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Ankle pain and anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818476/complex-anatomic-abnormalities-of-the-lower-leg-muscles-and-tendons-associated-with-phocomelia-a-case-report
#1
Thomas Hodo, Mark Hamrick, Yulia Melenevsky
Musculoskeletal anatomy is widely known to have components that stray from the norm in the form of variant muscle and tendon presence, absence, origin, insertion, and bifurcation. Although these variant muscles and tendons might be deemed incidental and insignificant findings by most, they can be important contributors to pathologic physiology or, more importantly, an option for effective treatment. In the present case report, we describe a patient with phocomelia and Müllerian abnormalities secondary to in utero thalidomide exposure...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736620/peroneal-tendon-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Kinner Davda, Karan Malhotra, Paul O'Donnell, Dishan Singh, Nicholas Cullen
Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries.Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers.Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus...
June 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624855/ct-arthrography-visualizes-tissue-growth-of-osteochondral-defects-of-the-talus-after-microfracture
#3
Hong-Geun Jung, Na-Ra Kim, Ji-Young Jeon, Dong-Oh Lee, Jun-Sang Eom, Jong-Soo Lee, Sung-Wook Kim
PURPOSE: Little is known about the arthroscopic or radiographic outcomes after arthroscopic microfracture of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate tissue growth after arthroscopic microfracture of OLTs using computed tomography arthrography (CTA) and to identify the relationship between CTA findings and clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that the morphology of the repaired tissue would be similar to that of normal anatomy and correlate with the clinical outcomes...
June 17, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624011/peroneal-tendon-pathology-pre-and-post-operative-high-resolution-us-and-mr-imaging
#4
REVIEW
Yogesh Kumar, Ali Alian, Shivani Ahlawat, Dane K Wukich, Avneesh Chhabra
Peroneal tendon pathology is an important cause of lateral ankle pain and instability. Typical peroneal tendon disorders include tendinitis, tenosynovitis, partial and full thickness tendon tears, peroneal retinacular injuries, and tendon subluxations and dislocations. Surgery is usually indicated when conservative treatment fails. Familiarity with the peroneal tendon surgeries and expected postoperative imaging findings is essential for accurate assessment and to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Cross-sectional imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI provide accurate pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of the peroneal tendon pathology...
July 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619268/ankle-hindfoot-after-calcaneal-fractures-a-biomechanical-study
#5
C Xu, M Li, C Wang, K Li, H Liu
INTRODUCTION: Both the overall shape of the calcaneus and anatomical reduction of joint congruity are important prognostic factors. However, there is a significant lack of biomechanical data supporting the clinical importance of calcaneus height, length and heel width. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of abnormal calcaneus morphology on ankle-hindfoot biomechanics. HYPOTHESIS: The normal biomechanics of the ankle-hindfoot would be severely disrupted by the abnormal calcaneus morphology...
June 12, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573372/a-survey-of-anatomical-items-relevant-to-the-practice-of-rheumatology-pelvis-lower-extremity-and-gait
#6
Cristina Hernández-Díaz, José Alvarez-Nemegyei, José Eduardo Navarro-Zarza, Pablo Villaseñor-Ovies, Robert A Kalish, Juan J Canoso, Angélica Vargas, Karla Chiapas-Gasca, Joseph J Biundo, Francisco Javier de Toro Santos, Dennis McGonagle, Simon Carette, Miguel Ángel Saavedra
This study aimed to generate a minimum list of structural and functional anatomical items about the pelvis/hip, knee, ankle/foot, gait, and lower limb innervation, which are most relevant to the practice of rheumatology. To determine their perceived relevance to clinical practice, seven members of the Mexican Clinical Anatomy Task Force compiled an initial list of 470 anatomical items. Ten local and international experts according to a 0-10 Likert scale ranked these items. Of the original list, 101 (21.48%) items were considered relevant (global rate >40)...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425054/can-a-three-component-prosthesis-be-used-for-conversion-of-painful-ankle-arthrodesis-to-total-ankle-replacement
#7
Markus Preis, Travis Bailey, Lucas S Marchand, Alexej Barg
BACKGROUND: In patients with painful ankle arthrodesis, the surgical treatment is challenging, and may include takedown of ankle arthrodesis and conversion to a total ankle replacement (TAR). This procedure is technically demanding given the altered anatomy after arthrodesis. Few studies have evaluated TAR in the setting of prior arthrodesis. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What intraoperative and perioperative complications were observed in patients who underwent conversion of an ankle arthrodesis to a TAR? (2) Was durable fixation achieved at short term, and what was the alignment of the components? (3) What subsequent surgical procedures were performed, including revisions? (4) What improvements were observed in pain, tibiotalar range of motion (ROM), and quality of life? METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2014, 18 patients with a painful ankle arthrodesis underwent conversion to TAR at our tertiary referral center...
