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Vasilis Dandikas, Hauke Heuwinkel, Fabian Lichti, Jörg E Drewes, Konrad Koch
The objectives of this study were to assess and validate previously published prediction models with an independent dataset and to expose the power and limitations of linear regression models for predicting biomethane potential. Two datasets were used for the validation, one with all individual samples and one with the average values of each cultivar. The results revealed similar performances of all four models for the individual samples. The methane yields of the cultivars were predicted more accurately than the methane yields of the individual samples...
June 12, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Susana R Cerqueira, Yee-Shuan Lee, Robert C Cornelison, Michaela W Mertz, Rebecca A Wachs, Christine E Schmidt, Mary Bartlett Bunge
Schwann cell (SC) transplantation has been comprehensively studied as a strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. SCs are neuroprotective and promote axon regeneration and myelination. Nonetheless, substantial SC death occurs post-implantation, which limits therapeutic efficacy. The use of extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived matrices, such as Matrigel, supports transplanted SC survival and axon growth, resulting in improved motor function. Because appropriate matrices are needed for clinical translation, we test here the use of an acellular injectable peripheral nerve (iPN) matrix...
May 28, 2018: Biomaterials
Lucía Vaquero, Neus Ramos-Escobar, Clément François, Virginia Penhune, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Music learning has received increasing attention in the last decades due to the variety of functions and brain plasticity effects involved during its practice. Most previous reports interpreted the differences between music experts and laymen as the result of training. However, recent investigations suggest that these differences are due to a combination of genetic predispositions with the effect of music training. Here, we tested the relationship of the dorsal auditory-motor pathway with individual behavioural differences in short-term music learning...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Erin M Harvey, Eileen R McGrath, Joseph M Miller, Amy L Davis, J Daniel Twelker, Leslie K Dennis
PURPOSE: To determine whether uncorrected astigmatism in toddlers is associated with poorer performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (BSITD-III). METHODS: Subjects were 12- to 35-month-olds who failed an instrument-based vision screening at a well-child check. A cycloplegic eye examination was conducted. Full-term children with no known medical or developmental conditions were invited to participate in a BSITD-III assessment conducted by an examiner masked to the child's eye examination results...
June 18, 2018: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
M Kent, S Scott, S Lambert, E Kirk, B Terhune-Cotter, B Thompson, S Neal, B Dozier, M Bardi, K Lambert
Prior research with a rat model of behavioral therapy [i.e., effort-based reward (EBR) contingency training] suggests that strengthened associations between physical effort and desired outcomes enhance neurobiological indices of resilience. In the current study, male and female Long-Evans rats were exposed to either six weeks of EBR training or noncontingent training prior to 10 days of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to a problem-solving task and then trained in a spatial learning/foraging task, the dry land maze (DLM)...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience
Andreas V Copan, Alexander Yu Sokolov
We present a linear-response formulation of density cumulant theory (DCT) that provides a balanced and accurate description of many electronic states simultaneously. In the original DCT formulation, only information about a single electronic state (usually, the ground state) is obtained. We discuss the derivation of linear-response DCT, present its implementation for the ODC-12 method (LR-ODC-12), and benchmark its performance for excitation energies in small molecules (N2 , CO, HCN, HNC, C2 H2 , and H2 CO), as well as challenging excited states in ethylene, butadiene, and hexatriene...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Joanna Miller, Daniel Katz
Background: Medical education is moving toward gender parity; however, many fields, including anesthesiology, remain predominantly male. The gender gap in anesthesiology is poorly recognized, and little is known about why it exists. It is possible that perceived workplace discrimination may deter women from pursuing a career in anesthesiology. We administered a survey to examine whether gender differences affect the experience of anesthesiology residents in the workplace. Methods: This study consisted of an analysis of responses to a survey administered in 2017 via REDCap to residents at an ACGME-accredited anesthesiology training program...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
Kyung Woo Kim, Ho Chan Lim, Jae Hee Park, Sang Gyu Park, Ye Jin Park, Hm Hak Cho
Background: Organizations are pursing complex and diverse aims to generate higher profits. Many workers experience high work intensity such as workload and work pressure in this organizational environment. Especially, psychological burden is a commonly used term in workplace of Republic of Korea. This study focused on defining the psychological burden from the perspective of occupational safety and health and tried to develop a scale for psychological burden. Methods: The 48 preliminary questionnaire items for psychological burden were prepared by a focus group interview with 16 workers through the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II and Mindful Awareness Attention Scale...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Reza Kazemi, Majid Motamedzade, Rostam Golmohammadi, Hamidreza Mokarami, Rasoul Hemmatjo, Rashid Heidarimoghadam
Background: Night shift work is associated with many problems such as sleep deprivation, sleepiness, decreased cognitive performance, increased human errors, and fatigue. This study set out to measure cognitive performance, melatonin rhythms, and sleep after different consecutive night shifts (7 vs. 4) among control room operators (CORs). Methods: The participants included 60 CORs with a mean age of 30.2 years (standard deviation, 2.0) from a petrochemical complex located in Southern Iran...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Ryan Scott, Aibin Zhan, Emily A Brown, Frédéric J J Chain, Melania E Cristescu, Robin Gras, Hugh J MacIsaac
Genetic taxonomic assignment can be more sensitive than morphological taxonomic assignment, particularly for small, cryptic or rare species. Sequence processing is essential to taxonomic assignment, but can also produce errors because optimal parameters are not known a priori. Here, we explored how sequence processing parameters influence taxonomic assignment of 18S sequences from bulk zooplankton samples produced by 454 pyrosequencing. We optimized a sequence processing pipeline for two common research goals, estimation of species richness and early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS), and then tested most optimal models' performances through simulations...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Valentin Senft, Terrence C Stewart, Trevor Bekolay, Chris Eliasmith, Bernd J Kröger
