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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769358/resolving-the-phylogenetic-position-of-darwin-s-extinct-ground-sloth-mylodon-darwinii-using-mitogenomic-and-nuclear-exon-data
#1
Frédéric Delsuc, Melanie Kuch, Gillian C Gibb, Jonathan Hughes, Paul Szpak, John Southon, Jacob Enk, Ana T Duggan, Hendrik N Poinar
Mylodon darwinii is the extinct giant ground sloth named after Charles Darwin, who first collected its remains in South America. We have successfully obtained a high-quality mitochondrial genome at 99-fold coverage using an Illumina shotgun sequencing of a 12 880-year-old bone fragment from Mylodon Cave in Chile. Low level of DNA damage showed that this sample was exceptionally well preserved for an ancient subfossil, probably the result of the dry and cold conditions prevailing within the cave. Accordingly, taxonomic assessment of our shotgun metagenomic data showed a very high percentage of endogenous DNA with 22% of the assembled metagenomic contigs assigned to Xenarthra...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725900/charles-darwin-richard-owen-and-natural-selection-a-question-of-priority
#2
Curtis N Johnson
No single author presented Darwin with a more difficult question about his priority in discovering natural selection than the British comparative anatomist and paleontologist Richard Owen. Owen was arguably the most influential biologist in Great Britain in Darwin's time. Darwin wanted his approbation for what he believed to be his own theory of natural selection. Unfortunately for Darwin, when Owen first commented in publication about Darwin's theory of descent he was openly hostile (Edinb. Rev. vol. 111, Article VIII, 1860, pp...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550535/historical-biogeography-of-loranthaceae-santalales-diversification-agrees-with-emergence-of-tropical-forests-and-radiation-of-songbirds
#3
Bing Liu, Chi Toan Le, Russell L Barrett, Daniel L Nickrent, Zhiduan Chen, Limin Lu, Romina Vidal-Russell
Coadaptation between mistletoes and birds captured the attention of Charles Darwin over 150 years ago, stimulating considerable scientific research. Here we used Loranthaceae, a speciose and ecologically important mistletoe family, to obtain new insights into the interrelationships among its hosts and dispersers. Phylogenetic analyses of Loranthaceae were based on a dataset of nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. Divergence time estimation, ancestral area reconstruction, and diversification rate analyses were employed to examine historical biogeography...
July 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489400/preadaptation-and-naturalization-of-nonnative-species-darwin-s-two-fundamental-insights-into-species-invasion
#4
Marc W Cadotte, Sara E Campbell, Shao-Peng Li, Darwin S Sodhi, Nicholas E Mandrak
Predicting which nonnative species become invasive is critical for their successful management, and Charles Darwin provided predictions based on species' relatedness. However, Darwin provided two opposing predictions about the relatedness of introduced nonnatives to indigenous species. First, environmental fit is the dominant factor determining invader success; thus, we should expect that invasive species are closely related to local native residents. Alternatively, if competition is important, we should expect successful invaders are distantly related to the native residents...
April 29, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439348/evolvability-of-amyloidogenic-proteins-in-human-brain
#5
Makoto Hashimoto, Gilbert Ho, Shuei Sugama, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Yuka Shimizu, Takato Takenouchi, Masaaki Waragai, Eliezer Masliah
 Currently, the physiological roles of amyloidogenic proteins (APs) in human brain, such as amyloid-β and α-synuclein, are elusive. Given that many APs arose by gene duplication and have been resistant against the pressures of natural selection, APs may be associated with some functions that are advantageous for survival of offspring. Nonetheless, evolvability is the sole physiological quality of APs that has been characterized in microorganisms such as yeast. Since yeast and human brain may share similar strategies in coping with diverse range of critical environmental stresses, the objective of this paper was to discuss the potential role of evolvability of APs in aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368287/gestural-acquisition-in-great-apes-the-social-negotiation-hypothesis
#6
Simone Pika, Marlen Fröhlich
Scientific interest in the acquisition of gestural signalling dates back to the heroic figure of Charles Darwin. More than a hundred years later, we still know relatively little about the underlying evolutionary and developmental pathways involved. Here, we shed new light on this topic by providing the first systematic, quantitative comparison of gestural development in two different chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) subspecies and communities living in their natural environments...
January 24, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358005/allbutt-of-leeds-and-duchenne-de-boulogne-newly-discovered-insights-on-duchenne-by-a-british-neuropsychiatrist
#7
REVIEW
E H Reynolds, E Broussolle
It is well-established that Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne (1806-1875), and Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) were the founding fathers of Parisian and French neurology during the second half of the 19th century, although much more is known about Charcot than about his "master" Duchenne. In Britain, Thomas Clifford Allbutt (1836-1925) was Leeds' most distinguished physician of the 19th century, eventually becoming Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge. Allbutt's 1860-1861 year of postgraduate study in Paris and his friendship with Duchenne profoundly influenced his own contributions to nervous system and mental diseases, partly in collaboration with his colleague James Crichton-Browne (1840-1938) at the nearby West Riding Lunatic Asylum in Wakefield, Yorkshire...
