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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513983/book-review-the-foundations-of-immunology-and-their-pertinence-to-medicine
#1
REVIEW
A Corthay
We are in the era cursed with overspecialization. Charles Darwin's foundational Origin of Species, published in 1859 was accessible to the broadly educated individual. Starting with this statement, Peter Bretscher in his new book aims at explaining foundational concepts of immunology to a broad public. His standpoint is that foundational ideas usually can be simply expressed. This book describes first how foundational concepts of immunology have evolved over the last two and a half centuries. The importance of self-nonself discrimination by the immune system is acknowledged and models for immunological tolerance are compared...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460255/darwin-revisited-the-vagus-nerve-is-a-causal-element-in-controlling-recognition-of-other-s-emotions
#2
Lorenza S Colzato, Roberta Sellaro, Christian Beste
Charles Darwin proposed that via the vagus nerve, the tenth cranial nerve, emotional facial expressions are evolved, adaptive and serve a crucial communicative function. In line with this idea, the later-developed polyvagal theory assumes that the vagus nerve is the key phylogenetic substrate that regulates emotional and social behavior. The polyvagal theory assumes that optimal social interaction, which includes the recognition of emotion in faces, is modulated by the vagus nerve. So far, in humans, it has not yet been demonstrated that the vagus plays a causal role in emotion recognition...
April 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416802/rna-editing-dependent-epitranscriptome-diversity-in-cancer-stem-cells
#3
REVIEW
Qingfei Jiang, Leslie A Crews, Frida Holm, Catriona H M Jamieson
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can regenerate all facets of a tumour as a result of their stem cell-like capacity to self-renew, survive and become dormant in protective microenvironments. CSCs evolve during tumour progression in a manner that conforms to Charles Darwin's principle of natural selection. Although somatic DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations promote evolution, post-transcriptional RNA modifications together with RNA binding protein activity (the 'epitranscriptome') might also contribute to clonal evolution through dynamic determination of RNA function and gene expression diversity in response to environmental stimuli...
April 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265984/methodological-advances-in-auxin-and-cytokinin-biology
#4
Andrej Hurný, Eva Benková
The history of auxin and cytokinin biology including the initial discoveries by father-son duo Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin (1880), and Gottlieb Haberlandt (1919) is a beautiful demonstration of unceasing continuity of research. Novel findings are integrated into existing hypotheses and models and deepen our understanding of biological principles. At the same time new questions are triggered and hand to hand with this new methodologies are developed to address these new challenges.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250182/vine-tendrils-use-contact-chemoreception-to-avoid-conspecific-leaves
#5
Yuya Fukano
Movement and growth habit of climbing plants have attracted attention since the time of Charles Darwin; however, there are no reports on whether plants can choose suitable hosts or avoid unsuitable ones based on chemoreception. Here, I show that the tendrils of Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae) appear to avoid conspecific leaves using contact chemoreception for oxalates, which are highly concentrated in C. japonica leaves. The coiling experiments show that C. japonica has a flexible plastic response to avoid coiling around conspecific leaves...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032530/charles-darwin-and-the-church-of-wordsworth
#6
John Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012688/darwin-s-body-snatchers
#7
John van Wyhe
For decades creationists have claimed that Charles Darwin sought the skulls of full-blooded Aboriginal Tasmanian people when only four were left alive. It is said that Darwin letters survive which reveal this startling and distasteful truth. Tracing these claims back to their origins, however, reveals a different, if not unfamiliar story.
December 21, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994123/the-origins-scaling-and-loss-of-tetrapod-digits
#8
REVIEW
Aditya Saxena, Matthew Towers, Kimberly L Cooper
Many of the great morphologists of the nineteenth century marvelled at similarities between the limbs of diverse species, and Charles Darwin noted these homologies as significant supporting evidence for descent with modification from a common ancestor. Sir Richard Owen also took great care to highlight each of the elements of the forelimb and hindlimb in a multitude of species with focused attention on the homology between the hoof of the horse and the middle digit of man. The ensuing decades brought about a convergence of palaeontology, experimental embryology and molecular biology to lend further support to the homologies of tetrapod limbs and their developmental origins...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959854/-by-a-whisker-charles-darwin-and-medicine
#9
EDITORIAL
Héctor O Alonso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939837/exploration-and-exploitation-of-victorian-science-in-darwin-s-reading-notebooks
#10
Jaimie Murdock, Colin Allen, Simon DeDeo
Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between exploitation of past discoveries and further exploration. This extends to information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this decision-making process, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. From the full-text of books listed in his chronologically-organized reading journals, we generate topic models to quantify his local (text-to-text) and global (text-to-past) reading decisions using Kullback-Liebler Divergence, a cognitively-validated, information-theoretic measure of relative surprise...
February 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922559/botulinum-toxin-type-a-bont-a-injections-of-the-corrugator-muscles-for-aesthetics-and-depression
#11
Connie Brennan
The treatment of glabellar lines with botulinum toxin type-A (BoNT-A) is a staple for aesthetic providers who specialize in facial rejuvenation. Clinical efforts are currently underway to substantiate upper facial injections (the corrugator muscles are the target muscles) of BoNT-A as an antidepression therapy. This article describes the origin of "facial feedback" by Charles Darwin nearly 150 years ago, as well as "emotional proprioception"-2 neuroanatomical concepts that help provide the scientific rationale behind the general influence facial muscles have on the emotional centers of the brain, and, specifically, how the corrugator muscles-involved with frowning-promote a gloomy mood...
