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Cancer progression chromatin

Fang-Ping Xu, Yan-Hui Liu, Xin-Lan Luo, Fen Zhang, Hai-Yu Zhou, Yan Ge, Chao Liu, Jie Chen, Dong-Lan Luo, Li-Xu Yan, Ping Mei, Jie Xu, Heng-Guo Zhuang
Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, plays an important role in the genesis and progression of several cancers. However, studies investigated the role of SRC-3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are limited, and the role of SRC-3 in tumor progression remains unclear. We examined the expression of SRC-3 in 8 ESCC cell lines and 302 human ESCC tissues by qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, ESCC cell lines were subjected to proliferation and invasion assays, tumorigenicity assay, flow cytometry assay, qPCR, Western blot, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay to investigate the role of SRC-3 in cancer progression...
October 26, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Cheng-Ming Chiang
BRD4 is an epigenetic regulator and transcription cofactor whose phosphorylation by CK2 and dephosphorylation by PP2A modulates its function in chromatin targeting, factor recruitment, and cancer progression. While the bromodomains of BET family proteins, including BRD4, BRD2, BRD3 and BRDT, have been the primary targets of small compounds such as JQ1, I-BET and MS417 that show promising anticancer effects against some hematopoietic cancer and solid tumors, drug resistance upon prolonged treatment necessitates a better understanding of alternative pathways underlying not only the resistance but also persistent BET protein dependence for identifying new targets and effective combination therapy strategies...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Yi Shi, Xian-Bin Su, Kun-Yan He, Bing-Hao Wu, Bo-Yu Zhang, Ze-Guang Han
Somatic mutations of many cancer genes tend to co-occur (termed co-mutations) in certain patterns during tumor initiation and progression. However, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the co-mutations of these cancer genes have yet to be explored. Here, we systematically investigated the association between the somatic co-mutations of cancer genes and high-order chromatin conformation. Significantly, somatic point co-mutations in protein-coding genes were closely associated with high-order spatial chromatin folding...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Vincenzo Sannino, Arun M Kolinjivadi, Giorgio Baldi, Vincenzo Costanzo
The correct duplication of genetic information is essential to maintain genome stability, which is lost in cancer cells. Replication fork integrity is ensured by a number of DNA metabolism proteins that assist replication of chromatin regions difficult to replicate due to their intrinsic DNA sequence composition, coordinate repair of DNA molecules resulting from aberrant replication events or protect replication forks in the presence of lesions impairing their progression. Some DNA metabolism genes involved in DNA repair are essential in higher eukaryotes even in unchallenged conditions, suggesting the existence of biological processes requiring these specialized functions in organisms with complex genomes...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Xiang Du, Mi-Die Xu, Yiqin Wang, Wei-Wei Weng, Ping Wei, Peng Qi, Qiongyan Zhang, Cong Tan, Shujuan Ni, Lei Dong, Yusi Yang, Wanrun Lin, Qinghua Xu, Dan Huang, Zhaohui Huang, Yuqing Ma, Wei Zhang, Weiqi Sheng
PURPOSE: The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) PVT1 is an important epigenetic regulator with a critical role in human tumors. Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical application and the potential molecular mechanisms of PVT1 in gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis and progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression level of PVT1 was determined by RT-qPCR analysis in 190 pairs of GC tissues and adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissues (ANTs). The biological functions of PVT1 were assessed by in vitro and in vivo functional experiments...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Zheng Zhang, Bo Jin, Yaqiong Jin, Shengquan Huang, Xiaohua Niu, Zebin Mao, Dianqi Xin
Androgens (AR) play an important role in initiation and progression of prostate cancer. It has been shown that AR exert their effects mainly through the androgen-activated AR which binds to androgen response elements (AREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes to regulate the transcription of androgen-responsive genes, thus, identification of AR downstream target gene is critical to understand androgen function in prostate cancer. In this study, our results showed that androgen treatment of LNCaP cells induced PTTG1 expression, which was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist, Casodex...
