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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903049/the-hepatic-pre-metastatic-niche-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Demi S Houg, Maarten F Bijlsma
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most aggressive malignancies to date, largely because it is associated with high metastatic risk. Pancreatic tumors have a characteristic tendency to metastasize preferentially to the liver. Over the past two decades, it has become evident that the otherwise hostile milieu of the liver is selectively preconditioned at an early stage to render it more conducive to the engraftment and growth of disseminated cancer cells, a concept defined as pre-metastatic niche (PMN) formation...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869753/the-lipid-side-of-bone-marrow-adipocytes-how-tumor-cells-adapt-and-survive-in-bone
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan D Diedrich, Mackenzie K Herroon, Erandi Rajagurubandara, Izabela Podgorski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone marrow adipocytes have emerged in recent years as key contributors to metastatic progression in bone. In this review, we focus specifically on their role as the suppliers of lipids and discuss pro-survival pathways that are closely linked to lipid metabolism, affected by the adipocyte-tumor cell interactions, and likely impacting the ability of the tumor cell to thrive in bone marrow space and evade therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The combined in silico, pre-clinical, and clinical evidence shows that in adipocyte-rich tissues such as bone marrow, tumor cells rely on exogenous lipids for regulation of cellular energetics and adaptation to harsh metabolic conditions of the metastatic niche...
June 5, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868579/hyaluronan-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-in-malignant-progression
#3
REVIEW
James B McCarthy, Dorraya El-Ashry, Eva A Turley
This review summarizes the roles of CAFs in forming a "cancerized" fibrotic stroma favorable to tumor initiation and dissemination, in particular highlighting the functions of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) in these processes. The structural complexity of the tumor and its host microenvironment is now well appreciated to be an important contributing factor to malignant progression and resistance-to-therapy. There are multiple components of this complexity, which include an extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and associated biomechanical changes in tumor stroma...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29813117/competition-and-niche-construction-in-a-model-of-cancer-metastasis
#4
Jimmy J Qian, Erol Akçay
Niche construction theory states that not only does the environment act on populations to generate Darwinian selection, but organisms reciprocally modify the environment and the sources of natural selection. Cancer cells participate in niche construction as they alter their microenvironments and create pre-metastatic niches; in fact, metastasis is a product of niche construction. Here, we present a mathematical model of niche construction and metastasis. Our model contains producers, which pay a cost to contribute to niche construction that benefits all tumor cells, and cheaters, which reap the benefits without paying the cost...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795272/extracellular-vesicles-in-cancer-implications-for-future-improvements-in-cancer-care
#5
REVIEW
Rong Xu, Alin Rai, Maoshan Chen, Wittaya Suwakulsiri, David W Greening, Richard J Simpson
The sustained growth, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells depend upon bidirectional cell-cell communication within complex tissue environments. Such communication predominantly involves the secretion of soluble factors by cancer cells and/or stromal cells within the tumour microenvironment (TME), although these cell types have also been shown to export membrane-encapsulated particles containing regulatory molecules that contribute to cell-cell communication. These particles are known as extracellular vesicles (EVs) and include species of exosomes and shed microvesicles...
May 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782011/a-preclinical-mouse-model-of-osteosarcoma-to-define-the-extracellular-vesicle-mediated-communication-between-tumor-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#6
Tonny Lagerweij, Maria Pérez-Lanzón, S Rubina Baglio
Within the tumor microenvironment, resident or recruited mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to malignant progression in multiple cancer types. Under the influence of specific environmental signals, these adult stem cells can release paracrine mediators leading to accelerated tumor growth and metastasis. Defining the crosstalk between tumor and MSCs is of primary importance to understand the mechanisms underlying cancer progression and identify novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Cancer cells produce high amounts of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which can profoundly affect the behavior of target cells in the tumor microenvironment or at distant sites...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760691/extracellular-vesicle-heterogeneity-subpopulations-isolation-techniques-and-diverse-functions-in-cancer-progression
#7
REVIEW
Eduard Willms, Carlos Cabañas, Imre Mäger, Matthew J A Wood, Pieter Vader
