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Non freezing cold injury

J D Reyes, F G Jalikis, L C Olson, M Yeh, M I Montenovo
BACKGROUND: Rapid cooling at procurement after cross-clamping has been the cornerstone of organ preservation. NanoICE is a new form of ice that has emerged in the food industry and is providing more efficient cooling and preservation than regular ice. We hypothesize that the use of NanoICE will accelerate the cooling process of the allograft and will be able to maintain a steady low temperature without causing any significant histologic damage. METHODS: In this randomized pilot study, 14 pigs were used to study the liver core/surface cooling in a non-survival organ procurement operation...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
María T Lafuente, Beatriz Establés-Ortíz, Luis González-Candelas
Low non-freezing temperature may cause chilling injury (CI), which is responsible for external quality deterioration in many chilling-sensitive horticultural crops. Exposure of chilling-sensitive citrus cultivars to non-lethal high-temperature conditioning may increase their chilling tolerance. Very little information is available about the molecular events involved in such tolerance. In this work, the molecular events associated with the low temperature tolerance induced by heating Fortune mandarin, which is very sensitive to chilling, for 3 days at 37°C prior to cold storage is presented...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin
What is the central question of this study? Compared with Caucasians, African individuals are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury and experience greater cutaneous vasoconstriction and cooler finger skin temperatures upon hand cooling. We investigated whether the enzyme cyclooxygenase is, in part, responsible for the exaggerated response to local cooling. What is the main finding and its importance? During local hand cooling, individuals of African descent experienced significantly lower finger skin blood flow and skin temperature compared with Caucasians irrespective of cyclooxygenase inhibition...
May 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
Anne-Marie Ionescu, Sarah Hutchinson, Mehtab Ahmad, Christopher Imray
INTRODUCTION: Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) remains largely under-reported, and is of particular importance in the armed forces where its prevalence is greatest. Iloprost, a synthetic prostaglandin I2 analogue, has previously been used with some success in the treatment of vasospastic and freezing cold injuries, although its role in NFCI remains unclear. CASE REPORT: An Iloprost infusion was used to treat the long-term sequelae of an ex-soldier suffering with ongoing pedal pain and loss of function 20 years after the initial NFCI insult sustained on military exercise...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin
INTRODUCTION: Individuals of African descent (AFD) are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) compared with Caucasian individuals (CAU). Vasodilatation to acetylcholine (ACh) is lower in AFD compared with CAU in the non-glabrous foot and finger skin sites; the reason for this is unknown. Prostanoids are responsible, in part, for the vasodilator response to ACh, however it is not known whether the contribution differs between ethnicities. METHODS: 12 CAU and 12 AFD males received iontophoresis of ACh (1 w/v%) on non-glabrous foot and finger skin sites following placebo and then aspirin (600mg, single blinded)...
May 2017: Microvascular Research
Jeongsukhyeon Han, Senthil Kumar Thamilarasan, Sathishkumar Natarajan, Jong-In Park, Mi-Young Chung, Ill-Sup Nou
Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A...
2016: PloS One
Stanislav Obruca, Petr Sedlacek, Vladislav Krzyzanek, Filip Mravec, Kamila Hrubanova, Ota Samek, Dan Kucera, Pavla Benesova, Ivana Marova
Accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) seems to be a common metabolic strategy adopted by many bacteria to cope with cold environments. This work aimed at evaluating and understanding the cryoprotective effect of PHB. At first a monomer of PHB, 3-hydroxybutyrate, was identified as a potent cryoprotectant capable of protecting model enzyme (lipase), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacterial cells (Cupriavidus necator) against the adverse effects of freezing-thawing cycles. Further, the viability of the frozen-thawed PHB accumulating strain of C...
2016: PloS One
Trine Olsson, Heath A MacMillan, Nils Nyberg, Dan Staerk, Anders Malmendal, Johannes Overgaard
Drosophila, like most insects, are susceptible to low temperatures, and will succumb to temperatures above the freezing point of their hemolymph. For these insects, cold exposure causes a loss of extracellular ion and water homeostasis, leading to chill injury and eventually death. Chill-tolerant species are characterized by lower hemolymph [Na(+)] than chill-susceptible species and this lowered hemolymph [Na(+)] is suggested to improve ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure. It has therefore also been hypothesized that hemolymph Na(+) is replaced by other 'cryoprotective' osmolytes in cold-tolerant species...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hao Li, Lei Zhang, Min Xu
Non-freezing cold injury is a prevalent cause of peripheral nerve damage, but its pathogenic mechanism is poorly understood, and treatment remains inadequate. Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting properties. We therefore examined whether dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid compound, would alleviate early-stage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve. We established Wistar rat models of non-freezing cold injury by exposing the left sciatic nerve to cold (3-5°C) for 2 hours, then administered dexamethasone (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to half of the models...
