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Cancer progression chromatin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812991/the-retinoblastoma-rb-tumor-suppressor-pushing-back-against-genome-instability-on-multiple-fronts
#1
REVIEW
Renier Vélez-Cruz, David G Johnson
The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor is known as a master regulator of the cell cycle. RB is mutated or functionally inactivated in the majority of human cancers. This transcriptional regulator exerts its function in cell cycle control through its interaction with the E2F family of transcription factors and with chromatin remodelers and modifiers that contribute to the repression of genes important for cell cycle progression. Over the years, studies have shown that RB participates in multiple processes in addition to cell cycle control...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812986/epigenome-aberrations-emerging-driving-factors-of-the-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Ali Mehdi, Yasser Riazalhosseini
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common form of Kidney cancer, is characterized by frequent mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene in ~85% of sporadic cases. Loss of pVHL function affects multiple cellular processes, among which the activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway is the best-known function. Constitutive activation of HIF signaling in turn activates hundreds of genes involved in numerous oncogenic pathways, which contribute to the development or progression of ccRCC...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811844/lsd1-dual-function-in-mediating-epigenetic-corruption-of-the-vitamin-d-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#3
Sebastiano Battaglia, Ellen Karasik, Bryan Gillard, Jennifer Williams, Trisha Winchester, Michael T Moser, Dominic J Smiraglia, Barbara A Foster
BACKGROUND: Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (LSD1) is a key regulator of the androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER), and LSD1 levels correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1 regulates vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity and is a mediator of 1,25(OH)2-D3 (vitamin D) action in prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: Athymic nude mice were xenografted with CWR22 cells and monitored weekly after testosterone pellet removal. Expression of LSD1 and VDR (IHC) were correlated with tumor growth using log-rank test...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807943/chromatin-associated-protein-sin3b-prevents-prostate-cancer-progression-by-inducing-senescence
#4
Anthony J Bainor, Fang-Ming Deng, Yu Wang, Peng Lee, David J Cantor, Susan K Logan, Gregory David
Distinguishing between indolent and aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) remains a priority to accurately identify patients who need therapeutic intervention. SIN3B has been implicated in the initiation of senescence in vitro Here we show that in a mouse model of prostate cancer, SIN3B provides a barrier to malignant progression. SIN3B was required for PTEN-induced cellular senescence and prevented progression to invasive PCa. Furthermore, SIN3B was downregulated in human PCa correlating with upregulation of its target genes...
August 14, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799793/towards-quantitative-analysis-of-gene-regulation-by-enhancers
#5
Ekaterina V Nizovtseva, Stefjord Todolli, Wilma K Olson, Vasily M Studitsky
Enhancers are regulatory DNA sequences that can activate transcription over large distances. Recent studies have revealed the widespread role of distant activation in eukaryotic gene regulation and in the development of various human diseases, including cancer. Here we review recent progress in the field, focusing on new experimental and computational approaches that quantify the role of chromatin structure and dynamics during enhancer-promoter interactions in vitro and in vivo.
August 11, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796262/long-noncoding-rna-crnde-promotes-colorectal-cancer-cell-proliferation-via-epigenetically-silencing-dusp5-cdkn1a-expression
#6
Jie Ding, Juan Li, HaiYan Wang, Yun Tian, Min Xie, XueZhi He, Hao Ji, Zhonghua Ma, Bingqing Hui, Keming Wang, Guozhong Ji
Evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical role in the regulation of tumor cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. LncRNA CRNDE (Colorectal Neoplasia Differentially Expressed) is located at human chromosome 16 and has been found overexpressed in a variety of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). In this paper, we report that lncRNA CRNDE expression was remarkably upregulated in CRC tissues and that lncRNA CRNDE overexpression was positively correlated with advanced pathological stages and larger tumor sizes...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777374/high-mobility-group-a1-protein-modulates-autophagy-in-cancer-cells
#7
Andrea Conte, Simona Paladino, Gaia Bianco, Dominga Fasano, Raffaele Gerlini, Mara Tornincasa, Maurizio Renna, Alfredo Fusco, Donatella Tramontano, Giovanna Maria Pierantoni
High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) is an architectural chromatin protein whose overexpression is a feature of malignant neoplasias with a causal role in cancer initiation and progression. HMGA1 promotes tumor growth by several mechanisms, including increase of cell proliferation and survival, impairment of DNA repair and induction of chromosome instability. Autophagy is a self-degradative process that, by providing energy sources and removing damaged organelles and misfolded proteins, allows cell survival under stress conditions...