September 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382374/proximal-peroneus-longus-tear-rare-case-in-a-teenage-athlete-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Matthew Winfeld, Nancy Chauvin
We present the case of a 15-year-old teenager who sustained an ankle inversion injury while playing American football, which yielded only minimal pain, but also foot numbness and a lateral leg bulge. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation revealed a proximal peroneal tear. These rare injuries are often associated with compartment syndrome, a surgical emergency, which was ultimately excluded clinically in this patient. Relevant anatomy, mechanism of injury, and clinical manifestations are discussed.
July 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222618/three-dimensional-printing-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-osteoid-osteoma-of-the-calcaneus-a-case-report
#9
Xiang Ren, Liu Yang, Xiao-Jun Duan
Surgical excision is the traditional treatment for osteoid osteoma. However, the complexity of the foot anatomy makes a satisfactory outcome challenging. Difficulty in localizing the lesion intraoperatively may result in either incomplete tumor resection or excessive bone loss. To date, no published report has described the use of three-dimensional printing in the surgical treatment of osteoid osteoma of the calcaneus. In this case, we printed a three-dimensional model of the calcaneus of a 17-year-old female patient with a 2-year history of night pain in the lateral aspect of the hindfoot and ankle, evaluated the lesion as an osteoid osteoma, and designed a surgical guiding plate...
February 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058662/os-peroneum-imaging-normal-appearance-and-pathological-findings
#10
REVIEW
Stefano Bianchi, Chandra Bortolotto, Ferdinando Draghi
The os peroneum (OP) is a small sesamoid bone located inside the peroneus longus tendon (PLT), close to the cuboid. The OP can be the cause of pain and can be associated with lesions of the PLT. OP involvement in PLT disorders is frequently misdiagnosed by radiologists. Painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) refers to a variety of conditions presenting with pain localized on the lateral aspect of the cuboid area. The syndrome can be observed as a consequence of local acute trauma such as ankle sprains or chronic overuse...
February 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789336/differential-plantaris-achilles-tendon-motion-a-sonographic-and-cadaveric-investigation
#11
Jay Smith, Håkan Alfredson, Lorenzo Masci, Jacob L Sellon, Charonn D Woods
BACKGROUND: Differential motion between the plantaris and Achilles tendons has been hypothesized to contribute to pain in some patients presenting with Achilles tendinopathy. However, objective evidence of differential Achilles-plantaris motion is currently lacking from the literature. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differential, multidirectional motion exists between the plantaris tendon (PT) and Achilles tendon (AT) as documented by dynamic ultrasound (US) and postdissection examination in an unembalmed cadaveric model...
October 24, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599438/arthroscopic-approach-to-posterior-ankle-impingement
#12
REVIEW
Michael H Theodoulou, Laura Bohman
Posterior ankle pain can occur for many reasons. If it is produced by forced plantarflexion of the foot, it is often a result of impingement from an enlarged posterior talar process or an os trigonum. This condition may present in an acute or chronic state. Management is initially nonoperative, but surgical treatments are available. This condition is often seen in athletes, so procedures that limit surgical trauma and allow early return to activity are ideal. An arthroscopic approach for this disorder produces good outcomes with limited complications...
October 2016: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340257/treatment-of-foot-and-ankle-neuroma-pain-with-processed-nerve-allografts
#13
Jason M Souza, Chad A Purnell, Jennifer E Cheesborough, Armen S Kelikian, Gregory A Dumanian
BACKGROUND: Localized nerve pain in the foot and ankle can be a chronic source of disability after trauma and has been identified as the most common complication following operative interventions in the foot and ankle. The superficial location of the injured nerves and lack of suitable tissue for nerve implantation make this pain refractory to conventional methods of neuroma management. We describe a novel strategy for management using processed nerve allografts to bridge nerve gaps created by resection of both end neuromas and neuromas-in-continuity...
