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Cancer progression chromatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107179/nuclear-prmt5-cyclin-d1-and-il-6-are-associated-with-poor-outcome-in-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients-and-is-inversely-associated-with-p16-status
#1
Bhavna Kumar, Arti Yadav, Nicole V Brown, Songzhu Zhao, Michael J Cipolla, Paul E Wakely, Alessandra C Schmitt, Robert A Baiocchi, Theodoros N Teknos, Matthew Old, Pawan Kumar
Protein arginine methyltransferase-5 (PRMT5) plays an important role in cancer progression by repressing the expression of key tumor suppressor genes via the methylation of transcriptional factors and chromatin-associated proteins. However, very little is known about the expression and biological role of PRMT5 in head and neck cancer. In this study, we examined expression profile of PRMT5 at subcellular levels in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and assessed its correlation with disease progression and patient outcome...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106510/a-drive-in-suvs-from-development-to-disease
#2
Vinay Kumar Rao, Ananya Pal, Reshma Taneja
Progression of cells through distinct phases of the cell cycle, and transition into out-of-cycling states, such as terminal differentiation and senescence, is accompanied by specific patterns of gene expression. These cell fate decisions are mediated not only by distinct transcription factors, but also chromatin modifiers that establish heritable epigenetic patterns. Lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) that mediate methylation marks on histone and non-histone proteins are now recognized as important regulators of gene expression in cycling and non-cycling cells...
January 20, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102366/aurora-kinase-a-is-a-biomarker-for-bladder-cancer-detection-and-contributes-to-its-aggressive-behavior
#3
Aaron Mobley, Shizhen Zhang, Jolanta Bondaruk, Yan Wang, Tadeusz Majewski, Nancy P Caraway, Li Huang, Einav Shoshan, Guermarie Velazquez-Torres, Giovanni Nitti, Sangkyou Lee, June Goo Lee, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Daniel Willis, Li Zhang, Charles C Guo, Hui Yao, Keith Baggerly, Yair Lotan, Seth P Lerner, Colin Dinney, David McConkey, Menashe Bar-Eli, Bogdan Czerniak
The effects of AURKA overexpression associated with poor clinical outcomes have been attributed to increased cell cycle progression and the development of genomic instability with aneuploidy. We used RNA interference to examine the effects of AURKA overexpression in human bladder cancer cells. Knockdown had minimal effects on cell proliferation but blocked tumor cell invasion. Whole genome mRNA expression profiling identified nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) as a downstream target that was repressed by AURKA...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102109/epigenetic-regulation-of-rgs2-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-2-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#4
Ercan Cacan
Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) is a GTPase-activating protein functioning as an inhibitor of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). RGS2 dysregulation was implicated in solid tumour development and RGS2 downregulation has been reported in prostate and ovarian cancer progression. However, the molecular mechanism by which RGS2 expression is suppressed in ovarian cancer remains unknown. The expression and epigenetic regulation of RGS2 in chemosensitive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells were determined by qRT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, respectively...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096468/o-glcnac-expression-levels-epigenetically-regulate-colon-cancer-tumorigenesis-by-affecting-the-cancer-stem-cell-compartment-via-modulating-expression-of-transcriptional-factor-mybl1
#5
Huabei Guo, Bing Zhang, Alison V Nairn, Tamas Nagy, Kelley W Moremen, Phillip Buckhaults, Michael Pierce
To study the regulation of colorectal adenocarcinoma progression by O-GlcNAc, we have focused on the O-GlcNAc-mediated epigenetic regulation of human colon cancer stem cells (CCSC). Xenograft tumors from colon tumor cells with OGT knockdown grew significantly slower than those formed from control cells, indicating a reduced proliferation of tumor cells due to inhibition of OGT expression. Significant reduction of CCSC population was observed in the tumor cells after OGT knockdown, while tumor cells treated with O-GlcNAcase inhibitor showed an increased CCSC population, indicating that O-GlcNAc levels regulated the CCSC compartment...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092686/epigenomic-reprogramming-during-pancreatic-cancer-progression-links-anabolic-glucose-metabolism-to-distant-metastasis
#6
Oliver G McDonald, Xin Li, Tyler Saunders, Rakel Tryggvadottir, Samantha J Mentch, Marc O Warmoes, Anna E Word, Alessandro Carrer, Tal H Salz, Sonoko Natsume, Kimberly M Stauffer, Alvin Makohon-Moore, Yi Zhong, Hao Wu, Kathryn E Wellen, Jason W Locasale, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Andrew P Feinberg
During the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), heterogeneous subclonal populations emerge that drive primary tumor growth, regional spread, distant metastasis, and patient death. However, the genetics of metastases largely reflects that of the primary tumor in untreated patients, and PDAC driver mutations are shared by all subclones. This raises the possibility that an epigenetic process might operate during metastasis. Here we report large-scale reprogramming of chromatin modifications during the natural evolution of distant metastasis...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089111/the-molecular-landscape-of-colitis-associated-carcinogenesis
#7
Deborah Saraggi, Matteo Fassan, Claudia Mescoli, Marco Scarpa, Nicola Valeri, Andrea Michielan, Renata D'Incá, Massimo Rugge
In spite of the well-established histopathological phenotyping of IBD-associated preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, their molecular landscape remains to be fully elucidated. Several studies have pinpointed the initiating role of longstanding/relapsing inflammatory insult on the intestinal mucosa, with the activation of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ), chemokines and metabolites of arachidonic acid resulting in the activation of key transcription factors such as NF-κB. Longstanding inflammation may also modify the intestinal microbiota, prompting the overgrowth of genotoxic microorganisms, which may act as further cancer promoters...
