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Medical ethics legislation united states

Natasha Kunakov P, Lili Moraga, Liliana Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Title revalidation of foreign medical graduates to practice medicine in Chile is a complex and expensive process. According to the legislation they are required to approve the Unique National Exam of Medical Knowledge (EUNACOM), which has a theoretical and a practical section. AIM: To demonstrate that a collaborative and standardized examination of the practical section of EUNACOM is more effective and efficient than traditional practical examinations...
February 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Katie Julian, Nick Yuhasz, Ethan Hollingsworth, Jaime Imitola
"Stem cell tourism" is defined as the unethical practice of offering unproven cellular preparations to patients suffering from various medical conditions. This phenomenon is rising in the field of neurology as patients are requesting information and opportunities for treatment with stem cells for incurable conditions such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, despite their clinical research and experimental designation. Here, we review the recent trends in "stem cell tourism" in both the United States and abroad, and discuss the recent reports of neurological complications from these activities...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Hisashi Urushihara, Louise Parmenter, Shimon Tashiro, Kenji Matsui, Nancy Dreyer
Drug safety issues do not respect national borders. Hence, addressing a safety question may necessitate globally coordinated efforts between regulatory authorities and market authorization holders (MAHs) to draw reliable conclusions. Regulatory authorities have shared responsibility with MAHs sponsoring postmarketing nonintervention studies in determining study goals and design. Their shared accountabilities include what will be investigated and how the data will be retrieved to ensure appropriate study quality required for regulatory decision making...
August 16, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
Elina Hemminki
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to compare common features and variation in the work of research ethics committees (RECs) in Finland to three other countries - England, Canada, the United States of America (USA) - in the late 2000s. METHODS: Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts, documents, previous reports, presentations in meetings and observations. A theoretical framework was created and data from various sources synthesized...
January 19, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
G-M Gkotsi, V Moulin, J Gasser
AIM: In the past few years, spectacular progress in neuroscience has led to the emergence of a new interdisciplinary field, the so-called "neurolaw" whose goal is to explore the effects of neuroscientific discoveries on legal proceedings and legal rules and standards. In the United States, a number of neuroscientific researches are designed specifically to explore legally relevant topics and a case-law has already been developed. In Europe, neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal courtrooms, as part of psychiatric testimony, nourishing the debate about the legal implications of brain research in psychiatric-legal settings...
October 2015: L'Encéphale
Dena S Davis, Eric Kodish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Hastings Center Report
Caroline Colton, Thomas Faunce
'New legislation in Queensland has provided a "pathway" for the privatisation of health assets and services in Queensland, which effectively realigns the health care system to the financial market. This column explores how this legislation contained the antecedents of the Queensland doctors' dispute when doctors roundly rejected new employment contracts in February 2014. It also argues that such legislation and its attendant backlash provides a valuable case study in view of the federal government's 2014 budget offer to the States of extra funding if they sell their health assets to fund new infrastructure...
September 2014: Journal of Law and Medicine
Kimberley M Mutcherson
As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC...
2012: Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy
Doriane Lambelet Coleman, Philip M Rosoff
The nature and scope of mature adolescents' legal authority to consent to general medical treatment without parental involvement is often misrepresented by commentators. This state of affairs is further complicated by the law itself, which has developed a broad "mature minor exception" to the general requirement of parental consent in abortion cases and which has additionally carved out numerous specific status-based and condition-based exceptions to that requirement. In these circumstances, it is not always a simple matter for physicians and other medical professionals who treat adolescents to ascertain the applicable law...
April 2013: Pediatrics
Fiona Randall, Robin Downie
Three documents have been produced in an attempt to increase the number of organs available for transplant: a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) clinical guideline, a British Medical Association (BMA) report and a Welsh Government white paper. All three are ethically flawed: NICE and the BMA recommend that whenever there is intention to withdraw life-sustaining treatment and death is expected, patients should instead be stabilised to assess for donation. This is contrary to patients' best interests, the principles of mental capacity legislation and current criteria for accessing intensive care units...
