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Linagliptin AND sitagliptin

Se Hee Park, Joo Young Nam, Eugene Han, Yong-Ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Beom Seok Kim, Bong-Soo Cha, Chul Sik Kim, Eun Seok Kang
Hyperglycemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are undergoing dialysis. Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been widely used in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with T2DM, there are few studies on their efficacy in this population. We studied the effect of 3 different DPP-4 inhibitors on metabolic parameters in ESRD patients with T2DM.Two hundred ESRD patients with T2DM who were treated with DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, or linagliptin) were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Merlin C Thomas, Päivi M Paldánius, Rajeev Ayyagari, Siew Hwa Ong, Per-Henrik Groop
INTRODUCTION: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and renal impairment (RI). A systematic literature review was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with T2DM and RI. METHODS: We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (cut-off, June 2015) to identify ≥12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on DPP-4 inhibitors in ≥50 patients with T2DM and RI...
September 2016: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Abigail Tebboth, Sally Lee, Anna Scowcroft, Paula Bingham-Gardiner, Will Spencer, John Bolodeoku, Syed Wasi Hassan
PURPOSE: The majority of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) will develop chronic kidney disease in their lifetime. Because most dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors require dose adjustment in patients with T2DM and renal impairment, we aimed to understand how these treatments are prescribed in UK clinical practice, and to determine whether recommended dose adjustments are being made at initial prescription. METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive cohort study analyzed data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)...
August 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Naofumi Mukaida, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves a large number of chemokine and peptide hormones involved in the regulation of the immune system. Additionally, DPP-4 may also be involved in macrophage-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of linagliptin, an inhibitor of DPP-4, on macrophage migration and polarization in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DPP-4(+) macrophages in lean and obese mice were quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis...
October 2016: Diabetes
Xueying Tan
Omarigliptin is a new once-weekly dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is indicated to have favorable effects on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postmeal plasma glucose. It potently but reversibly inhibits DPP-4 enzyme, which prolongs the circulating half-life of glucagon-like peptide-1 that increases insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Benefiting from glucose-dependent insulin secretion, omarigliptin is associated with low risk of hypoglycemia...
July 2, 2016: Endocrine
Jennifer Cai, Yuexi Wang, Onur Baser, Lin Xie, Wing Chow
OBJECTIVES: Non-adherence and non-persistence to anti-hyperglycemic agents are associated with worse clinical and economic outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated treatment persistence and adherence across newer anti-hyperglycemic agents (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, liraglutide, or exenatide). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of Truven Health Analytics Marketscan databases included adult patients with type 2 diabetes whose first pharmacy claim for a newer anti-hyperglycemic agent was between February 1, 2014 and July 31, 2014...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
Jazlina Liza Jamaluddin, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Shireene Ratna Vethakkan
AIM: To determine the clinical and genetic predictors of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor treatment response in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. PATIENTS & METHODS: DPP4, WFS1 and KCNJ11 gene polymorphisms were genotyped in a cohort study of 662 T2DM patients treated with DPP-4 inhibitors sitagliptin, vildagliptin or linagliptin. Genotyping was performed by Applied Biosystems TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. RESULTS: Patients with triglyceride levels less than 1...
June 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Wen-Lian Wu, Jinsong Hao, Martin Domalski, Duane A Burnett, Dmitri Pissarnitski, Zhiqiang Zhao, Andrew Stamford, Giovanna Scapin, Ying-Duo Gao, Aileen Soriano, Terri M Kelly, Zuliang Yao, Mary Ann Powles, Shiying Chen, Hong Mei, Joyce Hwa
In our efforts to develop second generation DPP-4 inhibitors, we endeavored to identify distinct structures with long-acting (once weekly) potential. Taking advantage of X-ray cocrystal structures of sitagliptin and other DPP-4 inhibitors, such as alogliptin and linagliptin bound to DPP-4, and aided by molecular modeling, we designed several series of heterocyclic compounds as initial targets. During their synthesis, an unexpected chemical transformation provided a novel tricyclic scaffold that was beyond our original design...
May 12, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
G Penno, M Garofolo, S Del Prato
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). About 20% of patients with T2DM have CKD of stage ≥ 3; up to 40% have some degree of CKD. Beyond targeting all renal risk factors together, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers are to date the only effective mainstay for the treatment of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Indeed, several potentially nephroprotective agents have been in use, which have been unsuccessful. Some glucose-lowering agents, including dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), have shown promising results...
May 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Enzo Bonora, Massimo Cigolini
AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the greatest burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in terms of morbility, mortality and costs for individuals and societies. Therefore, its prevention is a major goal in diabetes care. Optimal treatment of hyperglycemia is certainly instrumental to CVD prevention. Optimal treatment means both establishing the most appropriate glycemic target for the given individual and selecting the medication(s) with the most favourable benefit/safety ratio...
April 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
P S Suresh, Nuggehally R Srinivas, Ramesh Mullangi
Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is an emerging therapeutic approach for treating type 2 diabetes and has revolutionized the concept of diabetes management. Sitagliptin is the first approved orally active, potent, selective and nonpeptidomimetic DPP4 inhibitor. Incidence of hypoglycemia and weight gain is negligible with sitagliptin treatment. It is used as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-diabetic drugs to treat type 2 diabetes. There are numerous bioanalytical methods published for the analysis of sitagliptin in preclinical and clinical samples...