August 4, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761088/shift-of-emt-gradient-in-3d-spheroid-mscs-for-activation-of-mesenchymal-niche-function
#8
Sohee Jeon, Ho-Sun Lee, Ga-Young Lee, Gyeongsin Park, Tae-Min Kim, Jihye Shin, Cheolju Lee, Il-Hoan Oh
Despite the wide use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for paracrine support in clinical trials, their variable and heterogeneous supporting activity pose major challenges. While three-dimensional (3D) MSC cultures are emerging as alternative approaches, key changes in cellular characteristics during 3D-spheroid formation remain unclear. Here, we show that MSCs in 3D spheroids undergo further progression towards the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), driven by upregulation of EMT-promoting microRNAs and suppression of EMT-inhibitory miRNAs...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759294/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-activation-promotes-ada3-acetylation-through-the-akt-p300-pathway
#9
Shashank Srivastava, Shakur Mohibi, Sameer Mirza, Hamid Band, Vimla Band
The ADA3 (Alteration/Deficiency in Activation 3) protein is an essential adaptor component of several Lysine Acetyltransferase (KAT) complexes involved in chromatin modifications. Previously, we and others have demonstrated a crucial role of ADA3 in cell cycle progression and maintenance of genomic stability. Recently, we have shown that acetylation of ADA3 is key to its role in cell cycle progression. Here, we demonstrate that AKT activation downstream of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) family proteins stimulation leads to phosphorylation of p300, which in turn promotes the acetylation of ADA3...
July 31, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759023/mecp2-a-target-of-mir-638-facilitates-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation-through-activation-of-the-mek1-2-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-by-upregulating-git1
#10
L Y Zhao, D D Tong, M Xue, H L Ma, S Y Liu, J Yang, Y X Liu, B Guo, L Ni, L Y Liu, Y N Qin, L M Wang, X G Zhao, C Huang
Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of multiple types of cancer. However, its precise role in gastric cancer (GC) and the relevant molecular mechanism remain unknown. In the present study, we found that miR-638 levels were lower in GC tissues and GC cell lines than in adjacent normal tissues and normal gastric epithelial cell lines, respectively. Low miR-638 levels were associated with poor tumor differentiation, tumor size and lymph node metastasis. MeCP2 expression levels were higher in GC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues...
July 31, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754290/molecular-epigenetic-targets-for-liver-diseases-current-challenges-and-future-prospects
#11
REVIEW
Robert Zeidler, Bruno Leonardo de Freitas Soares, Augustinus Bader, Shibashish Giri
Advanced chemotherapy fails to treat liver cancer but recent progress in understanding epigenetic modifications have witnessed promising clinical outcomes. Epigenetic alteration is the alteration of epigenomes (surrounding histone proteins) without changing the DNA sequence. Such epigenetic mechanisms include histone modifications such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation followed by changes in the genomic architecture. Current studies involving the understanding of small RNA molecules such as noncoding RNA and microRNA in modulating the chromatin architecture are explained in depth here, along with effects of some novel compounds from recent preclinical and clinical evidence...
July 25, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753574/functional-characterization-of-lysine-specific-demethylase-2-lsd2-kdm1b-in-breast-cancer-progression
#12
Lin Chen, Shauna N Vasilatos, Ye Qin, Tiffany A Katz, Chunyu Cao, Hao Wu, Nilgun Tasdemir, Kevin M Levine, Steffi Oesterreich, Nancy E Davidson, Yi Huang
Flavin-dependent histone demethylases govern histone H3K4 methylation and act as important chromatin modulators that are extensively involved in regulation of DNA replication, gene transcription, DNA repair, and heterochromatin gene silencing. While the activities of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) in facilitating breast cancer progression have been well characterized, the roles of its homolog LSD2 (KDM1B) in breast oncogenesis are relatively less understood. In this study, we showed that LSD2 protein level was significantly elevated in malignant breast cell lines compared with normal breast epithelial cell line...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741489/epigenomic-consequences-of-coding-and-noncoding-driver-mutations
#13
REVIEW
Xiaosai Yao, Manjie Xing, Wen Fong Ooi, Patrick Tan, Bin Tean Teh
Chromatin alterations are integral to the pathogenic process of cancer, as demonstrated by recent discoveries of frequent mutations in chromatin-modifier genes and aberrant DNA methylation states in different cancer types. Progress is being made on elucidating how chromatin alterations, and how proteins catalyzing these alterations, mechanistically contribute to tissue-specific tumorigenesis. In parallel, technologies enabling the genome-wide profiling of histone modifications have revealed the existence of noncoding driver genetic alterations in cancer...
October 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737823/overexpression-of-non%C3%A2-smc-condensin%C3%A2-i-complex-subunit%C3%A2-g-serves-as-a-promising-prognostic-marker-and-therapeutic-target-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Wanwei Liu, Bo Liang, Hongliang Liu, Yong Huang, Xiangbao Yin, Fan Zhou, Xin Yu, Qian Feng, Enliang Li, Zhenhong Zou, Linquan Wu
The non‑SMC condensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) that organizes the coiling topology of individual chromatids, represents an overexpressed antigen in various types of cancer, and also contributes to restructuring chromatin into rod‑shaped mitotic chromosomes and ensuring the segregation of sister chromatid during cell division. In this study, we investigated the association between NCAPG expression and the biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to further explore the potential of NCAPG as a therapeutic target...
