission. HV1 channels were subsequently identified and demonstrated to have important functions in a multitude of eukaryotic cells. Here we report a predicted protein from Lingulodinium polyedrum that displays hallmark properties of bona fide HV1, including time-dependent opening with depolarization, perfect proton selectivity, and characteristic ΔpH dependent gating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174244/a-novel-floor-plate-boundary-defined-by-adjacent-en1-and-dbx1-microdomains-distinguishes-midbrain-dopamine-and-hypothalamic-neurons
#20
Navid Nouri, Rajeshwar Awatramani
The mesodiencephalic floor plate (mdFP) is the source of diverse neuron types. Yet, how this structure is compartmentalized has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we identify a novel boundary subdividing the mdFP into two microdomains, defined by Engrailed 1 (En1) and developing brain homeobox 1 (Dbx1) Utilizing simultaneous dual and intersectional fate mapping, we demonstrate that this boundary is precisely formed with minimal overlap between En1 and Dbx1 microdomains, unlike many other boundaries. We show that the En1 microdomain gives rise to dopaminergic (DA) neurons, while the Dbx1 microdomain gives rise to subthalamic (STN), premammillary (PM), and posterior hypothalamic (PH) populations...
February 7, 2017: Development
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