May 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Xiaoyan Zhong, Dan Lai, Yun Ye, Xuping Yang, Bin Yu, Yilan Huang
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin (EMPA) as add-on to metformin (MET) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Randomized controlled trials of EMPA as add-on to MET for T2DM were included. Two investigators independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. A meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.3 software and Stata 12 software...
June 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Sen Shi, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 plays an important role in endothelial cell biology. We have shown that the DPP-4 inhibitor Linagliptin can inhibit the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and ameliorate diabetic kidney fibrosis associated with the suppression of DPP-4 protein levels via the induction of miR-29. The current study demonstrated that such effects of Linagliptin on endothelial cell profibrotic programs were drug-specific but not class effects. In the cell-free system, both Linagliptin and Sitagliptin inhibited recombinant DPP-4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner...
February 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Baptist Gallwitz
This chapter deals with novel therapeutic approaches, predominantly for type 2 diabetes. Incretin-based therapies utilize the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which stimulates insulin and inhibits glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Incretin-based therapies comprise injectable GLP-1 receptor agonists and orally active dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors. Both have a low hypoglycaemia risk. GLP-1 receptor agonists (exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, albiglutide) reduce glycated haemoglobin levels more effectively than oral antidiabetic agents do and lead to weight loss as well as a slight decrease in systolic blood pressure...
2016: Endocrine Development
Yuki Tanaka, Shinji Kume, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Hisazumi Araki, Shin-ichi Araki, Satoshi Ugi, Takeshi Sugaya, Takashi Uzu, Hiroshi Maegawa
Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, a new class of antidiabetic agent, have recently been suggested to exert pleiotropic effects beyond glucose lowering. Renal prognosis in patients with diabetic nephropathy depends on the severity of tubulointerstitial injury induced by massive proteinuria. We thus examined the renoprotective effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on inflammation in cultured mouse proximal tubular cells stimulated with free fatty acid (FFA)-bound albumin. Linagliptin and higher concentrations of sitagliptin, vildagliptin, and alogliptin all inhibited FFA-bound albumin-induced increases in mRNA expression of MCP-1 in cultured mouse proximal tubular cells...
February 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jaehyun Bae, Min Jung Lee, Eun Yeong Choe, Chang Hee Jung, Hye Jin Wang, Myoung Soo Kim, Yu Seun Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Eun Seok Kang
BACKGROUND: The use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors is increasing among renal transplant patients with diabetes. However, the glucose-lowering efficacies of various DPP-4 inhibitors and their effects on blood cyclosporine levels have not been fully investigated. We compared the glucose-lowering efficacies of DPP 4 inhibitors and evaluate their effects on the blood levels of cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients with diabetes. METHODS: Sixty-five renal allograft recipients who received treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, or linagliptin) following kidney transplant were enrolled...
March 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jang Won Son, Sungrae Kim
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors have been touted as promising antihyperglycemic agents due to their beneficial effects on glycemia without inducing hypoglycemia or body weight gain and their good tolerability. Beyond their glucose-lowering effects, numerous clinical trials and experimental studies have suggested that DPP4 inhibitors may exert cardioprotective effects through their pleiotropic actions via glucagon-like peptide 1-dependent mechanisms or involving other substrates. Since 2008, regulatory agencies have required an assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) safety for the approval of all new anti-hyperglycemic agents, including incretin-based therapies...
October 2015: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Yun-Zhao Tang, Gang Wang, Zhen-Huan Jiang, Tian-Tian Yan, Yi-Jun Chen, Min Yang, Ling-Ling Meng, Yan-Juan Zhu, Chen-Guang Li, Zhu Li, Ping Yu, Chang-Lin Ni
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the three dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, and linagliptin) as add-on therapy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)inadequately controlled on dual combination of insulin and metformin or acarbose. METHODS: A total of 535 T2DM patients who failed to achieve glycemic control with insulin and a traditional oral hypoglycemic agent were randomized to receive vildagliptin, sitagliptin, or linagliptin...
2015: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Angela K Nagel, Nabila Ahmed-Sarwar, Paul M Werner, Gabriela C Cipriano, Robbert P Van Manen, Jack E Brown
BACKGROUND: To date, there is limited literature regarding the association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and pancreatic carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To describe the comparative incidence of DPP-4 inhibitors and pancreatic carcinoma as reportedly available in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. The goal was to provide health care practitioners a general understanding of the drug-disease occurrence. METHODS: This is a case/noncase study utilizing Empirica Signal software to query FAERS from November 1968 to December 31, 2013...
January 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Gina Ryan
OBJECTIVES: Management of cardiovascular (CV) risk is an essential aspect of diabetes care, and acceptable CV risk is a requirement for antidiabetes medications. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors effectively reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a low risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. The purpose of this review is to discuss the use of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CV disease or risk factors. METHODS: A PubMed search (January 2013-June 2015) was conducted to identify prospective trials, meta-analyses, pooled analyses and cohort studies evaluating CV outcomes with DPP-4 inhibitors...
2015: Postgraduate Medicine
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