Cells release membrane enclosed nano-sized vesicles termed extracellular vesicles (EVs) that function as mediators of intercellular communication by transferring biological information between cells. Tumor-derived EVs have emerged as important mediators in cancer development and progression, mainly through transfer of their bioactive content which can include oncoproteins, oncogenes, chemokine receptors, as well as soluble factors, transcripts of proteins and miRNAs involved in angiogenesis or inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728125/matrix-stiffness-upregulated-loxl2-promotes-fibronectin-production-mmp9-and-cxcl12-expression-and-bmdcs-recruitment-to-assist-pre-metastatic-niche-formation
#8
Sifan Wu, Qiongdan Zheng, Xiaoxia Xing, Yinying Dong, Yaohui Wang, Yang You, Rongxin Chen, Chao Hu, Jie Chen, Dongmei Gao, Yan Zhao, Zhiming Wang, Tongchun Xue, Zhenggang Ren, Jiefeng Cui
BACKGROUND: Higher matrix stiffness affects biological behavior of tumor cells, regulates tumor-associated gene/miRNA expression and stemness characteristic, and contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the linkage between higher matrix stiffness and pre-metastatic niche in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still largely unknown. METHODS: We comparatively analyzed the expressions of LOX family members in HCC cells grown on different stiffness substrates, and speculated that the secreted LOXL2 may mediate the linkage between higher matrix stiffness and pre-metastatic niche...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726046/extracellular-vesicles-toward-a-clinical-application-in-urological-cancer-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Fumihiko Urabe, Nobuyoshi Kosaka, Takahiro Kimura, Shin Egawa, Takahiro Ochiya
Extracellular vesicles are nanometer-sized lipid membranous vesicles that are released from almost all types of cells into the extracellular space. Extracellular vesicles have gained considerable attention in the past decade, and emerging evidence suggests that they play novel roles in mediating cancer biology. Extracellular vesicles contain pathogenic components, such as proteins, DNA fragments, messenger ribonucleic acids, non-coding ribonucleic acids and lipids, all of which mediate paracrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703238/integrins-as-therapeutic-targets-in-the-organ-specific-metastasis-of-human-malignant-melanoma
#10
REVIEW
Ruixia Huang, Einar K Rofstad
Integrins are a large family of adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Among the 24 integrin isoforms, many have been found to be associated with tumor angiogenesis, tumor cell migration and proliferation, and metastasis. Integrins, especially αvβ3, αvβ5 and α5β1, participate in mediating tumor angiogenesis by interacting with the vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-Tie signaling pathways. Melanoma patients have a poor prognosis when the primary tumor has generated distant metastases, and the melanoma metastatic site is an independent predictor of the survival of these patients...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676815/role-of-chemokines-in-metastatic-niche-new-insights-along-with-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-approach
#11
REVIEW
Hadi Rezaeeyan, Reza Shirzad, Trevor D McKee, Najmaldin Saki
Chemokines are cytokines that are involved in the movement of leukocytes and the occurrence of immune responses. It has recently been noted that these cytokines play a role in the movement of cancer cells to different parts of the body and create a suitable environment [i.e. (pre) metastatic niche] for their growth and proliferation. We studied the role of chemokines in the metastasis of cancer cells, as well as their involvement in the proliferation and growth of these cells. Relevant literature was identified by a PubMed search (2005-2017) of English language papers using the terms 'chemokine,' 'metastasis niche,' and 'organotropism...
May 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672847/loss-of-n-wasp-drives-early-progression-in-an-apc-model-of-intestinal-tumourigenesis
#12
Hayley T Morris, Loic Fort, Heather J Spence, Rachana Patel, David F Vincent, James H Park, Scott B Snapper, Francis A Carey, Owen J Sansom, Laura M Machesky
N-WASP (WASL) is a widely expressed cytoskeletal signalling and scaffold protein also implicated in regulation of Wnt signalling and homeostatic maintenance of skin epithelial architecture. N-WASP mediates invasion of cancer cells in vitro and its depletion reduces invasion and metastatic dissemination of breast cancer. Given this role in cancer invasion and universal expression in the gastrointestinal tract, we explored a role for N-WASP in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. While deletion of N-wasp is not detectably harmful in the murine intestinal tract, numbers of Paneth cells increased, indicating potential changes in the stem cell niche, and migration up the crypt-villus axis was enhanced...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667069/the-versatile-role-of-exosomes-in-cancer-progression-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#13
REVIEW
Vignesh Sundararajan, Fazlul H Sarkar, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer biology have highlighted the relevance of exosomes and nanovesicles as carriers of genetic and biological messages between cancer cells and their immediate and/or distant environments. It has been found that these molecular cues may play significant roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing diverse molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells and/or vice versa to induce a plethora of biological processes, including angiogenesis, metastasis formation, therapeutic resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic/stemness (re)programming...