December 2012: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Daniel Croft, Stephen J Jay, Eric M Meslin, Margaret M Gaffney, Jere D Odell
As the modern medical system becomes increasingly complex, a debate has arisen over the place of advocacy efforts within the medical profession. The authors argue that advocacy can help physicians fulfill their social contract. For physicians to become competent in patient-centered, clinical, administrative, or legislative advocacy, they require professional training. Many professional organizations have called for curricular reform to meet society's health needs during the past 30 years, and the inclusion of advocacy training in undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education is supported on both pragmatic and ethical grounds...
September 2012: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Joseph J Fins, Gary S Dorfman, Joseph J Pancrazio
In response to the early success of deep brain stimulation, we offer some common-sense strategies to sustain the work, addressing the need to do so in a fiscally workable, ethically transparent, and scientifically informed manner. After delineating major threats, we will suggest reforms in both the legislative and regulatory spheres that might remediate these challenges. We will recommend (1) revisions to the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, which governs intellectual property exchange resulting from federally funded research; (2) revisions to the Association of American Medical Colleges recommendations concerning the management of conflicts of interest when scientists with an intellectual property interest participate in clinical research in tandem; (3) revisions to the Food and Drug Administration's pre-market approval process for new devices, including a proposal for a mini-investigational device exemption; and (4) the establishment of a public-private partnership to build ethical and sustainable synergies between the scientific community, industry, and government that would foster discovery and innovation...
August 2012: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
I Glenn Cohen
A growing literature examines descriptive and normative questions about medical tourism such as: How does it operate? What are its effects? Are home country patients or their governments failing in moral duties by engaging in or permitting medical tourism? By contrast, much less has been written on the regulatory dimension: What might be done about medical tourism if we were convinced that it posed ethical issues and were motivated to act? I shall argue that this kind of regulatory analysis is essential for bioethical analysis of medical tourism...
April 2012: Developing World Bioethics
Charles G Kels
The Feres doctrine bars tort claims against the government by military service members for injuries incident to their service. This prohibition extends to medical malpractice claims arising out of military health care. The latest legislative effort to overturn the Feres doctrine and allow military medical malpractice claims by service members was inspired by, and named for, a Marine whose death from melanoma may have been preventable through earlier diagnosis and referral. This article explores the genesis of the Feres rule, its 60-year history, and the arguments for and against its continued application...
March 2012: Clinics in Dermatology
Eric T Rosenthal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2012: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Nehaluddin Ahmad
Modern medicine, specifically assisted reproductive technology (ART), has overtaken the law in many jurisdictions around the world. New technologies and practices open a Pandora's Box of ethical, religious, social and legal questions, and may present a variety of significant legal problems to the courts and legislators. Surrogate motherhood and pregnancy through ART have both attracted controversy. Some groups condemn ART and want it banned while its supporters acknowledge there is a need for legislative guidelines and regulations...
2011: Medico-legal Journal
Zachary R Paterick, Barbara B Paterick, Blake E Waterhouse, Timothy E Paterick
In an ideal health care environment, physicians and health care organizations would acknowledge and factually report all medical errors and "near misses" in an effort to improve future patient safety by better identifying systemic safety lapses. Truth must permeate the health care system to achieve the goal of transparency. The Institute of Medicine has estimated that 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year as a result of medical errors. Improving the reporting of medical errors and near misses is essential for better prevention of medical errors and thus increasing patient safety...
December 2009: Journal of Patient Safety
Kathy L Cerminara
The previous two articles in this series explored the historical and theoretical development of medical decision making from initial reliance on medical beneficence to a more recent emphasis on patient autonomy. The law of withholding and withdrawal of treatment has much in common with medical ethics. It is based on concerns about patient autonomy expressed by courts, legislatures, and the executive branch of the government. Legally, the patient's right of self-determination has been based on a variety of sources ranging from state and federal constitutions to the common law of torts and from cases to statutes and regulations...
September 2011: Chest
Bernard M Dickens, Rebecca J Cook
Recent research in the USA has shown the advantages for children's welfare of open fetal surgery over postnatal treatment for myelomeningocele. However, a balance must be struck between complications of premature birth risked by prenatal surgery and the long-term advantages for affected children's health, including mobility and neurologic capacity. Risks for women are repeated surgery for intervention and delivery. The research raises legal and ethical questions about how fetal interests should influence women's choices, and whether women may decline interventions in their pregnancies that offer their children lifelong advantages...
October 2011: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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