Background: Parkinson's disease affects many motor processes including speech. Besides drug treatment, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) has developed as an effective therapy. Goal: We present a neural model that simulates a syllable repetition task and evaluate its performance when varying the level of dopamine in the striatum, and the level of activity reduction in the STN or GPi. Method: The Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) is used to build a model of syllable sequencing through a cortico-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Tu-Son Nguyen, Thi Lien Huong Nguyen, Thi Thuy Van Pham, Susan Hua, Quy Chau Ngo, Shu Chuen Li
Background: Incorrect use of inhalers is very common and subsequently leads to poor control of COPD. Among health care providers, pharmacists are in the best position to educate patients about the correct use of inhaler devices. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led training on the improvement of inhaler technique for COPD patients in Vietnam. Patients and methods: For this pre- and post-intervention study, standardized checklists of correct use of metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were used to evaluate the inhaler technique...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Alexander Kirpich, Elizabeth A Ainsworth, Jessica M Wedow, Jeremy R B Newman, George Michailidis, Lauren M McIntyre
In omics experiments, variable selection involves a large number of metabolites/ genes and a small number of samples (the n < p problem). The ultimate goal is often the identification of one, or a few features that are different among conditions- a biomarker. Complicating biomarker identification, the p variables often contain a correlation structure due to the biology of the experiment making identifying causal compounds from correlated compounds difficult. Additionally, there may be elements in the experimental design (blocks, batches) that introduce structure in the data...
2018: PloS One
Chani Tromop-van Dalen, Katie Thorne, Krystina Common, Garrick Edge, Lisa Woods
AIM: To investigate junior doctors' knowledge of how to conduct the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). METHODS: A two-part questionnaire was administered to junior doctors at teaching sessions across three New Zealand district health boards. Part 1 investigated prior experience and knowledge of the MoCA. Part 2 tested junior doctors' ability to identify errors in administration and how to score the test. Several weeks later a brief MoCA teaching session was given followed immediately by a repeat questionnaire...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Emilija Stojanović, Nikola Aksović, Nenad Stojiljković, Ratko Stanković, Aaron T Scanlan, Zoran Milanović
Stojanović, E, Aksović, N, Stojiljković, N, Stanković, R, Scanlan, AT, and Milanović, Z. Reliability, usefulness, and factorial validity of change-of-direction speed tests in adolescent basketball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the reliability, usefulness, and factorial validity of change-of-direction speed (CODS) tests in adolescent basketball players and (2) evaluate positional differences in test performances. Elite, adolescent male basketball players (n = 53; 17...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Brad J Schoenfeld, Brett S Nickerson, Colin D Wilborn, Stacie L Urbina, Sara B Hayward, James Krieger, Alan A Aragon, Grant M Tinsley
Schoenfeld, BJ, Nickerson, BS, Wilborn, CD, Urbina, SL, Hayward, SB, Krieger, J, Aragon, AA, and Tinsley, G. Comparison of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance vs. dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessing body composition changes after participation in a 10-week resistance training program. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) to determine alterations in total and segmental body composition across a 10-week resistance training (RT) program in comparison with the criterion reference dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kelly N Jahn, Mishaela DiNino, Julie G Arenberg
OBJECTIVES: Channel interaction, the stimulation of overlapping populations of auditory neurons by distinct cochlear implant (CI) channels, likely limits the speech perception performance of CI users. This study examined the role of vocoder-simulated channel interaction in the ability of children with normal hearing (cNH) and adults with normal hearing (aNH) to recognize spectrally degraded speech. The primary aim was to determine the interaction between number of processing channels and degree of simulated channel interaction on phoneme identification performance as a function of age for cNH and to relate those findings to aNH and to CI users...
June 20, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Megha Kalsy, Jau-Huei Lin, Bruce E Bray, Katherine A Sward
Core measures are standard metrics to reflect the processes of care provided by hospitals. Hospitals in the United States are expected to extract data from electronic health records, automated computation of core measures, and electronic submission of the quality measures data. Traditional manual calculation processes are time intensive and susceptible to error. Automated calculation has the potential to provide timely, accurate information, which could guide quality-of-care decisions, but this vision has yet to be achieved...
June 21, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
Ishak Altinpinar, Ersan Basar
Given the needs of the growing world population, the importance of the transportation sector has steadily increased. Maritime and aviation fields are considered two crucial parts of this sector. Transportation accidents must be minimized in order to ensure timely delivery of natural resources, sustainable production, and safety of life and property. Human error plays an important role in transportation accidents and is the cause of 70% to 90% of all aviation and maritime accidents. It is a well-known fact that these errors can be minimized by enhancing the perception of safety culture for individuals, corporations, and nations...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Nina Jendrike, Annette Baumstark, Stefan Pleus, Christina Liebing, Ulrike Kamecke, Cornelia Haug, Guido Freckmann
OBJECTIVE: In this study, accuracy in the hands of intended users was evaluated for five self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) systems based on ISO 15197:2013, and possibly related insulin dosing errors were calculated. In addition, accuracy was assessed in the hands of study personnel Methods: For each system (Accu-Chek® Aviva Connect (A), Contour® Next One (B), FreeStyle Freedom Lite (C), GlucoMen® areo (D), OneTouch® Verio® (E)) one test strip lot was evaluated as required by ISO 15197:2013, clause 8...
June 21, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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