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Ketamine therapy

Mark J Millan, Jean-Michel Rivet, Alain Gobert
The highly-interconnected and neurochemically-rich frontal cortex plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood and cognition, domains disrupted in depression and other central nervous system disorders, and it is an important site of action for their therapeutic control. For improving our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the frontal cortex, and for identifying improved treatments, quantification of extracellular pools of neuromodulators by microdialysis in freely-moving rodents has proven indispensable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Maria Jenelyn M Alviar, Tom Hale, Monalisa Dungca
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 12, 2011. Phantom limb pain (PLP) is pain that arises in the missing limb after amputation and can be severe, intractable, and disabling. Various medications have been studied in the treatment of phantom pain. There is currently uncertainty in the optimal pharmacologic management of PLP. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to summarise the evidence of effectiveness of pharmacologic interventions in treating PLP...
October 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Agnieszka Potasiewicz, Małgorzata Hołuj, Tomasz Kos, Piotr Popik, Hugo R Arias, Agnieszka Nikiforuk
The cognitive impairments and negative symptoms experienced by schizophrenia patients still await effective treatment. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) have gain considerable attention in this regard. It has been recently proposed that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nAChRs may represent an alternative strategy to that based on orthosteric agonists. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of PAM-2 (3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide) against cognitive deficits and negative-like symptoms in a rat model of schizophrenia based on administration of ketamine, a NMDAR antagonist...
October 4, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Ayman E Eskander, Nevine R El Baroudy, Amira S El Refay
BACKGROUND: Moderate sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy has traditionally been provided by the endoscopist. Controversy has ensued over safe and efficient sedation practice as endoscopy has increased in numbers and complexity. AIM: To evaluate the safety of ketamine sedation given by non-anesthesiologist during gastrointestinal endoscopy in children. METHODS: A prospective study of 100 paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who were a candidate for upper or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy in paediatric endoscopy unit at Abo El-Reesh Paediatric Hospital, Cairo University...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Gabriel Rudd-Barnard, Agnes S Wallbom, Sanjog Pangarkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Sara Razmjou, Darcy Litteljohn, Chris Rudyk, Shuaib Syed, Melanie Clarke, Rowan Pentz, Zach Dwyer, Shawn Hayley
Approximately one-third of patients with major depressive disorders (MDDs) are resistant to current treatment methods, and the majority of cases relapse at some point during therapy. This has resulted in novel treatments being adopted, including subanesthetic doses of ketamine, which affects aberrant neuroplastic circuits, glutamatergic signaling, and the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Ketamine rapidly relieves depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder patients with effects that last for up to 2 weeks even after a single administration...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
D M Rotroff, D G Corum, A Motsinger-Reif, O Fiehn, N Bottrel, W C Drevets, J Singh, G Salvadore, R Kaddurah-Daouk
Ketamine, at sub-anesthetic doses, is reported to rapidly decrease depression symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Many patients do not respond to currently available antidepressants, (for example, serotonin reuptake inhibitors), making ketamine and its enantiomer, esketamine, potentially attractive options for treatment-resistant MDD. Although mechanisms by which ketamine/esketamine may produce antidepressant effects have been hypothesized on the basis of preclinical data, the neurobiological correlates of the rapid therapeutic response observed in patients receiving treatment have not been established...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Dong Li, Hongjie Yuan, Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez, Eric D Marsh, Lifeng Tian, Elizabeth M McCormick, Gabrielle J Kosobucki, Wenjuan Chen, Anthony J Schulien, Rosetta Chiavacci, Anel Tankovic, Claudia Naase, Frieder Brueckner, Celina von Stülpnagel-Steinbeis, Chun Hu, Hirofumi Kusumoto, Ulrike B S Hedrich, Gina Elsen, Konstanze Hörtnagel, Elias Aizenman, Johannes R Lemke, Hakon Hakonarson, Stephen F Traynelis, Marni J Falk
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are ligand-gated cation channels that mediate excitatory synaptic transmission. Genetic mutations in multiple NMDAR subunits cause various childhood epilepsy syndromes. Here, we report a de novo recurrent heterozygous missense mutation-c.1999G>A (p.Val667Ile)-in a NMDAR gene previously unrecognized to harbor disease-causing mutations, GRIN2D, identified by exome and candidate panel sequencing in two unrelated children with epileptic encephalopathy. The resulting GluN2D p...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Lauren K Dunn, Bhiken I Naik, Edward C Nemergut, Marcel E Durieux
Craniotomy pain may be severe and is often undertreated. Pain management following craniotomy is a balancing act of achieving adequate analgesia but avoiding sedation, respiratory depression, hypercapnia, nausea and vomiting, and hypertension. Opioids are a first-line analgesic therapy; however, concern that opioid-related adverse effects (sedation, respiratory depression) may interfere with neurologic assessment and increase intracranial pressure has limited use of these drugs for intracranial surgery. Non-opioid analgesics avoid these effects and may be useful as part of a multimodal regimen for post-craniotomy pain...
October 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Helena M Abelaira, Gislaine Z Réus, Zuleide M Ignácio, Maria Augusta B Dos Santos, Airam B de Moura, Danyela Matos, Júlia P Demo, Júlia B I da Silva, Lucineia G Danielski, Fabricia Petronilho, André F Carvalho, João Quevedo
Studies indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), oxidative stress, and inflammation are involved in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been identified as a novel MDD therapy; however, the antidepressant mechanism is not fully understood. In addition, the effects of ketamine after mTOR inhibition have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we examined the behavioral and biochemical effects of ketamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens after inhibition of mTOR signaling in the PFC...
