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Non freezing cold injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627679/de-novo-assembly-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-bulb-onion-allium-cepa-l-during-cold-acclimation-using-contrasting-genotypes
#1
Jeongsukhyeon Han, Senthil Kumar Thamilarasan, Sathishkumar Natarajan, Jong-In Park, Mi-Young Chung, Ill-Sup Nou
Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315285/accumulation-of-poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-helps-bacterial-cells-to-survive-freezing
#2
Stanislav Obruca, Petr Sedlacek, Vladislav Krzyzanek, Filip Mravec, Kamila Hrubanova, Ota Samek, Dan Kucera, Pavla Benesova, Ivana Marova
Accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) seems to be a common metabolic strategy adopted by many bacteria to cope with cold environments. This work aimed at evaluating and understanding the cryoprotective effect of PHB. At first a monomer of PHB, 3-hydroxybutyrate, was identified as a potent cryoprotectant capable of protecting model enzyme (lipase), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacterial cells (Cupriavidus necator) against the adverse effects of freezing-thawing cycles. Further, the viability of the frozen-thawed PHB accumulating strain of C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307488/hemolymph-metabolites-and-osmolality-are-tightly-linked-to-cold-tolerance-of-drosophila-species-a-comparative-study
#3
Trine Olsson, Heath A MacMillan, Nils Nyberg, Dan Staerk, Anders Malmendal, Johannes Overgaard
Drosophila, like most insects, are susceptible to low temperatures, and will succumb to temperatures above the freezing point of their hemolymph. For these insects, cold exposure causes a loss of extracellular ion and water homeostasis, leading to chill injury and eventually death. Chill-tolerant species are characterized by lower hemolymph [Na(+)] than chill-susceptible species and this lowered hemolymph [Na(+)] is suggested to improve ion and water homeostasis during cold exposure. It has therefore also been hypothesized that hemolymph Na(+) is replaced by other 'cryoprotective' osmolytes in cold-tolerant species...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981107/dexamethasone-prevents-vascular-damage-in-early-stage-non-freezing-cold-injury-of-the-sciatic-nerve
#4
Hao Li, Lei Zhang, Min Xu
Non-freezing cold injury is a prevalent cause of peripheral nerve damage, but its pathogenic mechanism is poorly understood, and treatment remains inadequate. Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting properties. We therefore examined whether dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid compound, would alleviate early-stage non-freezing cold injury of the sciatic nerve. We established Wistar rat models of non-freezing cold injury by exposing the left sciatic nerve to cold (3-5°C) for 2 hours, then administered dexamethasone (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to half of the models...
January 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26941219/british-military-freezing-cold-injuries-a-13-year-review
#5
REVIEW
Kieran M Heil, E H N Oakley, A M Wood
INTRODUCTION: Cold injuries have been a recurrent feature of warfare for millennia and continue to present during British Military operations today. Those affecting the peripheries are divided into freezing cold injury (FCI) and non-FCI. FCI occurs when tissue fluids freeze at around -0.5°C and is commonly referred to as frostnip or frostbite. METHOD: All FMED7 notes held at the Institute of Naval Medicine's Cold Weather Injury Clinic (CIC) from 2002 to 2014 were searched for the terms 'frostbite' and 'frostnip' and then analysed to identify common themes...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26872856/freezing-and-non-freezing-cold-weather-injuries-a-systematic-review
#6
Kieran Heil, Rachel Thomas, Greg Robertson, Anna Porter, Robert Milner, Alexander Wood
INTRODUCTION: The debilitating impact of cold weather on the human body is one of the world's oldest recorded injuries. The severe and life-changing damage which can be caused is now more commonly seen recreationally in extreme outdoor sports rather than in occupational settings such as the military. The diagnosis and treatment of these injuries need to be completed carefully but quickly to reduce the risk of loss of limb and possibly life. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review of the literature surrounding cold weather injuries (CWIs) to ascertain the epidemiology and current management strategies...
