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Cancer progression chromatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689621/sall2-represses-cyclins-d1-and-e1-expression-and-restrains-g1-s-cell-cycle-transition-and-cancer-related-phenotypes
#1
Viviana Hermosilla, Ginessa Salgado, Elizabeth Riffo, David Escobar, Matías Hepp, Carlos Farkas, Mario Galindo, Violeta Morín, María A García-Robles, Ariel F Castro, Roxana Pincheira
SALL2 is a poorly characterized transcription factor that belongs to the Spalt-like family involved in development. Mutations on SALL2 have been associated with ocular coloboma and cancer. In cancers, SALL2 is deregulated, and is proposed as a tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer. SALL2 has been implicated in stemness, cell death, proliferation and quiescence. However, mechanisms underlying roles of SALL2 related to cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of SALL2 in cell proliferation by using mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Sall2-/- mice...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685962/protein-methyltransferase-inhibitors-as-precision-cancer-therapeutics-a-decade-of-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Robert A Copeland
The protein methyltransferases (PMTs) represent a large class of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of side chain nitrogen atoms of the amino acids lysine or arginine at specific locations along the primary sequence of target proteins. These enzymes play a key role in the spatio-temporal control of gene transcription by performing site-specific methylation of lysine or arginine residues within the histone proteins of chromatin, thus effecting chromatin conformational changes that activate or repress gene transcription...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685496/are-pax-proteins-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-kidney-disease-and-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Edward Grimley, Gregory R Dressler
Pax genes encode developmental regulators that are expressed in a variety of tissues and control critical events in morphogenesis. In the kidney, Pax2 and Pax8 are expressed in embryonic development and in specific renal diseases associated with aberrant epithelial cell proliferation. Prior genetic and cell biological studies suggest that reducing the activity of Pax proteins in renal cancer or in polycystic kidney disease can slow the progression of these conditions. The Pax proteins may be critical for providing tissue and locus specificity to recruit epigenetic modifiers that control gene expression and chromatin structure...
April 20, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680858/relationship-between-histone-deacetylase-3-hdac3-and-breast-cancer
#4
Zhuhong Cui, Mingjun Xie, Zhenru Wu, Yujun Shi
BACKGROUND The modification of histone acetylation and deacetylation is the most important mechanism of chromatin remodeling. These modifications are a subset of epigenetic alterations which affect tumorigenesis and progression through changes in gene expression and cell growth. Results of histone modification studies prompted us to explore the therapeutic and prognostic significance of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) expression in patients with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to detect HDAC3 expression in a tissue microarray (TMA) that included 145 patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast carcinoma...
April 22, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676638/identification-of-novel-targets-for-lung-cancer-therapy-using-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-model
#5
Vivek Shukla, Mahadev Rao, Hongen Zhang, Jeanette Beers, Darawalee Wangsa, Danny Wangsa, Floryne O Buishand, Yonghong Wang, Zhiya Yu, Holly Stevenson, Emily Reardon, Kaitlin C McLoughlin, Andrew Kaufman, Eden Payabyab, Julie A Hong, Mary Zhang, Sean R Davis, Daniel C Edelman, Guokai Chen, Markku Miettinen, Nicholas Restifo, Thomas Ried, Paul S Meltzer, David S Schrump
RATIONALE: Despite extensive studies, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that mediate initiation and progression of lung cancers have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we have demonstrated that via complementary mechanisms, including DNA methylation, polycomb repressive complexes, and noncoding RNAs, cigarette smoke induces stem-like phenotypes that coincide with progression to malignancy in normal respiratory epithelia as well as enhanced growth and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675438/fgfrl1-promotes-ovarian-cancer-progression-by-crosstalk-with-hedgehog-signaling
#6
Haiyan Tai, Zhiyong Wu, Su'an Sun, Zhigang Zhang, Congjian Xu
Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like-1 (FGFRL1) has been identified as the fifth fibroblast growth factor receptor. So far, little is known about its biological functions, particularly in cancer development. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated the roles of FGFRL1 in ovarian carcinoma (OC). An array and existing databases were used to investigate the expression profile of FGFRL1 and the relationship between FGFRL1 expression and clinicopathological parameters. FGFRL1 was significantly upregulated in OC patients, and high FGFRL1 expression was correlated with poor prognosis...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669339/upregulation-of-lncdq-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-tumor-progression-via-epigenetic-regulation-of-the-emt-pathway-in-hcc
#7
Bing Zeng, Zewei Lin, Huilin Ye, Di Cheng, Guangtao Zhang, Jindu Zhou, Zhifeng Huang, Meng Wang, Canfeng Cai, Jun Zeng, Chaoming Tang, Jikui Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulators of cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we investigated the clinical value and functional role of LncRNA DQ786243 (LncDQ) in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: To investigate the expression level of LncDQ in HCC, we performed quantitative real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from HCC tumor tissues and their matched non-neoplastic counterparts, as well as from the serum of HCC patients and healthy volunteers...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667342/middle-down-characterization-of-the-cell-cycle-dependence-of-histone-h4-post-translational-modifications-and-proteoforms
#8
Tingting Jiang, Michael E Hoover, Matthew V Holt, Michael A Freitas, Alan G Marshall, Nicolas L Young
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones are important epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that are often dysregulated in cancer. We employ middle-down proteomics to investigate the PTMs and proteoforms of histone H4 during cell cycle progression. We use pH gradient weak cation exchange-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (WCX-HILIC) for on-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to separate and analyze the proteoforms of histone H4. This provides enhanced separation of proteoforms, including positional isomers, and simplifies downstream data analysis...
