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Knee anatomy and injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906945/ganglion-cyst-at-the-proximal-tibiofibular-joint-in-a-patient-with-painless-foot-drop
#1
Abdulmuhsen Alsahhaf, Waleed Renno
Entrapment neuropathies of the fibular nerve and its branches are often underdiagnosed due to the lack of reliable diagnosis using clinical examination and electrophysiologic evaluation. Most fibular nerve compressions may be classified into 2 broad categories: (a) mechanical causes, which occur at fibrous or fibro-osseous tunnels, and (b) dynamic causes related to nerve injury during specific limb positioning. Foot drop resulting from weakness of the dorsiflexor muscles of the foot is a relatively uncommon presentation and closely related to L5 neuropathy caused by a disc herniation...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905071/imaging-of-patellar-fractures
#2
REVIEW
Mohamed Jarraya, Luis E Diaz, William F Arndt, Frank W Roemer, Ali Guermazi
Patellar fractures account for approximately 1% of all skeletal fractures and may result from direct, indirect, or combined trauma. Because of the importance of patellar integrity for knee extension and the risk of associated injury to the extensor mechanism, accurate reporting and description of fracture type is paramount for appropriate management. This pictorial essay aims to review the normal anatomy of the patella, the mechanisms of injury and different types of patellar fractures, with a brief introduction to therapeutic management...
November 30, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871661/single-bundle-anatomic-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-surgical-technique-pearls-and-pitfalls
#3
REVIEW
Chaitu S Malempati, Adam V Metzler, Darren L Johnson
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are some of the most common sports-related injuries. Treatment of these injuries with ACL reconstruction has evolved over the last several decades. Anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction offers an accurate and reproducible method to reproduce native knee anatomy, restore knee kinematics, and ultimately restore function and decrease long-term degenerative effects. The importance of adequate arthroscopic visualization and a thorough understanding of the native anatomic ACL landmarks are discussed in this article...
January 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871655/surgical-indications-and-technique-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-combined-with-lateral-extra-articular-tenodesis-or-anterolateral-ligament-reconstruction
#4
REVIEW
Bart Vundelinckx, Benjamin Herman, Alan Getgood, Robert Litchfield
After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, anteroposterior and rotational laxity in the knee causes instability, functional symptoms, and damage to other intra-articular structures. Surgical reconstruction aims to restore the stability in the knee, and to improve function and ability to participate in sports. It also protects cartilage and menisci from secondary injuries. Because of persistent rotational instability after ACL reconstruction, combined intra-articular and extra-articular procedures are more commonly performed...
January 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847839/anatomical-individualized-acl-reconstruction
#5
REVIEW
Amir Ata Rahnemai-Azar, Soheil Sabzevari, Sebastián Irarrázaval, Tom Chao, Freddie H Fu
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is composed of two bundles, which work together to provide both antero-posterior and rotatory stability of the knee. Understanding the anatomy and function of the ACL plays a key role in management of patients with ACL injury. Anatomic ACL reconstruction aims to restore the function of the native ACL. Femoral and tibial tunnels should be placed in their anatomical location accounting for both the native ACL insertion site and bony landmarks. One main component of anatomical individualized ACL reconstruction is customizing the treatment according to each patient's individual characteristics, considering preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of the native ACL and knee bony anatomy...
