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Knee anatomy and injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172386/current-concepts-of-posterolateral-corner-injuries-of-the-knee
#1
REVIEW
Oog-Jin Shon, Jae-Woo Park, Beum-Jung Kim
The number of posterolateral corner (PLC) injury patients has risen owing to the increased motor vehicle accidents and sports activities. Careful examination is required because this injury is easy to overlook and may lead to chronic instability. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, biomechanics, diagnosis, classification and, treatment of PLC injuries and summarize the recent literatures regarding the treatment outcomes.
December 1, 2017: Knee Surgery & related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095400/mri-arthroscopy-correlations-ligaments-of-the-knee
#2
Joseph J Ruzbarsky, Gabrielle Konin, Naaman Mehta, Robert G Marx
Magnetic resonance imaging and a thorough understanding of its interpretation in the diagnosis and management of injuries to the ligaments about the knee is an essential skill for orthopedists. The goal of this review is to provide a description of the native and injured anatomy through magnetic resonance imaging and its correlations, when appropriate, as seen through the arthroscope at the time of surgery. The ligaments of focus include the anterior cruciate ligament, the posterior cruciate ligament, the medial collateral ligament, the posterolateral corner, the anterolateral ligament, and the medial patellofemoral ligament...
December 2017: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071356/no-improvement-in-reducing-outliers-in-coronal-axis-alignment-with-patient-specific-instrumentation
#3
Uwe Maus, Carlos J Marques, David Scheunemann, Frank Lampe, Djordje Lazovic, Hagen Hommel, Dennis Vogel, Martin Haunschild, Tilman Pfitzner
PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS: Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) uses 3D preoperative imaging to produce individualized cutting blocks specific to patients' anatomy and according to the preoperative plan with the aim to reduce the number of mechanical leg alignment (MLA) outliers, to improve implant positioning and to decrease surgery time. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a specific PSI in comparison with standard instrumentation (SI) in reducing the number of MLA outliers...
October 25, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067474/restoring-tibiofemoral-alignment-during-acl-reconstruction-results-in-better-knee-biomechanics
#4
Frantzeska Zampeli, Ioannis Terzidis, João Espregueira-Mendes, Jim-Dimitris Georgoulis, Manfred Bernard, Evangelos Pappas, Anastasios D Georgoulis
PURPOSE: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) aims to restore normal knee joint function, stability and biomechanics and in the long term avoid joint degeneration. The purpose of this study is to present the anatomic single bundle (SB) ACLR that emphasizes intraoperative correction of tibiofemoral subluxation that occurs after ACL injury. It was hypothesized that this technique leads to optimal outcomes and better restoration of pathological tibiofemoral joint movement that results from ACL deficiency (ACLD)...
October 24, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059112/the-posteromedial-corner-of-the-knee-anatomy-pathology-and-management-strategies
#5
Andrew P Dold, Stephanie Swensen, Eric Strauss, Michael Alaia
The posteromedial corner of the knee encompasses five medial structures posterior to the medial collateral ligament. With modern MRI systems, these structures are readily identified and can be appreciated in the context of multiligamentous knee injuries. It is recognized that anteromedial rotatory instability results from an injury that involves both the medial collateral ligament and the posterior oblique ligament. Like posterolateral corner injuries, untreated or concurrent posteromedial corner injuries resulting in rotatory instability place additional strain on anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, which can ultimately contribute to graft failure and poor clinical outcomes...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038943/a-lower-limb-pelvis-finite-element-model-with-3d-active-muscles
#6
Fuhao Mo, Fan Li, Michel Behr, Zhi Xiao, Guanjun Zhang, Xianping Du
A lower limb-pelvis finite element (FE) model with active three-dimensional (3D) muscles was developed in this study for biomechanical analysis of human body. The model geometry was mainly reconstructed from a male volunteer close to the anthropometry of a 50th percentile Chinese male. Tissue materials and structural features were established based on the literature and new implemented experimental tests. In particular, the muscle was modeled with a combination of truss and hexahedral elements to define its passive and active properties as well as to follow the detailed anatomy structure...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016187/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-the-medial-patellar-ligaments-an-anatomic-and-radiographic-study
#7
Bradley M Kruckeberg, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Mark E Cinque, Kyle J Muckenhirn, Jonathan A Godin, Taylor J Ridley, Alex W Brady, Elizabeth A Arendt, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: The qualitative and quantitative anatomy of the medial patellar stabilizers has been reported; however, a quantitative analysis of the anatomic and radiographic attachments of all 4 ligaments relative to anatomic and osseous landmarks, as well as to one another, has yet to be performed. PURPOSE: To perform a qualitative and quantitative anatomic and radiographic evaluation of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL), medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML), and medial quadriceps tendon femoral ligament (MQTFL) attachment sites, with attention to their relationship to pertinent osseous and soft tissue landmarks...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969819/editorial-commentary-biomechanics-of-cutting-studies-knowledge-and-deficiencies-knee-joint-stability-and-the-posterolateral-corner
#8
EDITORIAL
C Benjamin Ma
Injury to the posterolateral corner of the knee is a difficult condition to treat. We know a lot about the anatomy and different methods with which we can reconstruct this complex area of the knee. Despite these advances, injuries to this area still do not lead to great surgical outcomes.
