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Rtms cerebellum

Shobit Garg, Vinod Kumar Sinha, Sai Krishna Tikka, Preeti Mishra, Nishant Goyal
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising therapeutic for schizophrenia. Treatment effects of rTMS have been variable across different symptom clusters, with negative symptoms showing better response, followed by auditory hallucinations. Cerebellum, especially vermis and its abnormalities (both structural and functional) have been implicated in cognitive, affective and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. rTMS to this alternate site has been suggested as a novel target for treating patients with this disorder...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Shannon C Lefaivre, Matt J N Brown, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: There exists a lack of consensus regarding how cerebellar over-activity might influence tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Specifically, it is unclear whether resting or postural tremor are differentially affected by cerebellar dysfunction. It is important to note that previous studies have only evaluated the influence of inhibitory stimulation on the lateral cerebellum, and have not considered the medial cerebellum. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of a low-frequency rTMS protocol applied to the medial versus lateral cerebellum to localize the effects of cerebellar over-activity...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Han Wang, Linling Li, Tianxia Wu, Bo Hou, Shuang Wu, Yunhai Qiu, Feng Feng, Liying Cui
BACKGROUND: Previous review reported that the high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor area (M1) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients could alleviate their symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rTMS over the left M1 of patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). METHODS: Fifteen MSA patients were randomly assigned to receive a 10-session real (EP: group of experimental patients; n=7) or sham (CP: group of control patients; n=8) rTMS stimulation over two weeks...
March 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Felipe S Salinas, Crystal Franklin, Shalini Narayana, C Ákos Szabó, Peter T Fox
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has the potential to treat brain disorders by modulating the activity of disease-specific brain networks, yet the rTMS frequencies used are delivered in a binary fashion - excitatory (>1 Hz) and inhibitory (≤1 Hz). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effective connectivity of the motor network at different rTMS stimulation rates during positron-emission tomography (PET) and confirm that not all excitatory rTMS frequencies act on the motor network in the same manner...
May 2016: Brain Stimulation
Guo-Rong Wu, Chris Baeken
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an evidence based neurostimulation modality used to treat patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In spite that the duration of current a depressive episode has been put forward as a negative predictor for clinical outcome, little is known about the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this phenomenon. To address this important issue, in a sample of 43 melancholic stage III treatment resistant antidepressant-free refractory MDD patients, we reanalysed regional cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc) before high frequency (HF)-rTMS treatment, applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
January 16, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Eman Elzamarany, Lamia Afifi, Neveen M El-Fayoumy, Husam Salah, Mona Nada
The motor cortex (MC) receives an excitatory input from the cerebellum which is reduced in patients with cerebellar lesions. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces cortical facilitation which can counteract the reduced cerebellar drive to the MC. Our study included 24 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients with dysmetria. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A received two sessions of real MC rTMS and Group B received one session of real rTMS and one session of sham rTMS...
June 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Dipesh H Vasant, Emilia Michou, Satish Mistry, John C Rothwell, Shaheen Hamdy
KEY POINTS: Neurostimulation is a rapidly emerging approach to swallowing rehabilitation, but cerebellar stimulation has not been explored as a treatment. Such proposed therapies for post-stroke dysphagia have required confirmation of physiological effects and optimisation of parameters in healthy humans prior to translational progression into patient groups. There is strong evidence for a role of the cerebellum in swallowing physiology, but this relationship has been under-explored. Recently, single pulses of cerebellar magnetic stimulation have been shown to directly evoke responses from pharyngeal musculature and produce short-term enhancement of cortico-pharyngeal motor evoked potentials, suggesting the feasibility of a cerebellar approach to neurostimulation in the swallowing system...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Grégory Nordmann, Valeriya Azorina, Berthold Langguth, Martin Schecklmann
Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alexander D Tang, Kalina Makowiecki, Carole Bartlett, Jennifer Rodger
Low intensity repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (LI-rTMS), a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, has been shown to induce structural and functional brain plasticity, including short distance axonal sprouting. However, the potential for LI-rTMS to promote axonal regeneration following neurotrauma has not been investigated. This study examined the effect of LI-rTMS on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival, axon regeneration and levels of BDNF in an optic nerve crush neurotrauma model. Adult C57Bl/6J mice received a unilateral intraorbital optic nerve crush...
2015: PloS One
Sai Krishna Tikka, Shobit Garg, Vinod Kumar Sinha, S Haque Nizamie, Nishant Goyal
BACKGROUND: As cerebellum and its abnormalities have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of this alternate site has been suggested as a novel target for treating patients with this disorder. As resting state gamma activity measures functional brain connectivity, it could be used as a specific treatment marker. AIM: To investigate the effect of cerebellar-rTMS on resting state gamma activity, while studying its efficacy in recent onset schizophrenia patients...
December 2015: Journal of ECT
Anuj Rastogi, Ayda Ghahremani, Robin Cash
Converging evidence from neuroimaging and neuromodulation literature suggests that the cerebellum plays a broad role in motor as well as cognitive processes through its participation in resting-state networks. A recent study by Halko et al. (J Neurosci 34: 12049-12056, 2014) demonstrates, for the first time, the ability to modulate functional connectivity of some of these distinct resting-state networks using site-specific repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the cerebellum. In this Neuro Forum, we discuss and critically analyze this study, emphasizing important findings, potential therapeutic relevance, and areas worthy of further inquiry...