December 21, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086984/deptor-not-only-a-mtor-inhibitor
#8
REVIEW
Valeria Catena, Maurizio Fanciulli
Deptor is an important protein that belongs to the mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes, able to interact with mTOR and to inhibit its kinase activity. As a natural mTOR inhibitor, Deptor is involved in several molecular pathways, such as cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy and ER stress response. For this reason, Deptor seems to play an important role in controlling cellular homeostasis. Despite several recent insights characterizing Deptor functions and regulation, its complete role within cells has not yet been completely clarified...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079155/dietary-phytochemical-peitc-restricts-tumor-development-via-modulation-of-epigenetic-writers-and-erasers
#9
Jung Eun Park, Yang Sun, Sai Kiang Lim, James P Tam, Matthijs Dekker, Hong Chen, Siu Kwan Sze
Dietary intake of bioactive phytochemicals including the cruciferous vegetable derivative phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can reduce risk of human cancers, but possible epigenetic mechanisms of these effects are yet unknown. We therefore sought to identify the molecular basis of PEITC-mediated epigenetic tumor restriction. Colon cancer cells treated with low-dose PEITC for >1 month exhibited stable alterations in expression profile of epigenetic writers/erasers and chromatin-binding of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076901/nuclear-factor-one-transcription-factors-as-epigenetic-regulators-in-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Mitchell Fane, Lachlan Harris, Aaron G Smith, Michael Piper
Tumour heterogeneity poses a distinct obstacle to therapeutic intervention. While the initiation of tumours across various physiological systems is frequently associated with signature mutations in genes that drive proliferation and bypass senescence, increasing evidence suggests that tumour progression and clonal diversity is driven at an epigenetic level. The tumour microenvironment plays a key role in driving diversity as cells adapt to demands during tumour growth, and is thought to drive certain subpopulations back to a stem cell-like state...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069330/top2a-hells-atad2-and-tet3-are-novel-prognostic-markers-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#11
Dong Chen, Matthias Maruschke, Oliver Hakenberg, Wolfgang Zimmermann, Christian G Stief, Alexander Buchner
OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate novel prognostic marker genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that are increasingly expressed during tumor progression. METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from normal renal tissue, primary G1 and G3 tumors, 14 samples each, and 32 metastases from RCC patients. Expression profiles were created using oligonucleotide microarrays. Significant gene expression differences (p<0.05) were identified between normal kidney, primary tumor and metastases...
January 6, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057213/a-new-molecular-mechanism-underlying-the-antitumor-effect-of-dna-methylation-inhibitors-via-an-antiviral-immune-response
#12
Y Saito, T Nakaoka, H Saito
Chromatin remodeling mediated by DNA methylation and histone modifications play critical roles in the transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs, and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Many studies have shown that aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications are associated with the initiation and progression of various malignancies. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoters and histone modifications such as histone deacetylation, methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9), and trimethylation of H3K27...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052327/tissue-disruption-increases-stochastic-gene-expression-thus-producing-tumours-cancer-initiation-without-driver-mutation
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Capp
Cancer research produced many paradoxical results in recent years. The reductionist approach now shows its limits. Considering the origin of the disease at the tissue level and increased stochastic gene expression (SGE) as a driving force, while admitting a role for genetic alterations in cancer progression, might solve these contradictions. Undifferentiated cells are characterized by open and accessible chromatin generating global and highly SGE (high expression noise) which is a hallmark of pluripotency, while differentiation is associated with progressive chromatin closing and decreased noise...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050800/micro-rna-204-participates-in-tmprss2-erg-regulation-and-androgen-receptor-reprogramming-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Krassimira Todorova, Metodi V Metodiev, Gergana Metodieva, Milcho Mincheff, Nelson Fernández, Soren Hayrabedyan
Cancer progression is driven by genome instability incurred rearrangements such as transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)/v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene (ERG) that could possibly turn some of the tumor suppressor micro-RNAs into pro-oncogenic ones. Previously, we found dualistic miR-204 effects, acting either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncomiR in ERG fusion-dependent manner. Here, we provided further evidence for an important role of miR-204 for TMPRSS2/ERG and androgen receptor (AR) signaling modulation and fine tuning that prevents TMPRSS2/ERG overexpression in prostate cancer...