October 2016: Plastic Surgical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875117/emotional-matters-innovative-software-brings-emotional-intelligence-to-our-digital-devices
#12
Ahmed Morsy
In 1872, Charles Darwin published The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, in which he argued that mammals show emotion reliably in their faces. Since then, thousands of studies have confirmed the robustness of Darwin's argument in many fields, including linguistics, semiotics, social psychology, and computer science. More interestingly, several studies, including those of renowned psychologist Paul Ekman, demonstrated that basic emotions are, indeed, universal. Affectiva, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology spinoff located in Waltham, Massachusetts, builds a variety of products that harness the two main characteristics of facial expressions-robustness and universality-to measure and analyze emotional responses...
November 2016: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847323/pigeonetics-takes-flight-evolution-development-and-genetics-of-intraspecific-variation
#13
REVIEW
Eric T Domyan, Michael D Shapiro
Intensive artificial selection over thousands of years has produced hundreds of varieties of domestic pigeon. As Charles Darwin observed, the morphological differences among breeds can rise to the magnitude of variation typically observed among different species. Nevertheless, different pigeon varieties are interfertile, thereby enabling forward genetic and genomic approaches to identify genes that underlie derived traits. Building on classical genetic studies of pigeon variation, recent molecular investigations find a spectrum of coding and regulatory alleles controlling derived traits, including plumage color, feather growth polarity, and limb identity...
November 12, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780067/early-evolution-of-neurons
#14
William B Kristan
How did a structure as complex as our own brain ever evolve? Although biologists have pondered this question since Charles Darwin, the explosion of molecular information in recent years has provided new insights into this question, particularly its first step: the evolution of neurons. Meshing information about genomes with insights from more classical anatomical, physiological, and developmental approaches has led to some remarkable insights and surprises. Because 'phylogenomics' is still a young field, however, there are arguments about which genes to include in comparisons, how much to weigh genetic versus 'classical' features, and which algorithms to use in making such comparisons...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721035/the-impact-of-a-r-wallace-s-sarawak-law-paper-reassessed
#15
John van Wyhe
This article examines six main elements in the modern story of the impact of Alfred Russel Wallace's 1855 Sarawak Law paper, particularly in the many accounts of Charles Darwin's life and work. These elements are: Each of these are very frequently repeated as straightforward facts in the popular and scholarly literature. It is here argued that each of these is erroneous and that the role of the Sarawak Law paper in the historiography of Darwin and Wallace needs to be revised.
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652105/exploring-the-nature-of-science-through-courage-and-purpose-a-case-study-of-charles-darwin-s-way-of-knowing
#16
Joel I Cohen
INTRODUCTION: In 1836, Charles Darwin returned to England with finches classified and seemingly showing little resemblance. However, subsequent examination by John Gould revealed 13 closely related species endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Despite initial confusion, and Darwin's overlooking to label these birds by island, some 100 years later they had become evolution's icon. The same could be said of Darwin's education and scientific pursuits, beginning in a rough, trial and error manner, lacking direction, but eventually benefitting from an unexpected opportunity that would lead to his theory of natural selection...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643957/darwin-hume-morgan-and-the-verae-causae-of-psychology
#17
Hayley Clatterbuck
Charles Darwin and C. Lloyd Morgan forward two influential principles of cognitive ethological inference that yield conflicting results about the extent of continuity in the cognitive traits of humans and other animals. While these principles have been interpreted as reflecting commitments to different senses of parsimony, in fact, both principles result from the same vera causa inferential strategy, according to which "We ought to admit no more causes of natural things, than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances"...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635031/charles-darwin-s-1809-1882-illness-the-role-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Louis Heyse-Moore
During most of his adult life, in counterpoint to his fame in describing the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was chronically ill. He consulted many doctors with only limited and temporary success. His symptoms were many and varied. His doctors favoured dyspepsia or suppressed gout as the diagnosis. The Water Cure was only effective initially. Many diagnoses have been proposed by physicians since then. Perhaps he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not instead of but as well as other physical problems...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634049/a-harvest-of-weeds-yields-insight-into-a-case-of-contemporary-evolution
#19
Steven J Franks
When Charles Darwin was exploring the idea of evolution via natural selection, he looked to domesticated species, with the opening chapter of The Origin of Species titled 'Variation Under Domestication' (Darwin ). Domesticated species such as crops are a great example of artificial selection, which Darwin realized was analogous to natural selection. But growing among those carefully selected crop varieties are the unwelcome and unwanted plants we call weeds. Despite the importance of weeds and long-standing interest in their evolution (Baker ), we still know little about how agricultural weeds evolve, and we often fail to take evolution into account when attempting to manage them (Neve et al...
September 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598953/reconstructing-anaximander-s-biological-model-unveils-a-theory-of-evolution-akin-to-darwin-s-though-centuries-before-the-birth-of-science
#20
REVIEW
Siro Igino Trevisanato
Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms...
August 2016: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
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