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pH mapping

Peng Cui, Hongxia Niu, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Persister cells are metabolically quiescent multi-drug tolerant fraction of a genetically sensitive bacterial population and are thought to be responsible for relapse of many persistent infections. Persisters can be formed naturally in the stationary phase culture, and also can be induced by bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, the molecular basis of bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister formation is unknown. Here, we established a bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister model and screened the Escherichia coli single gene deletion mutant library for mutants with defect in rifampin or tetracycline induced persistence to ofloxacin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eva Pampouille, Cécile Berri, Simon Boitard, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Stéphane A Beauclercq, Estelle Godet, Christophe Praud, Yves Jégo, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval
BACKGROUND: White striping (WS) is an emerging muscular defect occurring on breast and thigh muscles of broiler chickens. It is characterized by the presence of white striations parallel to the muscle fibers and has significant consequences for meat quality. The etiology of WS remains poorly understood, even if previous studies demonstrated that the defect prevalence is related to broiler growth and muscle development. Moreover, recent studies showed moderate to high heritability values of WS, which emphasized the role of genetics in the expression of the muscle defect...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Li Yin, Xueqiang Guo, Chunyan Zhang, Zhihui Cai, Cunshuan Xu
The priming stage is the first step of liver regeneration (LR). This stage is characterized by the transition from G0 to cell cycle for 4 hours in rat. In this study, individual gene level and gene set level (GSEA) was performed to identify the candidate genes and significantly changed biological processes at 2 h after partial hepatectomy (PH). The leading edge analysis is performed to identify the key genes and iRegulon was employed for transcription factor (TF) analysis. A total of 53 differentially expressed genes were identified using RMA package based on R language at 2 h after PH, including the transcription factor, enzyme and cytokine...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Peter Bryk, Matthew G Brewer, Brian M Ward
The vaccinia virus protein F13, encoded by the F13L gene, is conserved across the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae and is critical among orthopoxviruses to produce the wrapped form of virus that is required for cell-to-cell spread. F13 is the major envelope protein on the membrane of extracellular forms of virus, however it is not known if F13 is required in steps post-wrapping. In this report, we utilize two temperature-sensitive vaccinia virus mutants from the Condit collection of temperature-sensitive viruses whose small plaque phenotypes have been mapped to the F13L gene...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Michael L Ekaney, Gabrielle Gonzalez Gray, Iain H McKillop, Susan L Evans
BACKGROUND: Limited availability and use of whole blood (WB) following trauma is driven by perceptions that hemostatic function is limited by platelet dysfunction within 5 days storage. We sought to define the hemostatic function of WB stored at 4°C for up to 25 days, elucidate changes in metabolic parameters and mitochondrial dysfunction in platelets in WB, and the effect of supplementation using resveratrol (Res) or cytochrome c (Cyt c). METHODS: WB was collected, aliquoted, and stored at 4°C without agitation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Daniel Gomez-Cardona, John Hayes, Ran Zhang, Ke Li, Juan Pablo Cruz-Bastida, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: Different low signal correction (LSC) methods have been shown to efficiently reduce noise streaks and noise level in CT to provide acceptable images at low radiation dose levels. These methods usually result in CT images with highly shift-variant and anisotropic spatial resolution and noise, which makes the parameter optimization process highly nontrivial. The purpose of this work was to develop a local task-based parameter optimization framework for LSC methods. METHODS: Two well-known LSC methods: the adaptive trimmed mean (ATM) filter and the anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, were used as examples to demonstrate how to use the task-based framework to optimize filter parameter selection...
March 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Brianne A Altmann, Carmen Neumann, Susanne Velten, Frank Liebert, Daniel Mörlein
The effects on meat quality resulting from alternative dietary protein sources (Spirulina and Hermetia meal) in poultry diets are studied to determine the overall suitability of these ingredients considering state-of-the-art packaging practices-highly oxygenated modified atmosphere packaging (HiOx MAP). We monitored standard slaughterhouse parameters, such as live weight, carcass weight, dressed yield, and pH at 20 min and 24 h post mortem. In addition, we studied the effects that 3 and 7-day storage in HiOx MAP has on the overall product physico-chemical and sensory properties...