October 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
R D Bharath, B B Biswal, M V Bhaskar, S Gohel, K Jhunjhunwala, R Panda, L George, A K Gupta, P K Pal
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Writer's cramp (WC) is a focal task-specific dystonia of the hand which is increasingly being accepted as a network disorder. Non-invasive cortical stimulation using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has produced therapeutic benefits in some of these patients. This study aimed to visualize the motor network abnormalities in WC and also its rTMS induced modulations using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). METHODS: Nineteen patients with right-sided WC and 20 matched healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively evaluated...
May 2015: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Haitao Lu, Haiyan Wu, Hewei Cheng, Dongjie Wei, Xiaoyan Wang, Yong Fan, Hao Zhang, Tong Zhang
As a special aphasia, the occurrence of crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD) is unusual. This study aims to improve the language ability by applying 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We studied multiple modality imaging of structural connectivity (diffusion tensor imaging), functional connectivity (resting fMRI), PET, and neurolinguistic analysis on a patient with CAD. Furthermore, we applied rTMS of 1 Hz for 40 times and observed the language function improvement. The results indicated that a significantly reduced structural and function connectivity was found in DTI and fMRI data compared with the control...
2014: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
N Morellini, S Grehl, A Tang, J Rodger, J Mariani, A M Lohof, R M Sherrard
Non-invasive stimulation of the human cerebellum, such as by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is increasingly used to investigate cerebellar function and identify potential treatment for cerebellar dysfunction. However, the effects of TMS on cerebellar neurons remain poorly defined. We applied low-intensity repetitive TMS (LI-rTMS) to the mouse cerebellum in vivo and in vitro and examined the cellular and molecular sequelae. In normal C57/Bl6 mice, 4 weeks of LI-rTMS using a complex biomimetic high-frequency stimulation (BHFS) alters Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic and spine morphology; the effects persist 4 weeks after the end of stimulation...
February 2015: Cerebellum
Sonia Bonnì, Viviana Ponzo, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Evidence for effective improvement of the symptoms of cerebellar stroke is still limited. Here, we investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the injured cerebellar hemisphere in six patients with posterior circulation stroke. We applied a two-week course of cerebellar intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Before and after the iTBS treatment, paired-pulse TMS methods were used to explore: i) the functional connectivity between the cerebellar hemisphere and the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), by means of the cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) protocol; and ii) the intracortical circuits in the contralateral M1, by means of the short intra-cortical inhibition (SICI) and intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) protocols...
January 2014: Functional Neurology
Won-Seok Kim, Se Hee Jung, Min Kyun Oh, Yu Sun Min, Jong Youb Lim, Nam-Jong Paik
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety, feasibility and preliminary efficacy of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the cerebellum in ataxic patients with acute posterior circulation stroke. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot study. PATIENTS: Thirty-two ataxic patients with posterior circulation stroke were randomized to real (n = 22) and sham (n = 10) rTMS groups. METHODS: Patients received 5 15-min sessions of 1 Hz cerebellar rTMS over 5 consecutive days...
May 2014: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
G Grimaldi, G P Argyropoulos, A Boehringer, P Celnik, M J Edwards, R Ferrucci, J M Galea, S J Groiss, K Hiraoka, P Kassavetis, E Lesage, M Manto, R C Miall, A Priori, A Sadnicka, Y Ugawa, U Ziemann
The field of neurostimulation of the cerebellum either with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS; single pulse or repetitive (rTMS)) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS; anodal or cathodal) is gaining popularity in the scientific community, in particular because these stimulation techniques are non-invasive and provide novel information on cerebellar functions. There is a consensus amongst the panel of experts that both TMS and tDCS can effectively influence cerebellar functions, not only in the motor domain, with effects on visually guided tracking tasks, motor surround inhibition, motor adaptation and learning, but also for the cognitive and affective operations handled by the cerebro-cerebellar circuits...
February 2014: Cerebellum
Nitzan Censor, Eran Dayan, Leonardo G Cohen
The ability of the mammalian brain to modify existing memories through reconsolidation may be crucial for skill acquisition. The neural mechanisms of memory modification have been commonly studied at the cellular level. Yet surprisingly, the human brain systems-level mechanisms involved in day-to-day modification of existing procedural memories remain largely unknown. Here, we studied differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) regional signal activity and inter-regional functional connectivity in subjects in whom motor memory modification was interfered with by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), relative to subjects with intact memory modification...
September 2014: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
B S Hoffland, P Kassavetis, M Bologna, J T H Teo, K P Bhatia, J C Rothwell, M J Edwards, B P van de Warrenburg
Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC) is a cerebellum-dependent paradigm of associative motor learning, and abnormal EBCC is a neurophysiological indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. We have previously demonstrated impaired EBCC in patients with primary dystonia, but it remains uncertain if this represents actual cerebellar pathology or reflects a functional cerebellar disruption. We examined this further by: (1) studying acquisition and retention of EBCC in a second session in eight patients with cervical dystonia (CD) who had a first session 7-10 days earlier; and (2) by investigating the potential of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the right cerebellar hemisphere to modify a first-ever EBCC session in 11 patients with CD...
July 2013: European Journal of Neuroscience
Shobit Garg, Nishant Goyal, Sai Krishna Tikka, Vinod Kumar Sinha
In schizophrenia, novel target sites for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), such as the cerebellum, are proposed to have a putative therapeutic role in treatment-resistant cases. We present a case of treatment-resistant schizophrenia that showed worsening of auditory verbal hallucinations after receiving high-frequency cerebellar vermal rTMS. We propose that cerebellar vermal rTMS modulates neuronal networks, causing activation in temporoparietal areas, which results in worsening of auditory verbal hallucinations...
March 2013: Journal of ECT
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