October 2016: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846646/the-variable-emergence-of-the-infrapatellar-branch-of-the-saphenous-nerve
#6
Brandon Michael Henry, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, Przemysław A Pękala, Piravin Kumar Ramakrishnan, Dominik Taterra, Karolina Saganiak, Ewa Mizia, Jerzy A Walocha
The infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN) is a cutaneous nerve of the lower limb, which arises distal to the adductor canal. High variability in the emergence, course, branching, termination, and morphometrics of the IPBSN poses an increased risk of injury to the nerve during surgical interventions on the anteromedial aspect of the knee. The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical characteristics of the IPBSN. This study utilized cadaveric (n = 100) and ultrasonography (n = 30) assessments, and meta-analysis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759681/beyond-the-cyst-the-many-contributions-of-isadore-tarlov-1905-1977-to-contemporary-neurosurgical-practice
#7
Anand Kaul, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan P Miller
: Isadore Max Tarlov (1905-1977) is primarily remembered for his 1938 description of the eponymous perineural "Tarlov cyst." However, during his long career as a neurosurgeon and researcher, he was responsible for many other observations and inventions that influenced the development of neurosurgery in the 20th century. While studying at Johns Hopkins Medical School he was acquainted with Walter Dandy, and he became the first resident to study under Wilder Penfield at the newly formed Montreal Neurological Institute...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726755/us-of-the-knee-scanning-techniques-pitfalls-and-pathologic-conditions
#8
Timothy I Alves, Gandikota Girish, Monica Kalume Brigido, Jon A Jacobson
Pain and other disorders of the knee are a common presenting complaint in the ambulatory setting. Although the cornerstones of imaging evaluation of the knee are radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography (US) is less expensive than MR imaging, easily available, and of comparable accuracy in the evaluation of certain pathologic conditions of the knee. The benefits of US include portability, low cost, high spatial resolution, dynamic imaging, and ability to guide percutaneous interventions when indicated...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726754/imaging-of-sports-related-injuries-of-the-lower-extremity-in-pediatric-patients
#9
M Cody O'Dell, Diego Jaramillo, Laura Bancroft, Laura Varich, Gregory Logsdon, Sabah Servaes
With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726747/unraveling-the-posterolateral-corner-of-the-knee
#10
Humberto G Rosas
Although rare, posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries can result in sustained instability and failed cruciate ligament reconstruction if they are not diagnosed. The anatomy of the PLC was once thought to be perplexing and esoteric-in part because of the varying nomenclature applied to this region in the literature, which added unnecessary complexity. More recently, three major structures have been described as the primary stabilizers of the PLC on the basis of biomechanical study findings: the lateral collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643766/imaging-of-athletic-injuries-of-knee-ligaments-and-menisci-sports-imaging-series
#11
Ali M Naraghi, Lawrence M White
Acute knee injuries are a common source of morbidity in athletes and if overlooked may result in chronic functional impairment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the knee has become the most commonly performed musculoskeletal MR examination and is an indispensable tool in the appropriate management of the injured athlete. Meniscal and ligamentous tearing are the most frequent indications for surgical intervention in sports injuries and an understanding of the anatomy, biomechanics, mechanisms of injury, and patterns of injury are all critical to accurate diagnosis and appropriate management...
October 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620546/surgical-anatomy-of-the-knee-a-review-of-common-open-approaches
#12
Blaine T Manning, Rachel M Frank, Nathan G Wetters, Bernard R Bach, Aaron G Rosenberg, Brett R Levine
Knee-related complaints are among the most commonly encountered conditions by orthopaedic surgeons. Knee pathology varies widely and includes arthritis, deformities, fractures, infections, neuromuscular disorders, oncologic diseases, and soft-tissue injury. While nonoperative treatment modalities (activity modification, medications, injections, and physical therapy) are typically used as primary interventions, surgical treatment may ultimately become necessary. The purpose of this review is to discuss the most common open approaches to the knee, with an emphasis on surgically relevant anatomy for each approach...
September 2016: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448398/indications-and-anatomic-landmarks-for-the-application-of-lower-extremity-traction-a-review
#13
S F DeFroda, J A Gil, C T Born
PURPOSE: Fractures of the lower extremity, particularly of the femur and acetabulum, may be difficult to immobilize with splinting alone. These injuries may be best stabilized with the application of various types of skeletal traction. Often, traction is applied percutaneously in an emergent setting, making the knowledge of both superficial and deep anatomy crucial to successful placement. METHODS: Review was performed via PubMed search as well as referencing the Orthopaedic literature...
July 23, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429958/injury-patterns-in-patients-presenting-with-a-recurrent-anterior-cruciate-ligament-tear-following-primary-reconstruction
#14
Bryan T H Koh, Andrew A Sayampanathan, Hamid Rahmatullah Bin Abd Razak, Hwei Chi Chong, Hwee-Chye Andrew Tan
BACKGROUND: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft rupture or a primary ACL injury in the contralateral knee is one of the greatest concerns of patients following primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Our study describes the epidemiology and presence of concomitant meniscal injuries of patients with a graft rupture following primary ACLR or a primary rupture of the contralateral ACL following primary ACLR of the ipsilateral knee. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 42 patients who underwent a second ACLR...