March 8, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Hayley Simon, Giannantonio Cibin, Phil Robbins, Sarah Day, Chiu Tang, Ian Freestone, Eleanor Schofield
Post-excavation iron corrosion may be accelerated by the presence of Cl- , leading to conservation methods designed to remove Cl. This study exploits a unique opportunity to assess 35 years of conservation applied to cast-iron cannon shot excavated from the Mary Rose. A combination of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (SXPD), absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and fluorescence (XRF) mapping have been used to characterise the impact of conservation on the crystalline corrosion products, chlorine distribution, and speciation...
March 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Xianfeng Cheng, Tomas Danek, Jarmila Drozdova, Qianrui Huang, Wufu Qi, Liling Zou, Shuran Yang, Xinliang Zhao, Yungang Xiang
The environmental assessment and identification of sources of heavy metals in Zn-Pb ore deposits are important steps for the effective prevention of subsequent contamination and for the development of corrective measures. The concentrations of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soils from 40 sampling points around the Jinding Zn-Pb mine in Yunnan, China, were analyzed. An environmental quality assessment of the obtained data was performed using five different contamination and pollution indexes...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
R Al-Obaidi, H Salehi, A Desoutter, L Bonnet, P Etienne, E Terrer, B Jacquot, B Levallois, H Tassery, F J G Cuisinier
White lesions represent an early phase of caries formation. 20 human sound premolars were subjected to pH cycling procedure to induce subsurface lesions (SLs) in vitro. In addition, 2 teeth with naturally developed white spot lesions (WSLs) were used as references. All specimens characterized by confocal Raman microscopy being used for the first time in examining white & subsurface lesions and providing a high resolution chemical and morphological map based on phosphate peak intensity alterations at 960 cm-1 ...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chindanai Ratanaporncharoen, Miyuki Tabata, Yuichi Kitasako, Masaomi Ikeda, Tatsuro Goda, Akira Matsumoto, Junji Tagami, Yuji Miyahara
A quantitative diagnostic method for dental caries would improve oral health, which directly affects the quality of life. Here we describe the preparation and application of Ir/IrOx pH sensors, which are used to measure the surface pH of dental caries. The pH level is used as an indicator to distinguish between active and arrested caries. After a dentist visually inspected and defined 18 extracted dentinal caries at various positions as active or arrested caries, the surface pH values of sound and caries areas were directly measured with an Ir/IrOx pH sensor with a diameter of 300 µm as a dental explorer...
March 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Eleni Demetriou, Mohamed Tachrount, Moritz Zaiss, Karin Shmueli, Xavier Golay
PURPOSE: To develop a new MRI technique to rapidly measure exchange rates in CEST MRI. METHODS: A novel pulse sequence for measuring chemical exchange rates through a progressive saturation recovery process, called PRO-QUEST (progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times), has been developed. Using this method, the water magnetization is sampled under non-steady-state conditions, and off-resonance saturation is interleaved with the acquisition of images obtained through a Look-Locker type of acquisition...
March 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Belgacem Agoubi
Assessing groundwater flow path in a thermal aquifer, such as El Hamma aquifer, southeastern Tunisia, and its lateral communication with the adjacent Jeffara-Gabes aquifers, is a very complex operation which requires the integration of several approaches to understand and explain the reality of phenomenon. In this study, geochemical and isotopic data, Kohonen self-organizing map, temperature cooling trend, and kriging techniques were used to assess groundwater flow path in hydrothermal aquifer of El Hamma-Gabes, Tunisia...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Limin Zhang, Yang Tian
The in vivo analysis of chemical signals in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) using implanted electrochemical biosensors is a vital way to study brain functions and brain activity mapping. This approach offers excellent spatial (10-200 μm) and temporal (approximately second) resolution and the major advantage of long-term stability. By implantation of a microelectrode in a specific brain region, changes in the concentration of a variety of ECF chemical species can be monitored through applying a suitable electrical signal and, typically, recording the resulting Faradaic current...