March 2016: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629065/reactive-oxygen-species-ros-mediates-non-freezing-cold-injury-of-rat-sciatic-nerve
#7
Zhiwei Geng, Xiaoyan Tong, Hongjuan Jia
Non-freezing cold injury is an injury characterized by neuropathy, developing when patients expose to cold environments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been shown as a contributing factor for the non-freezing cold nerve injury. However, the detailed connections between non-freezing cold nerve injury and ROS have not been described. In order to investigate the relationship between non-freezing cold nerve injury and reactive oxygen species, we study the effects of two cooling methods-the continuous cooling and the intermittent cooling with warming intervals-on rat sciatic nerves...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26575137/the-triaging-and-treatment-of-cold-induced-injuries
#8
Christoph Sachs, Marcus Lehnhardt, Adrien Daigeler, Ole Goertz
BACKGROUND: In Central Europe, cold-induced injuries are much less common than burns. In a burn center in western Germany, the mean ratio of these two types of injury over the past 10 years was 1 to 35. Because cold-induced injuries are so rare, physicians often do not know how to deal with them. METHODS: This article is based on a review of publications (up to December 2014) retrieved by a selective search in PubMed using the terms "freezing," "frostbite injury," "non-freezing cold injury," and "frostbite review," as well as on the authors' clinical experience...
October 30, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26555518/growth-of-stressed-strains-of-four-non-o157-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serogroups-in-five-enrichment-broths
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Bavo Verhaegen, Koen De Reu, Marc Heyndrickx, Inge Van Damme, Lieven De Zutter
The purpose of this study was to evaluate (i) the behavior of several strains of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O103, O111, and O145) exposed to different stress conditions and (ii) the growth dynamics of stressed and nonstressed non-O157 STEC cells in five enrichment media. STEC strains were exposed to acid, cold, and freeze stresses. Lethal and sublethal injuries were determined by plating in parallel on selective and nonselective agar media. Freeze stress (8 days, 20°C) caused the most lethal (95...
November 2015: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26272380/repeatability-of-a-cold-stress-test-to-assess-cold-sensitization
#10
C M House, R J Taylor, E H N Oakley
BACKGROUND: Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) is a syndrome in which damage to peripheral tissues occurs without the tissues freezing following exposure to low ambient temperatures. AIMS: To assess the test-retest reliability of a cold stress test (CST) used to assess cold sensitization. METHODS: Volunteers with no self-reported history of NFCI undertook the CST on three occasions. Thermal images were taken of the foot and hand before, immediately after and 5min after immersion of the limb in cold water for 2min...
October 2015: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25936340/polyethylene-glycol-protects-primary-hepatocytes-during-supercooling-preservation
#11
C F Puts, T A Berendsen, B G Bruinsma, Sinan Ozer, Martha Luitje, O Berk Usta, M L Yarmush, K Uygun
Cold storage (at 4°C) offers a compromise between the benefits and disadvantages of cooling. It allows storage of organs or cells for later use that would otherwise quickly succumb to warm ischemia, but comprises cold ischemia that, when not controlled properly, can result in severe damage as well by both similar and unique mechanisms. We hypothesized that polyethylene glycol (PEG) 35 kDa would ameliorate these injury pathways and improve cold primary hepatocyte preservation. We show that reduction of the storage temperature to below zero by means of supercooling, or subzero non-freezing, together with PEG supplementation increases the viable storage time of primary rat hepatocytes in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution from 1 day to 4 days...
August 2015: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25895405/non-freezing-cold-injury
#12
J S Glennie, R Milner
Non-freezing cold injury can be a diagnostic challenge for clinicians in the United Kingdom Armed Forces. It is associated with operations in adverse climatic conditions, and may result in significant long-term morbidity. In this article we discuss the operational importance of this condition and the current best practice in its management and prevention.
2014: Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25878590/changes-in-the-blood-nerve-barrier-after-sciatic-nerve-cold-injury-indications-supporting-early-treatment
#13
Hao Li, Jian-Ping Jia, Min Xu, Lei Zhang
Severe edema in the endoneurium can occur after non-freezing cold injury to the peripheral nerve, which suggests damage to the blood-nerve barrier. To determine the effects of cold injury on the blood-nerve barrier, the sciatic nerve on one side of Wistar rats was treated with low temperatures (3-5°C) for 2 hours. The contralateral sciatic nerve was used as a control. We assessed changes in the nerves using Evans blue as a fluid tracer and morphological methods. Excess fluid was found in the endoneurium 1 day after cold injury, though the tight junctions between cells remained closed...
March 2015: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25840674/vascular-responses-of-the-extremities-to-transdermal-application-of-vasoactive-agents-in-caucasian-and-african-descent-individuals
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin
PURPOSE: Individuals of African descent (AFD) are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury than Caucasians (CAU) which may be due, in part, to differences in the control of skin blood flow. We investigated the skin blood flow responses to transdermal application of vasoactive agents. METHODS: Twenty-four young males (12 CAU and 12 AFD) undertook three tests in which iontophoresis was used to apply acetylcholine (ACh 1 w/v %), sodium nitroprusside (SNP 0.01 w/v %) and noradrenaline (NA 0...