June 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412665/on-the-heterogeneity-of-the-femoral-enthesis-of-the-human-acl-microscopic-anatomy-and-clinical-implications
#15
Mélanie L Beaulieu, Grace E Carey, Stephen H Schlecht, Edward M Wojtys, James A Ashton-Miller
BACKGROUND: Most ruptures of the native anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and ACL graft occur at, or near, the femoral enthesis, with the posterolateral fibers of the native ligament being especially vulnerable during pivot landings. Characterizing the anatomy of the ACL femoral enthesis may help us explain injury patterns which, in turn, could help guide injury prevention efforts. It may also lead to improved anatomic reconstruction techniques given that the goal of such techniques is to replicate the knee's normal anatomy...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389113/is-genicular-nerve-radiofrequency-ablation-safe-a-literature-review-and-anatomical-study
#16
Soo Yeon Kim, Phuong Uyen Le, Boleslav Kosharskyy, Alan D Kaye, Naum Shaparin, Sherry A Downie
Genicular nerve radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has recently gained popularity as an intervention for chronic knee pain in patients who have failed other conservative or surgical treatments. Long-term efficacy and adverse events are still largely unknown. Under fluoroscopic guidance, thermal RFA targets the lateral superior, medial superior, and medial inferior genicular nerves, which run in close proximity to the genicular arteries that play a crucial role in supplying the distal femur, knee joint, meniscus, and patella...
July 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387306/a-study-on-the-role-of-articular-cartilage-soft-tissue-constitutive-form-in-models-of-whole-knee-biomechanics
#17
Benjamin C Marchi, Ellen M Arruda
The mechanical behaviors of biological soft tissues are challenging to describe abstractly, with each individual tissue potentially characterized by its own unique nonlinear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic properties. These complexities are exacerbated by patient to patient variability, both mechanically and anatomically, and by inherent constitutive heterogeneity. Despite these challenges, computational models of whole knee biomechanics can be instrumental in describing the onset and progression of injury and disease...
July 8, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294170/unique-anatomic-feature-of-the-posterior-cruciate-ligament-in-knees-associated-with-osteochondritis-dissecans
#18
Masakazu Ishikawa, Nobuo Adachi, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Atsuo Nakamae, Tomoyuki Nakasa, Yasunari Ikuta, Seiju Hayashi, Masataka Deie, Mitsuo Ochi
BACKGROUND: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a disorder in juveniles and young adults; however, its etiology still remains unclear. For OCD at the medial femoral condyle (MFC), it is sometimes observed that the lesion has a connection with fibers of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Although this could be important information related to the etiology of MFC OCD, there is no report examining an association between the MFC OCD and the PCL anatomy. PURPOSE: To investigate the anatomic features of knees associated with MFC OCD, focusing especially on the femoral attachment of the PCL, and to compare them with knees associated with lateral femoral condyle (LFC) OCD and non-OCD lesions...
May 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293293/isolated-coronoid-fracture-assessment-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-concomitant-injuries
#19
Aashay L Kekatpure, Iman Widya Aminata, In-Ho Jeon, In-Hyeok Rhyou, Hyun-Joo Lee, Jae-Myeung Chun
BACKGROUND: Ligamentous injury associated with isolated coronoid fracture had been sparingly reported. Concealed or unclear fractures and ligamentous or articular cartilage lesions are promptly acknowledged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but cannot be entirely pictured in regular radiological assessments. In isolated coronoid fracture, the fragment size is very small and due to the complex anatomy surrounding the coronoid radiographic imaging may not be sufficient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of combined osteochondral and ligamentous injuries by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 24 patients with an isolated coronoid fracture...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281324/indirect-popliteal-artery-transections-in-revision-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-case-report
#20
Hiroyasu Ogawa, Kazu Matsumoto, Yoshiki Ito, Kenji Kawashima, Iori Takigami, Haruhiko Akiyama
Popliteal artery injury in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is rare but a devastating complication with consequence from transient bleeding to death. We report a case of 83-yearold woman suffering from an unusual early postoperative indirect popliteal artery transection in revision TKA for an infected knee. This injury was triggered by surgical correction of stiffened and distorted soft tissue, which resulted in excessive tensioning and eventual indirect transection of the artery. To avoid this devastating complication, early elimination of infection concomitant with perioperative maintenance of the normal anatomy of the knee is important...
June 2016: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
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