October 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295454/efficacy-of-corrective-spinal-orthoses-on-gait-and-energy-consumption-in-scoliosis-subjects-a-literature-review
#14
Alieh Daryabor, Mokhtar Arazpour, Mohammad Samadian, Masoumeh Veiskarami, Monireh Ahmadi Bani
BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a progressive growth disease that affects spinal anatomy, mobility, and left-right trunk symmetry. As a consequence, AIS can modify human gait. Spinal orthoses are a commonly used conservative method for the treatment of AIS. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluated the AIS spinal orthosis literature that involved gait and energy consumption evaluations. STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. METHOD: According to the population intervention comparison outcome measure methods and based on selected keywords, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria...
May 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147683/clinical-outcomes-and-development-of-symptomatic-osteoarthritis-2-to-24-years-after-surgical-treatment-of-tarsometatarsal-joint-complex-injuries
#15
Victor Dubois-Ferrière, Anne Lübbeke, Ashwin Chowdhary, Richard Stern, Dennis Dominguez, Mathieu Assal
BACKGROUND: Injuries to the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint complex, or Lisfranc injuries, have been reported to result in osteoarthritis (OA) following surgical treatment. Good outcomes with respect to short and medium-term results have been reported. However, long-term results, specifically regarding clinical outcomes and the development of symptomatic OA, are limited. The objectives of this study were to assess clinical outcomes, the occurrence of symptomatic OA, and risk factors for OA at 2 to 24 years after a Lisfranc injury treated surgically with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or with primary arthrodesis...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113595/the-chitranjan-s-ranawat-award-no-difference-in-2-year-functional-outcomes-using-kinematic-versus-mechanical-alignment-in-tka-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Simon W Young, Matthew L Walker, Ali Bayan, Toby Briant-Evans, Paul Pavlou, Bill Farrington
BACKGROUND: Neutral mechanical alignment (MA) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) aims to position femoral and tibial components perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the limb. In contrast, kinematic alignment (KA) attempts to match implant position to the prearthritic anatomy of the individual patient with the aim of improving functional outcome. However, comparative data between the two techniques are lacking. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In this randomized trial, we asked: (1) Are 2-year patient-reported outcome scores enhanced in patients with KA compared with an MA technique? (2) How does postoperative component alignment differ between the techniques? (3) Is the proportion of patients undergoing reoperation at 2 years different between the techniques? METHODS: Ninety-nine primary TKAs in 95 patients were randomized to either MA (n = 50) or KA (n = 49) groups...
January 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052302/anatomy-of-the-ankle-ligaments-a-pictorial-essay
#17
Pau Golanó, Jordi Vega, Peter A J de Leeuw, Francesc Malagelada, M Cristina Manzanares, Víctor Götzens, C Niek van Dijk
Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the ankle are grouped, depending on their anatomic orientation, and each of the ankle ligaments is discussed in detail.
April 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033333/interventions-for-treating-ankle-fractures-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Denise E Yeung, Xueli Jia, Clare A Miller, Simon L Barker
BACKGROUND: Ankle fractures, which usually occur after a twisting incident, are a diverse collection of injuries with different levels of complexity and severity. They have an incidence of 1 in 1000 a year in children. Treatment generally involves splints and casts for minor fractures and surgical fixation with screws, plates and pins followed by immobilisation for more serious fractures. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of different interventions for treating ankle fractures in children...
April 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26740306/minimally-invasive-versus-open-distal-fibular-plating-for-ao-ota-44-b-ankle-fractures
#19
Chao-Ching Chiang, Yun-Hsuan Tzeng, Chun-Cheng Lin, Ching-Kuei Huang, Ming-Chau Chang
BACKGROUND: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), the standard treatment for unstable ankle fractures, has well-known wound complications. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been proposed to decrease these complications. The objectives of this study were to describe an algorithm of MIS for fibular plating and compare the radiographic restoration of fibular anatomy, functional outcomes, and complications between ORIF and MIS for ankle fractures. METHODS: This retrospective study included 71 patients with AO/OTA 44-B ankle fractures treated by a single surgeon...
June 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655217/ultrasound-guided-interventional-procedures-in-pain-medicine-a-review-of-anatomy-sonoanatomy-and-procedures-part-vi-ankle-joint
#20
REVIEW
Neilesh Soneji, Philip W H Peng
Ultrasound-guided injections in pain medicine are emerging as a popular technique for pain interventions. Ultrasound can be applied for procedures of the ankle joint and surrounding structures. This review describes the anatomy and sonoanatomy of the ankle joint, subtalar joint, and surrounding extra-articular structures relevant for intra-articular injection. Second, it reviews injection techniques and the accuracy and efficacy of these intra-articular ankle injections.
January 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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