October 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Maureen O'Sullivan
Since its foundation by remarkably talented and insightful individuals, prominently including Pepper Dehner, pediatric soft tissue tumor pathology has developed at an immense rate. The morphologic classification of tumoral entities has extensively been corroborated, but has also evolved with refinement or realignment of these classifications, through accruing molecular data, with many derivative ancillary diagnostic assays now already well-established. Tumors of unclear histogenesis, classically morphologically undifferentiated, are prominent amongst pediatric sarcomas, however, the classes of undifferentiated round- or spindle-cell-tumors-not-otherwise-specified are being dismantled gradually with the identification of their molecular underpinnings...
September 5, 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Domenico Albino, Gianluca Civenni, Simona Rossi, Abhishek Mitra, Carlo V Catapano, Giuseppina M Carbone
Metastatic prostate cancer represents a yet unsolved clinical problem due to the high frequency of relapse and treatment resistance. Understanding the pathways that lead to prostate cancer progression is an important task to prevent this deadly disease. The ETS transcription factor ESE3/EHF has an important role in differentiation of human prostate epithelial cells. Loss of ESE3/EHF in prostate epithelial cells determines transformation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquisition of stem-like properties...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Lei Liu, Xihe Zhao, Huawei Zou, Rubing Bai, Keyu Yang, Zhong Tian
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activates the transcription of genes involved in cancer progression. Recently, HIF was reported to regulate the transcription of non-coding RNAs. Here, we show that the transcription of a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), Gastric Adenocarcinoma Associated, Positive CD44 Regulator, Long Intergenic Non-Coding RNA (GAPLINC), is directly activated by HIF-1α in gastric cancer (GC). GAPLINC was overexpressed in GC tissues and promoted tumor migration and invasive behavior. GAPLINC overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in GC patients...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Lina Yu, Jun Ma, Jichun Han, Bo Wang, Xiaoyu Chen, Caixia Gao, Defang Li, Qiusheng Zheng
BACKGROUND: Recently patent of Licochalcone B (LCB) as Anti-inflammatory agent has been developed. Emerging evidence showed that Licochalcone B (LCB) could be a promising alternative compound with anti-cancer activities. However, the anti-cancer mechanism of LCB in MCF-7 cells has not been fully investigated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to unearth the anti-cancer effects and mechanism of LCB in breast cancer cells. METHOD: Cell proliferation and cell cycle were determined by sulforhodamine B assay and flow cytometry, respectively...
September 5, 2016: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Ewa M Michalak, Jane E Visvader
Histone methyltransferases (HMTs) catalyze the methylation of lysine and arginine residues on histone tails and non-histone targets. These important post-translational modifications are exquisitely regulated and affect chromatin compaction and transcriptional programs leading to diverse biological outcomes. There is accumulating evidence that genetic alterations of several HMTs impinge on oncogenic or tumor-suppressor functions and influence both cancer initiation and progression. HMTs therefore represent an opportunity for therapeutic targeting in those patients with tumors in which HMTs are dysregulated, to reverse the histone marks and transcriptional programs associated with aggressive tumor behavior...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Oncology
Peng Mao, John J Wyrick, Steven A Roberts, Michael J Smerdon
UV radiation induces photolesions that distort the DNA double helix and, if not repaired, can cause severe biological consequences, including mutagenesis or cell death. In eukaryotes, both the formation and repair of UV damage occur in the context of chromatin, in which genomic DNA is packaged with histones into nucleosomes and higher-order chromatin structures. Here, we review how chromatin impacts the formation of UV photoproducts in eukaryotic cells. We describe the initial discovery that nucleosomes and other DNA-binding proteins induce characteristic 'photofootprints' during the formation of UV photoproducts...