February 1, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104187/charles-darwin-s-theory-of-moral-sentiments-what-darwin-s-ethics-really-owes-to-adam-smith
#8
Greg Priest
When we read the Origin, we cannot help but hear echoes of the Wealth of Nations. Darwin's "economy of nature" features a "division of labour" that leads to complexity and productivity. We should not, however, analyze Darwin's ethics through this lens. Darwin did not draw his economic ideas from Smith, nor did he base his ethics on an economic foundation. Darwin's ethics rest on Smith's notion from the Theory of Moral Sentiments of an innate human faculty of sympathy. Darwin gave this faculty an evolutionary interpretation and built on this foundation an ethics far removed from what is commonly supposed...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038175/-p-redictability-of-r-ecurrence-using-i-mmunohistochemistry-to-delineate-s-urgical-m-argins-in-mucosal-h-ead-and-n-eck-s-quamous-c-ell-c-arcinoma-prism-hnscc-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-and-bilateral-study-in-australia-and-india
#9
Sheela Joseph, Rajinikanth Janakiraman, Geeta Chacko, Rama Jayaraj, Mahiban Thomas, Meera Thomas, Sramana Mukhopadhyay
OBJECTIVES: Treatment failure and poor 5-year survival in mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has remained unchanged for decades mainly due to advanced stage of presentation and high rates of recurrence. Incomplete surgical removal of the tumour, attributed to lack of reliable methods to delineate the surgical margins, is a major cause of disease recurrence. The predictability of recurrence using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to delineate surgical margins (PRISM) in mucosal HNSCC study aims to redefine margin status by identifying the true extent of the tumour at the molecular level by performing IHC with molecular markers, eukaryotic initiation factor, eIF4Eand tumour suppressor gene, p53, on the surgical margins and test the use of Lugol's iodine and fluorescence visualisation prior to the wide local excision...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992070/changing-while-staying-the-same-preservation-of-structural-continuity-during-limb-evolution-by-developmental-integration
#10
Rio Tsutsumi, Mai P Tran, Kimberly L Cooper
More than 150 years since Charles Darwin published "On the Origin of Species", gradual evolution by natural selection is still not fully reconciled with the apparent sudden appearance of complex structures, such as the bat wing, with highly derived functions. This is in part because developmental genetics has not yet identified the number and types of mutations that accumulated to drive complex morphological evolution. Here, we consider the experimental manipulations in laboratory model systems that suggest tissue interdependence and mechanical responsiveness during limb development conceptually reduce the genetic complexity required to reshape the structure as a whole...
December 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979789/water-lilies-as-emerging-models-for-darwin-s-abominable-mystery
#11
REVIEW
Fei Chen, Xing Liu, Cuiwei Yu, Yuchu Chen, Haibao Tang, Liangsheng Zhang
Water lilies are not only highly favored aquatic ornamental plants with cultural and economic importance but they also occupy a critical evolutionary space that is crucial for understanding the origin and early evolutionary trajectory of flowering plants. The birth and rapid radiation of flowering plants has interested many scientists and was considered 'an abominable mystery' by Charles Darwin. In searching for the angiosperm evolutionary origin and its underlying mechanisms, the genome of Amborella has shed some light on the molecular features of one of the basal angiosperm lineages; however, little is known regarding the genetics and genomics of another basal angiosperm lineage, namely, the water lily...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942097/facilitating-peer-based-learning-through-summative-assessment-an-adaptation-of-the-objective-structured-clinical-assessment-tool-for-the-blended-learning-environment
#12
Lolita Wikander, Stéphane L Bouchoucha
Adapting a course from face to face to blended delivery necessitates that assessments are modified accordingly. In Australia the Objective Structured Clinical Assessment tool, as a derivative from the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, has been used in the face-to-face delivery mode as a formative or summative assessment tool in medicine and nursing since 1990. The Objective Structured Clinical Assessment has been used at Charles Darwin University to assess nursing students' simulated clinical skills prior to the commencement of their clinical placements since 2008...
January 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760912/when-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-she-met-charles-darwin-and-francis-galton
#13
Liborio Parrino, Giovanni Pavesi
Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE) is characterized by short-lasting seizures patterned by repetitive and stereotyped motor events in the same person. In autosomal dominant SHE, genetic factors play a well-known key role. In The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin quotes a plausible example of SHE illustrated by his cousin Sir Francis Galton: "the gentleman…lay fast asleep on his back in bed, raising his right arm slowly in front of his face, up to his forehead, and then dropping it with a jerk, so that the wrist fell heavily on the bridge of his nose...