February 27, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Peter Ziegenhein, Cornelis Ph Kamerling, Martin F Fast, Uwe Oelfke
In this work we describe an ultra-fast, low-latency implementation of the energy/mass transfer (EMT) mapping method to accumulate dose on deforming geometries such as lung using the central processing unit (CPU). It enables the computation of the actually delivered dose for intensity-modulated radiation therapy on 4D image data in real-time at 25 Hz. In order to accumulate the delivered dose onto a reference phase a pre-calculated deformable vector field is used. The aim of this study is to present an online dose accumulation technique that can be carried out in less than 40 ms to accommodate the machine log update rate of our research linac...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Zhang, Richard J M Lynch, Timothy F Watson, Avijit Banerjee
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the remineralisation of chitosan pre-treated enamel white spot lesions (WSLs) by bioglass in the presence of the pellicle layer. METHODS: 50 artificial enamel white spot lesions were created by acidic gel. Two lesions were used to investigate the formation of the pellicle layer by treating with human whole saliva for 3 minutes. 48 lesions were assigned to 6 experimental groups (n = 8): (1) bioactive glass slurry, (2) bioactive glass containing polyacrylic acid (BG + PAA) slurry, (3) chitosan pre-treated WSLs with BG slurry (CS-BG), (4) chitosan pre-treated WSLs with BG + PAA slurry (CS-BG + PAA), (5) "standard" remineralisation solution (RS) and (6) de-ionised water (negative control, NC)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Mounika Gosika, Prabal K Maiti
The adsorption of PAMAM dendrimers at solid/water interfaces has been extensively studied, and is mainly driven by electrostatic and van der Waals interactions between the substrate and the dendrimers. However, the pH dependence of the adsorption driven predominantly by the van der Waals interactions is poorly explored, although it is crucial for investigating the potentiality of these dendrimers in supercapacitors and surface patterning. Motivated by this aspect, we have studied the adsorption behavior of PAMAM dendrimers of generations 2 (G2) to 5 (G5) with pH and salt concentration variation, on a charge neutral graphene substrate, using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations...
February 23, 2018: Soft Matter
Weiqiang Zhang, Zhi Li, Hui Fang, Mingcai Zhang, Liusheng Duan
Ethylene (ET) is critical importance in the growth, development, and stress responses of plants. Plant hormonal stress responses have been extensively studied, however, the role of ET in plant growth, especially plant height (PH) remains unclear. Understanding the genetic control for PH in response to ET will provide insights into the regulation of maize development. To clarify the genetic basis of PH-related traits of maize in response to ET, we mapped QTLs for PH, ear height (EH), and internode length above the uppermost ear (ILAU) in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of Zea mays after ET treatment and in an untreated control (CK) group...
2018: PloS One
Jie Guo, Weiping Shi, Zheng Zhang, Jingye Cheng, Daizhen Sun, Jin Yu, Xinlei Li, Pingyi Guo, Chenyang Hao
BACKGROUND: Yield improvement is an ever-important objective of wheat breeding. Studying and understanding the phenotypes and genotypes of yield-related traits has potential for genetic improvement of crops. RESULTS: The genotypes of 215 wheat cultivars including 11 founder parents and 106 derivatives were analyzed by the 9 K wheat SNP iSelect assay. A total of 4138 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were detected on 21 chromosomes, of which 3792 were mapped to single chromosome locations...
February 20, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Sarah Hedberg, DongKyu Lee, Yash Mishra, Jonathan Haigh, Daryl R Williams
The osmotic second virial coefficients (B 2 ) which describes protein-protein molecular interactions in solution and were de-termined using self-interaction chromatography (SIC) for an IgG type 1 mAb across a wide range of solution conditions. This data was compared with its time dependent aggregation behaviour as determined using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and its temperature dependent aggregation behaviour using dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a 4 week period (SEC) or overnight (DLS). DLS and SEC gave consistent data on aggregation behaviour which correlated well with experimental B 2 trends across the wide pH (4-9) and NaCl concentration (0-1...
February 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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