April 17, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665865/integrative-analysis-reveals-functional-and-regulatory-roles-of-h3k79me2-in-mediating-alternative-splicing
#9
Tianbao Li, Qi Liu, Nick Garza, Steven Kornblau, Victor X Jin
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests alternative splicing (AS) is a co-transcriptional splicing process not only controlled by RNA-binding splicing factors, but also mediated by epigenetic regulators, such as chromatin structure, nucleosome density, and histone modification. Aberrant AS plays an important role in regulating various diseases, including cancers. METHODS: In this study, we integrated AS events derived from RNA-seq with H3K79me2 ChIP-seq data across 34 different normal and cancer cell types and found the higher enrichment of H3K79me2 in two AS types, skipping exon (SE) and alternative 3' splice site (A3SS)...
April 17, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665052/the-role-of-high-mobility-group-protein-box-1-in-lung-cancer
#10
Xiao-Jin Wu, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Chan-Chan Gong, Dong-Sheng Pei
High-mobility group protein box 1(HMGB1)is a ubiquitous highly conserved nuclear protein. Acting as a chromatin-binding factor, HMGB1 binds to DNA and plays an important role in stabilizing nucleosome formation, facilitating gene transcription, DNA repairing, inflammation, cell differentiation, and regulating the activity of steroid hormone receptors. Currently, HMGB1 is discovered to be related to development, progression, and targeted therapy of lung cancer, which makes it an attractive biomarker, and therapeutic target...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659513/chromatin-architectural-changes-during-cellular-senescence-and-aging
#11
REVIEW
Luyang Sun, Ruofan Yu, Weiwei Dang
Chromatin 3D structure is highly dynamic and associated with many biological processes, such as cell cycle progression, cellular differentiation, cell fate reprogramming, cancer development, cellular senescence, and aging. Recently, by using chromosome conformation capture technologies, tremendous findings have been reported about the dynamics of genome architecture, their associated proteins, and the underlying mechanisms involved in regulating chromatin spatial organization and gene expression. Cellular senescence and aging, which involve multiple cellular and molecular functional declines, also undergo significant chromatin structural changes, including alternations of heterochromatin and disruption of higher-order chromatin structure...
April 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659013/dietary-fat-and-fiber-interact-to-uniquely-modify-global-histone-post-translational-epigenetic-programming-in-a-rat-colon-cancer-progression-model
#12
Karen Triff, Mathew W McLean, Evelyn Callaway, Jennifer Goldsby, Ivan Ivanov, Robert S Chapkin
Dietary fermentable fiber generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), e.g., butyrate, in the colonic lumen which serves as a chemoprotective histone deacetylase inhibitor and/or as an acetylation substrate for histone acetylases. In addition, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in fish oil can affect the chromatin landscape by acting as ligands for tumor suppressive nuclear receptors. In an effort to gain insight into the global dimension of post-translational modification of histones (including H3K4me3 and H3K9ac) and clarify the chemoprotective impact of dietary bioactive compounds on transcriptional control in a preclinical model of colon cancer, we generated high-resolution genome-wide RNA (RNA-Seq) and "chromatin-state" (H3K4me3-seq and H3K9ac-seq) maps for intestinal (epithelial colonocytes) crypts in rats treated with a colon carcinogen and fed diets containing bioactive (i) fish oil, (ii) fermentable fiber (a rich source of SCFA), (iii) a combination of fish oil plus pectin or (iv) control, devoid of fish oil or pectin...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657304/the-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-osteosarcoma
#13
REVIEW
Maria Anna Smolle, Martin Pichler
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute non-protein coding transcripts with a size > than 200 nucleotides. They are involved in many cellular processes, such as chromatin remodelling, transcription, and gene expression. They play a role in the development, progression, and invasion of many human cancers, including osteosarcoma. This rare tumor entity predominantly arises in children and young adults. Treatment consists of polychemotherapy and surgical resection, increasing survival rates up to 60%. In the present review, the role of lncRNAs with prognostic, predictive, therapeutic, and diagnostic significance in osteosarcoma is discussed...