September 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732385/the-role-of-mirna-and-lncrna-in-gastric-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Ning-Bo Hao, Ya-Fei He, Xiao-Qin Li, Kai Wang, Rui-Ling Wang
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and has the highest mortality rate worldwide. It is worthwhile to explore the mechanism of gastric cancer progression. An increasing number of studies have found that non-coding RNAs including miRNA and lncRNA play important roles in gastric cancer progression. This review summarized the role of ectopic miRNA in gastric cancer proliferation, growth, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Meantime, aberrantly expressed miRNA also received a great deal of attention as potential biomarker for gastric cancer diagnosis and therapy...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725233/g-quadruplex-in-plants-a-ubiquitous-regulatory-element-and-its-biological-relevance
#16
REVIEW
Vikas Yadav, Hemansi, Nayun Kim, Narendra Tuteja, Puja Yadav
G quadruplexes (G4) are higher-order DNA and RNA secondary structures formed by G-rich sequences that are built around tetrads of hydrogen-bonded guanine bases. Potential G4 quadruplex sequences have been identified in G-rich eukaryotic non-telomeric and telomeric genomic regions. Upon function, G4 formation is known to involve in chromatin remodeling, gene regulation and has been associated with genomic instability, genetic diseases and cancer progression. The natural role and biological validation of G4 structures is starting to be explored, and is of particular interest for the therapeutic interventions for human diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724614/nuclear-mtor-acts-as-a-transcriptional-integrator-of-the-androgen-signaling-pathway-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Étienne Audet-Walsh, Catherine R Dufour, Tracey Yee, Fatima Z Zouanat, Ming Yan, Georges Kalloghlian, Mathieu Vernier, Maxime Caron, Guillaume Bourque, Eleonora Scarlata, Lucie Hamel, Fadi Brimo, Armen G Aprikian, Jacques Lapointe, Simone Chevalier, Vincent Giguère
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling reprograms cellular metabolism to support prostate cancer (PCa) growth and survival. Another key regulator of cellular metabolism is mTOR, a kinase found in diverse protein complexes and cellular localizations, including the nucleus. However, whether nuclear mTOR plays a role in PCa progression and participates in direct transcriptional cross-talk with the AR is unknown. Here, via the intersection of gene expression, genomic, and metabolic studies, we reveal the existence of a nuclear mTOR-AR transcriptional axis integral to the metabolic rewiring of PCa cells...
July 19, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723619/a-novel-sharpin-prmt5-h3r2me1-axis-is-essential-for-lung-cancer-cell-invasion
#18
Tingxiong Fu, Xiuwei Lv, Qingzhi Kong, Changjing Yuan
SHARPIN (Shank-associated RH domain interacting protein) is the main component of the linear ubiquitin chain activation complex (LUBAC). SHARPIN is involved in regulating inflammation and cancer progression. However, whether SHARPIN plays an important role in lung cancer metastasis and the potential underlying mechanism are still unknown. Here, for the first time, we reported that SHARPIN expression is closely related to lung cancer progression. Moreover, SHARPIN plays a central role in controlling lung cancer cell metastasis...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720707/intrinsically-disordered-chromatin-protein-nupr1-binds-to-the-c-terminal-region-of-polycomb-ring1b
#19
Patricia Santofimia-Castaño, Bruno Rizzuti, Ángel L Pey, Philippe Soubeyran, Miguel Vidal, Raúl Urrutia, Juan L Iovanna, José L Neira
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, and they are often associated with diseases in humans. The protein NUPR1 is a multifunctional IDP involved in chromatin remodeling and in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer; however, the details of such functions are unknown. Polycomb proteins are involved in specific transcriptional cascades and gene silencing. One of the proteins of the Polycomb complex is the Ring finger protein 1 (RING1). RING1 is related to aggressive tumor features in multiple cancer types...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718414/epigenetics-and-cancer-stem-cells-unleashing-hijacking-and-restricting-cellular-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Elanor N Wainwright, Paola Scaffidi
Epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as key players in cancer development which affect cellular states at multiple stages of the disease. During carcinogenesis, alterations in chromatin and DNA methylation resulting from genetic lesions unleash cellular plasticity and favor oncogenic cellular reprogramming. At later stages, during cancer growth and progression, additional epigenetic changes triggered by interaction with the microenvironment modulate cancer cell phenotypes and properties, and shape tumor architecture...
May 2017: Trends in Cancer
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