January 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Kieran M Heil, E H N Oakley, A M Wood
INTRODUCTION: Cold injuries have been a recurrent feature of warfare for millennia and continue to present during British Military operations today. Those affecting the peripheries are divided into freezing cold injury (FCI) and non-FCI. FCI occurs when tissue fluids freeze at around -0.5°C and is commonly referred to as frostnip or frostbite. METHOD: All FMED7 notes held at the Institute of Naval Medicine's Cold Weather Injury Clinic (CIC) from 2002 to 2014 were searched for the terms 'frostbite' and 'frostnip' and then analysed to identify common themes...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Kieran Heil, Rachel Thomas, Greg Robertson, Anna Porter, Robert Milner, Alexander Wood
INTRODUCTION: The debilitating impact of cold weather on the human body is one of the world's oldest recorded injuries. The severe and life-changing damage which can be caused is now more commonly seen recreationally in extreme outdoor sports rather than in occupational settings such as the military. The diagnosis and treatment of these injuries need to be completed carefully but quickly to reduce the risk of loss of limb and possibly life. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review of the literature surrounding cold weather injuries (CWIs) to ascertain the epidemiology and current management strategies...
March 2016: British Medical Bulletin
Zhiwei Geng, Xiaoyan Tong, Hongjuan Jia
Non-freezing cold injury is an injury characterized by neuropathy, developing when patients expose to cold environments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been shown as a contributing factor for the non-freezing cold nerve injury. However, the detailed connections between non-freezing cold nerve injury and ROS have not been described. In order to investigate the relationship between non-freezing cold nerve injury and reactive oxygen species, we study the effects of two cooling methods-the continuous cooling and the intermittent cooling with warming intervals-on rat sciatic nerves...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Christoph Sachs, Marcus Lehnhardt, Adrien Daigeler, Ole Goertz
BACKGROUND: In Central Europe, cold-induced injuries are much less common than burns. In a burn center in western Germany, the mean ratio of these two types of injury over the past 10 years was 1 to 35. Because cold-induced injuries are so rare, physicians often do not know how to deal with them. METHODS: This article is based on a review of publications (up to December 2014) retrieved by a selective search in PubMed using the terms "freezing," "frostbite injury," "non-freezing cold injury," and "frostbite review," as well as on the authors' clinical experience...
October 30, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Bavo Verhaegen, Koen De Reu, Marc Heyndrickx, Inge Van Damme, Lieven De Zutter
The purpose of this study was to evaluate (i) the behavior of several strains of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O103, O111, and O145) exposed to different stress conditions and (ii) the growth dynamics of stressed and nonstressed non-O157 STEC cells in five enrichment media. STEC strains were exposed to acid, cold, and freeze stresses. Lethal and sublethal injuries were determined by plating in parallel on selective and nonselective agar media. Freeze stress (8 days, 20°C) caused the most lethal (95...
November 2015: Journal of Food Protection
C M House, R J Taylor, E H N Oakley
BACKGROUND: Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) is a syndrome in which damage to peripheral tissues occurs without the tissues freezing following exposure to low ambient temperatures. AIMS: To assess the test-retest reliability of a cold stress test (CST) used to assess cold sensitization. METHODS: Volunteers with no self-reported history of NFCI undertook the CST on three occasions. Thermal images were taken of the foot and hand before, immediately after and 5min after immersion of the limb in cold water for 2min...
October 2015: Occupational Medicine
C F Puts, T A Berendsen, B G Bruinsma, Sinan Ozer, Martha Luitje, O Berk Usta, M L Yarmush, K Uygun
Cold storage (at 4°C) offers a compromise between the benefits and disadvantages of cooling. It allows storage of organs or cells for later use that would otherwise quickly succumb to warm ischemia, but comprises cold ischemia that, when not controlled properly, can result in severe damage as well by both similar and unique mechanisms. We hypothesized that polyethylene glycol (PEG) 35 kDa would ameliorate these injury pathways and improve cold primary hepatocyte preservation. We show that reduction of the storage temperature to below zero by means of supercooling, or subzero non-freezing, together with PEG supplementation increases the viable storage time of primary rat hepatocytes in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution from 1 day to 4 days...
August 2015: Cryobiology
J S Glennie, R Milner
Non-freezing cold injury can be a diagnostic challenge for clinicians in the United Kingdom Armed Forces. It is associated with operations in adverse climatic conditions, and may result in significant long-term morbidity. In this article we discuss the operational importance of this condition and the current best practice in its management and prevention.
2014: Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service
Hao Li, Jian-Ping Jia, Min Xu, Lei Zhang
Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C) for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed...
March 2015: Neural Regeneration Research
Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin
PURPOSE: Individuals of African descent (AFD) are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury than Caucasians (CAU) which may be due, in part, to differences in the control of skin blood flow. We investigated the skin blood flow responses to transdermal application of vasoactive agents. METHODS: Twenty-four young males (12 CAU and 12 AFD) undertook three tests in which iontophoresis was used to apply acetylcholine (ACh 1 w/v %), sodium nitroprusside (SNP 0.01 w/v %) and noradrenaline (NA 0...
August 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
H Simonin, I M Bergaoui, J M Perrier-Cornet, P Gervais
Injuries in living cells caused by water freezing during a freeze-thaw process have been extensively reported. In particular, intracellular water freezing has long been incriminated in cell death caused by a high cooling rate, but this supposition could not always be demonstrated. This work aims to discriminate the role of water freezing, dehydration and cold-induced injuries in cellular damage occuring during cryopreservation. For this purpose, Escherichia coli K12TG1 suspensions were maintained in a supercooled or frozen state at -20°C for times ranging from 10 min to 5 h...
April 2015: Cryobiology
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