September 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Dawn F Ionescu, George I Papakostas
Traditional antidepressant medications generally take weeks-to-months to achieve effect. However, the breakthrough finding of ketamine's rapidly acting antidepressant properties has inspired a decade-and-a-half of progress towards the identification of treatments that work quickly-within hours-to-days. This paradigm-shift in the discovery of antidepressant therapies has significantly changed the current landscape of antidepressant drug development. Building on this, the current review briefly highlights the recent trends in research towards identifying rapidly-acting antidepressants...
June 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Sajjad Muhammad, Oliver Planz, Markus Schwaninger
BACKGROUND: Thrombolysis is the only approved therapy for acute stroke. However, life-threatening complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can develop after intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Both infection and thrombolysis during cerebral ischemia disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). tPA can induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is known to be involved in BBB disruption. However, it has still not been investigated whether preexisting influenza virus infection during thrombolysis after acute stroke affects systemic levels of MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1 and whether increased systemic MMP-9 levels affect ICH...
2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
Ashley K Losing, Justin M Jones, Adis Keric, Steven E Briggs, David D Leedahl
Ketamine is a promising alternative agent for pain control that offers benefit to traditional strategies, particularly in the setting of rib fracture. Current pharmacologic therapies have clear adverse effects, and other options may be invasive, cost prohibitive, or marginally effective. We describe three consecutive patients with traumatic injuries including rib fracture for which a ketamine infusion was utilized as part of their pain control strategy.  For each patient, use of a ketamine infusion trended toward reduced opioid requirements with stable pain scores...
July 2016: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Hamid Nasri, Zahra Hasanpour, Mehdi Nematbakhsh, Ali Ahmadi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
BACKGROUND: Recent retrospective observational studies suggest that high-potency statin therapy might increase the risk of acute kidney injury, however data on this subject is scares. OBJECTIVES: This study, was designed to investigate the renal tubular cell effect of different doses of atorvastatin to detect the possible aggravation of renal function or morphology of the kidney. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study 24 male Wistar rats were designated into 4 equal groups and treated as follows...
July 2016: Journal of Nephropathology
Jerome Niquet, Roger Baldwin, Keith Norman, Lucie Suchomelova, Lucille Lumley, Claude G Wasterlain
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacoresistance remains an unsolved therapeutic challenge in status epilepticus (SE) and in cholinergic SE induced by nerve agent intoxication. SE triggers a rapid internalization of synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptors and externalization of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that may explain the loss of potency of standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We hypothesized that a drug combination aimed at correcting the consequences of receptor trafficking would reduce SE severity and its long-term consequences...
September 2016: Epilepsia
Kevin M Swiatek, Kim Jordan, Julie Coffman
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a disabling disorder that can interfere with a patient's capacity to understand and participate in medical care and thus negatively impact individual morbidity and mortality. Hospitalised patients with TRD may require rapid alleviation of severe symptomatology, particularly when suicidal or if unable to participate in care decisions. Ketamine is well known for its anaesthetic effects and its use as a 'street' drug; however, its action as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist makes ketamine a potential therapy for TRD...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Philippe Dillien, Susana Ferrao Santos, Vincent van Pesch, Vanessa Suin, Sophie Lamoral, Philippe Hantson
A 27-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital with recurrent seizures. Status epilepticus developed that became refractory to third-line therapy with propofol and barbiturates. The patient had a very extensive diagnostic workup including autoimmune, viral and genetic investigations. A tentative immune therapy was proposed with high doses of steroids and plasma exchanges. Our patient had an inherited heterozygous single nucleotide variant in the sequence c.1280A>G [p.Lys427Arg] of the SMC3 gene that was insufficient to explain the seizures...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Ashraf F Hanna, Josh S Armstrong, Adam J Smith
A patient reported to the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, Fla., USA) with severe lichen sclerosus of the anogenital region and legs. The patient's pain presentation was neuropathic with hypersensitivity, allodynia, swelling, and weakness. The patient had failed multiple pain management modalities including opioid therapy, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. The patient completed a standard intravenous ketamine infusion regimen developed at the Florida Spine Institute and reported complete abolishment of her pain syndrome...
May 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
Meghan Watson, Mohamad Sawan, Numa Dancause
Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles...
2016: PloS One
Alicia Mirás Veiga, David Conejo Moreno, Ana Isabel Gómez Menéndez, Ignacio Muñoz Siscart, Marta Del Olmo Fernández, Esteban Gómez Sánchez, María García González, Fernando Gómez Sáez
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a rare condition which evolves into refractory status epilepticus (SE), with poor outcome in most cases. Conventional antiepileptic drugs fail to control SE in FIRES patients. We report the case of a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who was diagnosed with FIRES. One week after pharyngitis and high fever he started seizures, followed by refractory SE. Benzodiazepines, phenytoin, high-dose barbiturates that induce burst suppression, high doses of corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, immunoglobulins, propofol, lidocaine, ketamine, inhaled desflurane, ketogenic diet, lacosamide, and therapeutic hypothermia were tried at different times in a period of 8 weeks, but all of them were ineffective...
July 19, 2016: Neuropediatrics
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