June 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659011/immune-system-augmentation-via-humanization-using-stem-progenitor-cells-and-bioengineering-in-a-breast-cancer-model-study
#14
Abbas Shafiee, Jacqui A McGovern, Christoph A Lahr, Christoph Meinert, Davide Moi, Ferdinand Wagner, Marietta Landgraf, Elena De-Juan-Pardo, Roberta Mazzieri, Dietmar W Hutmacher
Despite significant advances, most current in vivo models fail to fully recapitulate the biological processes that occur in humans. Here we aimed to develop an advanced humanized model with features of an organ bone by providing different bone tissue cellular compartments including preosteoblasts, mesenchymal stem/stromal (MSCs), endothelial and hematopoietic cells in an engineered microenvironment. The bone compartment was generated by culturing the human MSCs, umbilical vein endothelial cells with gelatin methacryloyl hydrogels in the center of a melt-electrospun polycaprolactone tubular scaffolds, which were seeded with human preosteoblasts...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616188/the-origin-and-functions-of-exosomes-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Chitra Rajagopal, K B Harikumar
Exosomes are nanovesicles having a maximum size of 150 nm and is a newly emerging focus in various fields of research. Its role in cargo trafficking along with its differential expression is associated with the disrupted homeostasis and provides an opportunity to defend against different diseases like cancer. Furthermore, exosomes are rich in cargos, which contain proteins and nucleic acids that directly reflect the metabolic state of the cells from which it originates. This review summarizes recent studies on tumor-derived exosomes with an overview about biogenesis, their functions and potential of using as diagnostic and prognostic markers...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605736/multiple-roles-of-lymphatic-vessels-in-tumor-progression
#16
REVIEW
Qiaoli Ma, Lothar C Dieterich, Michael Detmar
Sentinel lymph node metastasis is a prognostic indicator for systemic tumor spread in many types of cancers, and tumor lymphangiogenesis correlates with reduced survival. Consequently, lymphatic vessels have been suggested to promote tumor progression in multiple ways. Tumor lymphangiogenesis occurs both in primary tumors and at distant (pre-) metastatic sites, and facilitates lymphatic invasion and tumor cell dissemination. Lymphatic vessels have also emerged as regulators of tumor immunity, transporting tumor antigens to lymph nodes and directly interacting with immune cells...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552012/targeting-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-to-bypass-tumor-induced-immunosuppression
#17
REVIEW
Viktor Fleming, Xiaoying Hu, Rebekka Weber, Vasyl Nagibin, Christopher Groth, Peter Altevogt, Jochen Utikal, Viktor Umansky
The immune system has many sophisticated mechanisms to balance an extensive immune response. Distinct immunosuppressive cells could protect from excessive tissue damage and autoimmune disorders. Tumor cells take an advantage of those immunosuppressive mechanisms and establish a strongly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which inhibits antitumor immune responses, supporting the disease progression. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play a crucial role in this immunosuppressive TME. Those cells represent a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells with a strong immunosuppressive potential...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521008/biomaterial-scaffolds-as-pre-metastatic-niche-mimics-systemically-alter-the-primary-tumor-and-tumor-microenvironment
#18
Brian A Aguado, Rachel M Hartfield, Grace G Bushnell, Joseph T Decker, Samira M Azarin, Dhaval Nanavati, Matthew J Schipma, Shreyas S Rao, Robert S Oakes, Yining Zhang, Jacqueline S Jeruss, Lonnie D Shea
Primary tumor (PT) immune cells and pre-metastatic niche (PMN) sites are critical to metastasis. Recently, synthetic biomaterial scaffolds used as PMN mimics are shown to capture both immune and metastatic tumor cells. Herein, studies are performed to investigate whether the scaffold-mediated redirection of immune and tumor cells would alter the primary tumor microenvironment (TME). Transcriptomic analysis of PT cells from scaffold-implanted and mock-surgery mice identifies differentially regulated pathways relevant to invasion and metastasis progression...
March 9, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485611/small-rnas-in-circulating-exosomes-of-cancer-patients-a-minireview
#19
REVIEW
Stefania Bortoluzzi, Federica Lovisa, Enrico Gaffo, Lara Mussolin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted from many cell types play important roles in intercellular communication, both as paracrine and endocrine factors, as they can circulate in biological fluids, including plasma. Amid EVs, exosomes are actively secreted vesicles that contain proteins, lipids, soluble factors, and nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and other classes of small RNAs (sRNA). miRNAs are prominent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and epigenetic silencers of transcription...
October 6, 2017: High-throughput
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472856/silibinin-inhibits-nsclc-metastasis-by-targeting-the-egfr-lox-pathway
#20
Xiaoying Hou, Hongzhi Du, Xingping Quan, Lei Shi, Qianqian Zhang, Yao Wu, Yang Liu, Jing Xiao, Yong Li, Ligong Lu, Xun Ai, Meixiao Zhan, Shengtao Yuan, Li Sun
Tumor metastasis is the most lethal and debilitating process that threatens cancer patients. Among the regulators involved in tumor metastasis, lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an important contributor for tumor invasion, migration and the formation of the pre-metastatic niche. Although the relationship between LOX and poor prognosis of lung patients has been preliminary reported, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we found that LOX overexpression is closely related to the survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients but not squamous cell carcinoma patients...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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