October 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942225/arthroscopic-deepening-trochleoplasty-for-chronic-anterior-knee-pain-after-previous-failed-conservative-and-arthroscopic-treatment-report-of-two-cases
#9
Lars Blønd
PURPOSE: A proportion of patients having years of chronic anterior knee pain(AKP) that have not responded to non-operative modalities. Trochlear dysplasia have been found to be a cause for AKP. By restoring the anatomy with a trochleoplasty procedure the patellofemoral joint is unloaded. This study is a prospective 2year follow-up study, based on two cases with chronic AKP for several years and having severe trochlear dysplasia and both were successfully treated by arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933331/-comparison-of-the-arthroscopic-finding-in-the-knee-joint-and-the-mri-retrospective-study
#10
K Šimeček, P Látal, J Duda, M Šimeček
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Our retrospective study presents the comparison of the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the knee joint - MRI - and the arthroscopic finding - ASC. Its aim is to find out how a positive or a negative finding of MRI corresponds with the operative finding and how much the experience of radiologist contributes to the conformity. MATERIAL AND METHODS The MRI findings of knee joints treated surgically at two departments in 2013 and 2014 were assessed. The MRI was performed in a total of 470 patients who subsequently underwent an arthroscopic surgery...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878515/review-medial-collateral-ligament-injuries
#11
REVIEW
Kyle Andrews, Alex Lu, Lucas Mckean, Nabil Ebraheim
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a major stabilizer of the knee joint. It is the most common ligament injured in the knee, particularly in athletes, and has been reported to be torn in 7.9% of all knee injuries.2 The MCL has a complex, layered anatomy with multiple insertions and functions. Minor trauma can cause tearing of the superficial portion whereas higher energy mechanisms can disrupt both the deep and superficial layers. History and physical are often adequate, but the gold standard for diagnosis is MRI...
December 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805136/the-ovine-model-for-meniscus-tissue-engineering-considerations-of-anatomy-function-implantation-and-evaluation
#12
Andrzej Brzezinski, Salim A Ghodbane, Jay M Patel, Barbara A Perry, Charles J Gatt, Michael G Dunn
Meniscus injuries represent one of the most-common intra-articular knee injuries. The current treatment options include meniscectomy and allograft transplantation, both with poor long-term outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for regenerative techniques to restore meniscal function. To preclinically test scaffolds for meniscus replacement, large animal models need to be established and standardized. This review establishes the anatomical and compositional similarities between human and sheep menisci and provides guidance for implantation and evaluation of such devices...