March 8, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643418/contextual-determinants-of-tgf%C3%AE-action-in-development-immunity-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Charles J David, Joan Massagué
Few cell signals match the impact of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family in metazoan biology. TGFβ cytokines regulate cell fate decisions during development, tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and are major players in tumorigenesis, fibrotic disorders, immune malfunctions and various congenital diseases. The effects of the TGFβ family are mediated by a combinatorial set of ligands and receptors and by a common set of receptor-activated mothers against decapentaplegic homologue (SMAD) transcription factors, yet the effects can differ dramatically depending on the cell type and the conditions...
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625794/the-role-of-epigenetic-therapies-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Marina Baretti, Nilofer Saba Azad
Although developments in the diagnosis and therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been made in the last decade, much work remains to be done as it remains the second leading cause of cancer death. It is now well established that epigenetic events, together with genetic alterations, are key events in initiation and progression of CRC. Epigenetics refers to heritable alterations in gene expression that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These alterations include DNA methylation, histone alterations, chromatin remodelers, and noncoding RNAs...
March 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618461/lessons-from-the-crypt-hmga1-amping-up-wnt-for-stem-cells-and-tumor-progression
#16
REVIEW
Linda Resar, Lionel Chia, Lingling Xian
High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) chromatin remodeling proteins are enriched in aggressive cancers and stem cells, although their common function in these settings has remained elusive until now. Recent work in murine intestinal stem cells (ISC) revealed a novel role for Hmga1 in enhancing self-renewal by amplifying Wnt signaling, both by inducing genes expressing Wnt agonist receptors and Wnt effectors. Surprisingly, Hmga1 also "builds" a stem cell niche by upregulating Sox9 , a factor required for differentiation to Paneth cells; these cells constitute an epithelial niche by secreting Wnt and other factors to support ISCs...
April 4, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608722/comparative-serum-challenges-show-divergent-patterns-of-gene-expression-and-open-chromatin-in-human-and-chimpanzee
#17
Jason Pizzollo, William J Nielsen, Yoichiro Shibata, Alexias Safi, Gregory E Crawford, Gregory A Wray, Courtney C Babbitt
Humans experience higher rates of age-associated diseases than our closest living evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees. Environmental factors can explain many of these increases in disease risk, but species-specific genetic changes can also play a role. Alleles that confer increased disease susceptibility later in life can persist in a population in the absence of selective pressure if those changes confer positive adaptation early in life. One age-associated disease that disproportionately affects humans compared with chimpanzees is epithelial cancer...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599486/usp52-acts-as-a-deubiquitinase-and-promotes-histone-chaperone-asf1a-stabilization
#18
Shangda Yang, Ling Liu, Cheng Cao, Nan Song, Yuejiao Wang, Shuai Ma, Qi Zhang, Na Yu, Xiang Ding, Fuquan Yang, Shanshan Tian, Kai Zhang, Tao Sun, Jie Yang, Zhi Yao, Shaoyuan Wu, Lei Shi
Histone chaperone ASF1A has been reported to be dysregulated in multiple tumors; however, the underlying molecular mechanism that how the abundance and function of ASF1A are regulated remains unclear. Here we report that ASF1A is physically associated with USP52, which is previously identified as a pseudo-deubiquitinase. Interestingly, we demonstrate that USP52 is a bona fide ubiquitin-specific protease, and USP52 promotes ASF1A deubiquitination and stabilization. USP52-promoted ASF1A stabilization facilitates chromatin assembly and favors cell cycle progression...
March 29, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594129/chromatin-bound-cullin-ring-ligases-regulatory-roles-in-dna-replication-and-potential-targeting-for-cancer-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Sang-Min Jang, Christophe E Redon, Mirit I Aladjem
Cullin-RING (Really Interesting New Gene) E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, are functional multi-subunit complexes including substrate receptors, adaptors, cullin scaffolds, and RING-box proteins. CRLs are responsible for ubiquitination of ~20% of cellular proteins and are involved in diverse biological processes including cell cycle progression, genome stability, and oncogenesis. Not surprisingly, cullins are deregulated in many diseases and instances of cancer. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of CRL-mediated ubiquitination in the regulation of DNA replication/repair, including specific roles in chromatin assembly and disassembly of the replication machinery...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589300/identification-of-response-elements-on-promoters-using-site-directed-mutagenesis-and-chromatin-immunoprecipitation
#20
Salah Boudjadi, Julie C Carrier, Jean-François Beaulieu
Proximal promoters are located upstream of the transcription start sites of genes, and they contain regulatory sequences on which bind different transcription factors for promoting colorectal cancer progression. Here we describe the comprehensive methodology used previously for the identification and functional characterization of MYC-responsive elements in the integrin α1 subunit (ITGA1) gene using a combination of in silico analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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