January 3, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040594/transcriptome-analysis-of-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-resistance-associated-long-noncoding-rna-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Pei Ma, Meiling Zhang, Fengqi Nie, Zebo Huang, Jing He, Wei Li, Liang Han
The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harbor mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can be therapeutically targeted by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), such as gefitinib, and show improved progression-free survival. However, most of the patients who are initially responsive to EGFR TKIs with activating EGFR mutations eventually develop acquired resistance after long-term therapy, and are followed by disease progression. Recently, diverse mechanisms of acquired EGFR TKI resistance have been reported, but little is known about the role of long noncoding RNAs in EGFR TKIs resistance...
December 29, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039476/the-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-as-systemic-review
#16
REVIEW
Rongzhang He, Zheng Hu, Qingmei Wang, Weihao Luo, Jia Li, Lili Duan, Yuan-Shan Zhu, Di-Xian Luo
Recent development of cutting edge research found that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) plays important roles in carcinogenesis and progression. In Southeast Asia and North Africa, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common aggressive squamous cell carcinoma. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is most frequently occurring in males. However, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is caused by a combination of several factors as viral, environmental factors, and heredity. Till now, the potential pathway or mechanism of NPC is not well known...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036278/a-novel-nonsense-mutation-in-androgen-receptor-confers-resistance-to-cyp17-inhibitor-treatment-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Dong Han, Shuai Gao, Kevin Valencia, Jude Owiredu, Wanting Han, Eric de Waal, Jill A Macoska, Changmeng Cai
The standard treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) that blocks transcriptional activity of androgen receptor (AR). However, ADT invariably leads to the development of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) with restored activity of AR. CRPC can be further treated with CYP17 inhibitors to block androgen synthesis pathways, but most patients still relapse after a year of such treatment. The mechanisms that drive this progression are not fully understood, but AR activity, at least in a subset of cancers, appears to be restored again...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036012/emerging-roles-for-ciz1-in-cell-cycle-regulation-and-as-a-driver-of-tumorigenesis
#18
REVIEW
Tekle Pauzaite, Urvi Thacker, James Tollitt, Nikki A Copeland
Precise duplication of the genome is a prerequisite for the health and longevity of multicellular organisms. The temporal regulation of origin specification, replication licensing, and firing at replication origins is mediated by the cyclin-dependent kinases. Here the role of Cip1 interacting Zinc finger protein 1 (Ciz1) in regulation of cell cycle progression is discussed. Ciz1 contributes to regulation of the G1/S transition in mammalian cells. Ciz1 contacts the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) through cell division cycle 6 (Cdc6) interactions and aids localization of cyclin A- cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity to chromatin and the nuclear matrix during initiation of DNA replication...
December 27, 2016: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018146/pancreatic-cancer-a-mis-interpreter-of-the-epigenetic-language
#19
REVIEW
Eriko Iguchi, Stephanie L Safgren, David L Marks, Rachel L Olson, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the U.S. with close to 40,000 deaths per year. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents approximately 90 percent of all pancreatic cancer cases and is the most lethal form of the disease. Current therapies for PDAC are ineffective and most patients cannot be treated by surgical resection. Most research efforts have primarily focused on how genetic alterations cause, alter progression, contribute to diagnosis, and influence PDAC management...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018136/cbx-chromodomain-inhibition-enhances-chemotherapy-response-in-glioblastoma-multiforme
#20
Katelyn E Connelly, Emily C Martin, Emily C Dykhuizen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) lacks effective therapeutic options leaving patients with a survival time of approximately one year. Recently, the alteration of chromatin modulators has been implicated in the pathogenesis and chemoresistance of numerous cancers; in particular, the Polycomb Group Proteins have been shown to play a role in glioblastoma progression and maintenance [1-5]. In this study, we aimed to identify drug combinations that decrease GBM cell viability by combining small molecule inhibitors against the Polycomb family with two standard chemotherapies...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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