September 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802742/the-challenges-of-measuring-in-vivo-knee-collateral-ligament-strains-using-ultrasound
#13
Laura C Slane, Josh A Slane, Jan D'hooge, Lennart Scheys
Ultrasound-based methods have shown promise in their ability to characterize non-uniform deformations in large energy-storing tendons such as the Achilles and patellar tendons, yet applications to other areas of the body have been largely unexplored. The noninvasive quantification of collateral ligament strain could provide an important clinical metric of knee frontal plane stability, which is relevant in ligament injury and for measuring outcomes following total knee arthroplasty. In this pilot cadaveric experiment, we investigated the possibility of measuring collateral ligament strain with our previously validated speckle-tracking approach, but encountered a number of challenges during both data acquisition and processing...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791808/a-randomized-blinded-comparative-study-of-clinical-response-to-surface-anatomy-guided-injection-versus-sonography-guided-injection-of-hyaloronic-acid-in-patients-with-primary-knee-osteoarthritis
#14
Nahid Kianmehr, Atefeh Hasanzadeh, Farrokh Naderi, Sholeh Khajoei, Anousheh Haghighi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Comparison between the effect of sonographic guided and blind knee injection of hyaluronic acid has been evaluated in this study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Sixty-one patients with primary knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated into two groups and received intrabursal injection of hyaloronic acid over 3 weeks. The difference between baseline amounts of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and visual analogue scale (VAS) score and these amounts after 6 and 12 weeks were calculated and subsequently compared between the two groups...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609131/a-comprehensive-reanalysis-of-the-distal-iliotibial-band-quantitative-anatomy-radiographic-markers-and-biomechanical-properties
#15
Jonathan A Godin, Jorge Chahla, Gilbert Moatshe, Bradley M Kruckeberg, Kyle J Muckenhirn, Alexander R Vap, Andrew G Geeslin, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: The qualitative anatomy of the distal iliotibial band (ITB) has previously been described. However, a comprehensive characterization of the quantitative anatomic, radiographic, and biomechanical properties of the Kaplan fibers of the deep distal ITB has not yet been established. It is paramount to delineate these characteristics to fully understand the distal ITB's contribution to rotational knee stability. Purpose/Hypothesis: There were 2 distinct purposes for this study: (1) to perform a quantitative anatomic and radiographic evaluation of the distal ITB's attachment sites and their relationships to pertinent osseous and soft tissue landmarks, and (2) to quantify the biomechanical properties of the deep (Kaplan) fibers of the distal ITB...
September 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514510/injury-to-the-infrapatellar-branch-of-the-saphenous-nerve-during-tendon-graft-harvesting-for-knee-ligament-reconstruction-an-ultrasound-simulation-study
#16
Przemysław A Pękala, Ewa Miza, Brandon Michael Henry, Patrick Popieluszko, Marios Loukas, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
INTRODUCTION: The clinical anatomy of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN) is of particular importance during operations in the area of the knee, especially when material for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is harvested. The nerve can easily be injured during the harvesting procedure, leading to postoperative complications that reduce quality of life. Three different skin incisions are commonly used during hamstring tendon harvesting: horizontal, vertical, and oblique...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511363/solving-the-mystery-of-the-antero-lateral-ligament
#17
P H Sonia Farhan, Rathi Sudhakaran, Jai Thilak
INTRODUCTION: The cruciate ligaments are essential for the antero-posterior stability of the knee joint. In Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) rupture, though reconstructive surgery is a widely accepted and proven procedure, there is still an unacceptably high re-injury rate. The fact that the rotational instability persists even after the surgical reconstruction of ACL injury has evoked a new interest in the study of the soft tissue structures on the anterolateral aspect of the knee joint...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406879/physical-examination-of-the-knee-meniscus-cartilage-and-patellofemoral-conditions
#18
Robert D Bronstein, Joseph C Schaffer
The knee is one of the most commonly injured joints in the body. Its superficial anatomy enables diagnosis of the injury through a thorough history and physical examination. Examination techniques for the knee described decades ago are still useful, as are more recently developed tests. Proper use of these techniques requires understanding of the anatomy and biomechanical principles of the knee as well as the pathophysiology of the injuries, including tears to the menisci and extensor mechanism, patellofemoral conditions, and osteochondritis dissecans...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355672/ligamentous-reconstruction-of-the-knee-what-orthopaedic-surgeons-want-radiologists-to-know
#19
REVIEW
Andrew G Geeslin, Matthew G Geeslin, Robert F LaPrade
Knee ligament injuries are common, and treatment methods are continually evolving. Accurate clinical diagnosis with imaging confirmation is critical to support appropriate treatment. Several imaging pearls allow for improved recognition of injuries. Stress radiographs may be obtained to quantify knee laxity. Magnetic resonance imaging allows assessment of the complex anatomy of the knee and has excellent sensitivity and specificity for many injuries.
April 2017: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324130/the-oblique-popliteal-ligament-an-anatomic-and-mri-investigation
#20
Mandy Hedderwick, Mark D Stringer, Liam McRedmond, Grant R Meikle, Stephanie J Woodley
PURPOSE: Despite being the largest ligament on the posterior aspect of the knee, relatively little is known about the normal morphology of the oblique popliteal ligament (OPL). The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed anatomy of the OPL in cadavers and healthy volunteers. METHODS: The posterior knee was investigated in 25 cadaver lower limbs (mean age 76 ± 9.5 years; 7 men) by dissection, histology, and serial plastination and in 14 healthy individuals (mean age 23 ± 3...
March 21, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
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