August 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25542651/cryopreservation-of-escherichia-coli-k12tg1-protection-from-the-damaging-effects-of-supercooling-by-freezing
#15
H Simonin, I M Bergaoui, J M Perrier-Cornet, P Gervais
Injuries in living cells caused by water freezing during a freeze-thaw process have been extensively reported. In particular, intracellular water freezing has long been incriminated in cell death caused by a high cooling rate, but this supposition could not always be demonstrated. This work aims to discriminate the role of water freezing, dehydration and cold-induced injuries in cellular damage occuring during cryopreservation. For this purpose, Escherichia coli K12TG1 suspensions were maintained in a supercooled or frozen state at -20°C for times ranging from 10 min to 5 h...
April 2015: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24834824/a-time-series-study-on-the-effects-of-cold-temperature-on-road-traffic-injuries-in-seoul-korea
#16
Won-Kyung Lee, Hye-Ah Lee, Seung-sik Hwang, Ho Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Yun-Chul Hong, Eun-Hee Ha, Hyesook Park
OBJECTIVE: Although traffic accidents are associated with weather, the influence of temperature on injuries from traffic accidents has not been evaluated sufficiently. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature, especially cold temperatures, on injuries from traffic accidents in Seoul, Korea. We also explored the relationship of temperature with different types of traffic accident. METHODS: The daily frequencies of injuries from traffic accidents in Seoul were summarized from the integrated database established by the Korea Road Traffic Authority...
July 2014: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24559468/mount-everest-and-makalu-cold-injury-amputation-40-years-on
#17
Shawnda A Morrison, Jurij Gorjanc, Igor B Mekjavic
Freezing cold injuries (frostbite) of the extremities are a common injury among alpinists participating in high altitude expeditions, particularly during inclement weather conditions. Anecdotally, a digit that has suffered frostbite may be at greater risk to future cold injuries. In this case study, we profile a 62-year-old elite alpinist who suffered multiple digit amputations on both his hands and foot after historic summit attempts on Makalu (8481 m) and Mt. Everest (8848 m) in 1974-1979. We describe the clinical treatment he received at that time, and follow up his case 40 years after the first incidence of frostbite utilizing a noninvasive evaluation of hand and foot function to a cold stress test, including rates of re-warming to both injured and non-injured digits...
April 2014: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24353199/molecular-basis-of-chill-resistance-adaptations-in-poikilothermic-animals
#18
REVIEW
Scott A L Hayward, Bruno Manso, Andrew R Cossins
Chill and freeze represent very different components of low temperature stress. Whilst the principal mechanisms of tissue damage and of acquired protection from freeze-induced effects are reasonably well established, those for chill damage and protection are not. Non-freeze cold exposure (i.e. chill) can lead to serious disruption to normal life processes, including disruption to energy metabolism, loss of membrane perm-selectivity and collapse of ion gradients, as well as loss of neuromuscular coordination...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24309290/rna-interference-of-a-heat-shock-protein-hsp70-loses-its-protection-role-in-indirect-chilling-injury-to-the-beet-armyworm-spodoptera-exigua
#19
Bong-Gee Choi, Rahul Hepat, Yonggyun Kim
The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is freeze-susceptible, in which glycerol plays a crucial role in depressing supercooling point (SCP) to avoid the freezing injury. This study focused on a non-freezing injury classified into indirect chilling injury of S. exigua after a prolonged exposure to low temperatures much above SCPs. Exposure to 0 and 5°C for longer than 2weeks was lethal to all the immature stages. Among immature stages, eggs were the most susceptible to the low temperature treatments and pupae were the next susceptible...
February 2014: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24280630/sublingual-glyceryl-trinitrate-and-the-peripheral-thermal-responses-in-normal-and-cold-sensitive-individuals
#20
Katrina Hope, Clare Eglin, Frank Golden, Mike Tipton
Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) is a prevalent, but largely undiagnosed and poorly understood syndrome afflicting many who, as part of their work or leisure, expose their extremities to cold temperatures. The long term sequelae of NFCI are hyperhidrosis, cold-sensitivity and pain; these can last a lifetime. We tested the hypothesis that, in comparison with a placebo, sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) would increase the peripheral microcirculation during and after a mild cold challenge of individuals who had not been diagnosed with NFCI, but were cold-sensitive...
January 2014: Microvascular Research
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