September 26, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Anna-Karin Olsson, Jessica Cedervall
It has become increasingly clear that circulating immune cells in the body have a major impact on cancer development, progression, and outcome. The role of both platelets and neutrophils as independent regulators of various processes in cancer has been known for long, but it has quite recently emerged that the platelet-neutrophil interplay is yet a critical component to take into account during malignant disease. It was reported a few years ago that neutrophils in mice with cancer have increased propensity to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) - web-like structures formed by externalized chromatin and secreted proteases...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Ladan Delphi, Houri Sepehri
PURPOSE: Increase in the number of cancer related deaths has made the study on developing new drugs and treatments essential. One of the main aims in developing new therapies is to use natural resources which have the ability to induce apoptosis. Pectin is one of these natural compounds, a complex polysaccharide found in apples with anti-cancer properties. The aim of this study was to examine anti-cancer properties of pectic acid both in vitro in 4T1 breast cancer cells and in vivo using an animal model of breast cancer...
September 30, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Seong-Min Park, Eun-Young Choi, Mingyun Bae, Sunshin Kim, Jong Bae Park, Heon Yoo, Jung Kyoon Choi, Youn-Jae Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee, In-Hoo Kim
Although several somatic single nucleotide variations in histone H3.3 have been investigated as cancer drivers, other types of aberration have not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of H3F3A, encoding H3.3, is associated with lung cancer progression and promotes lung cancer cell migration by activating metastasis-related genes. H3.3 globally activates gene expression through the occupation of intronic regions in lung cancer cells. Moreover, H3.3 binding regions show characteristics of regulatory DNA elements...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
Xiaokang Wei, Chuanshun Wang, Chunhui Ma, Wei Sun, Haoqing Li, Zhendong Cai
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignancy of bone. Intratumoral hypoxia occurs in many solid tumors, where it is associated with the development of aggressive phenotype. ANRIL has been shown to be a long noncoding RNA that facilitates the progression of a number of malignancies. Yet, few studies have explored the expression pattern of ANRIL in osteosarcoma and the effect of hypoxia on ANRIL. METHODS: We evaluated the expression levels of ANRIL in osteosarcoma tissues, adjacent normal tissues and cells with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2016: Cancer Cell International
Marjo Malinen, Einari A Niskanen, Minna U Kaikkonen, Jorma J Palvimo
Inflammatory processes and androgen signaling are critical for the growth of prostate cancer (PC), the most common cancer among males in Western countries. To understand the importance of potential interplay between pro-inflammatory and androgen signaling for gene regulation, we have interrogated the crosstalk between androgen receptor (AR) and NF-κB, a key transcriptional mediator of inflammatory responses, by utilizing genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and global run-on sequencing in PC cells...
September 26, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Jinumary Mathai, Smriti P K Mittal, Aftab Alam, Payal Ranade, Devraj Mogare, Sonal Patel, Smita Saxena, Suvankar Ghorai, Abhijeet P Kulkarni, Samit Chattopadhyay
Chromatin architecture and dynamics are regulated by various histone and non-histone proteins. The matrix attachment region binding proteins (MARBPs) play a central role in chromatin organization and function through numerous regulatory proteins. In the present study, we demonstrate that nuclear matrix protein SMAR1 orchestrates global gene regulation as determined by massively parallel ChIP-sequencing. The study revealed that SMAR1 binds to T(C/G) repeat and targets genes involved in diverse biological pathways...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Izabela Papiewska-Pająk, Maria A Kowalska, Joanna Boncela
Inhibition of E-cadherin gene expression by transcription factor SNAIL is known to be a crucial element of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition; EMT. Epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin expression is regulated by SNAIL binding to E-box sequences in the CDH1 gene promoter and recruiting enzymes belonging to repressor complexes that are directly engaged in histone modifications and DNA methylation leading to the modification of chromatin structure. SNAIL involvement in cell acquisition of invasive phenotype is based on direct suppression of tight-junction and gap junction proteins...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Pilar Santisteban
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy giving rise to one of the most indolent solid cancers, but also one of the most lethal. In recent years, systematic studies of the cancer genome, most importantly those derived from The Cancer Genome Altas (TCGA), have catalogued aberrations in the DNA, chromatin, and RNA of the genomes of thousands of tumors relative to matched normal cellular genomes and have analyzed their epigenetic and protein consequences. Cancer genomics is therefore providing new information on cancer development and behavior, as well as new insights into genetic alterations and molecular pathways...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
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