August 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710222/a-developmental-evaluation-to-enhance-stakeholder-engagement-in-a-wide-scale-interactive-project-disseminating-quality-improvement-data-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study
#14
Alison Laycock, Jodie Bailie, Veronica Matthews, Frances Cunningham, Gillian Harvey, Nikki Percival, Ross Bailie
INTRODUCTION: Bringing together continuous quality improvement (CQI) data from multiple health services offers opportunities to identify common improvement priorities and to develop interventions at various system levels to achieve large-scale improvement in care. An important principle of CQI is practitioner participation in interpreting data and planning evidence-based change. This study will contribute knowledge about engaging diverse stakeholders in collaborative and theoretically informed processes to identify and address priority evidence-practice gaps in care delivery...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659577/elitist-binary-wolf-search-algorithm-for-heuristic-feature-selection-in-high-dimensional-bioinformatics-datasets
#15
Jinyan Li, Simon Fong, Raymond K Wong, Richard Millham, Kelvin K L Wong
Due to the high-dimensional characteristics of dataset, we propose a new method based on the Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA) for optimising the feature selection problem. The proposed approach uses the natural strategy established by Charles Darwin; that is, 'It is not the strongest of the species that survives, but the most adaptable'. This means that in the evolution of a swarm, the elitists are motivated to quickly obtain more and better resources. The memory function helps the proposed method to avoid repeat searches for the worst position in order to enhance the effectiveness of the search, while the binary strategy simplifies the feature selection problem into a similar problem of function optimisation...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654082/a-mitogenomic-timetree-for-darwin-s-enigmatic-south-american-mammal-macrauchenia-patachonica
#16
Michael Westbury, Sina Baleka, Axel Barlow, Stefanie Hartmann, Johanna L A Paijmans, Alejandro Kramarz, Analía M Forasiepi, Mariano Bond, Javier N Gelfo, Marcelo A Reguero, Patricio López-Mendoza, Matias Taglioretti, Fernando Scaglia, Andrés Rinderknecht, Washington Jones, Francisco Mena, Guillaume Billet, Christian de Muizon, José Luis Aguilar, Ross D E MacPhee, Michael Hofreiter
The unusual mix of morphological traits displayed by extinct South American native ungulates (SANUs) confounded both Charles Darwin, who first discovered them, and Richard Owen, who tried to resolve their relationships. Here we report an almost complete mitochondrial genome for the litoptern Macrauchenia. Our dated phylogenetic tree places Macrauchenia as sister to Perissodactyla, but close to the radiation of major lineages within Laurasiatheria. This position is consistent with a divergence estimate of ∼66 Ma (95% credibility interval, 56...
June 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513983/book-review-the-foundations-of-immunology-and-their-pertinence-to-medicine
#17
REVIEW
A Corthay
We are in the era cursed with overspecialization. Charles Darwin's foundational Origin of Species, published in 1859 was accessible to the broadly educated individual. Starting with this statement, Peter Bretscher in his new book aims at explaining foundational concepts of immunology to a broad public. His standpoint is that foundational ideas usually can be simply expressed. This book describes first how foundational concepts of immunology have evolved over the last two and a half centuries. The importance of self-nonself discrimination by the immune system is acknowledged and models for immunological tolerance are compared...
May 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460255/darwin-revisited-the-vagus-nerve-is-a-causal-element-in-controlling-recognition-of-other-s-emotions
#18
Lorenza S Colzato, Roberta Sellaro, Christian Beste
Charles Darwin proposed that via the vagus nerve, the tenth cranial nerve, emotional facial expressions are evolved, adaptive and serve a crucial communicative function. In line with this idea, the later-developed polyvagal theory assumes that the vagus nerve is the key phylogenetic substrate that regulates emotional and social behavior. The polyvagal theory assumes that optimal social interaction, which includes the recognition of emotion in faces, is modulated by the vagus nerve. So far, in humans, it has not yet been demonstrated that the vagus plays a causal role in emotion recognition...
July 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416802/rna-editing-dependent-epitranscriptome-diversity-in-cancer-stem-cells
#19
REVIEW
Qingfei Jiang, Leslie A Crews, Frida Holm, Catriona H M Jamieson
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can regenerate all facets of a tumour as a result of their stem cell-like capacity to self-renew, survive and become dormant in protective microenvironments. CSCs evolve during tumour progression in a manner that conforms to Charles Darwin's principle of natural selection. Although somatic DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations promote evolution, post-transcriptional RNA modifications together with RNA binding protein activity (the 'epitranscriptome') might also contribute to clonal evolution through dynamic determination of RNA function and gene expression diversity in response to environmental stimuli...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265984/methodological-advances-in-auxin-and-cytokinin-biology
#20
REVIEW
Andrej Hurný, Eva Benková
The history of auxin and cytokinin biology including the initial discoveries by father-son duo Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin (1880), and Gottlieb Haberlandt (1919) is a beautiful demonstration of unceasing continuity of research. Novel findings are integrated into existing hypotheses and models and deepen our understanding of biological principles. At the same time new questions are triggered and hand to hand with this new methodologies are developed to address these new challenges.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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