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Rat achilles tendon

C-F Hsieh, P Alberton, E Loffredo-Verde, E Volkmer, M Pietschmann, P E Müller, M Schieker, D Docheva
Tendon's natural healing potential is extremely low and inefficient, with significant dysfunction and disability due to hypocellularity and hypovascularity of tendon tissues. The application of stem cells can aid in significantly enhanced repair of tendon rupture; therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the potential of using periodontal ligament cells (PDL), usually obtained from patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, as a novel cell source for cell-based therapy for tendon injuries in a clinically relevant rat full-size Achilles tendon defect...
October 20, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Shao-Yong Xu, Shu-Fen Li, Guo-Xin Ni
BACKGROUND Although tendinopathy is common, its underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the possible pathogenesis of tendinopathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a total of 24 rats were randomly and evenly divided into a control (CON) group and a strenuous treadmill running (STR) group. Animals in the STR group were subjected to a 12-week treadmill running protocol. Subsequently, all Achilles tendons were harvested to perform histological observation or biochemical analyses...
October 15, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Karly O W Chan, Henry H Y Tong, Gabriel Y F Ng
Fish oil has been shown to promote collagen synthesis, and hence, connective tissue healing. Therapeutic ultrasound is commonly used to treat soft tissue injuries. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of topical fish oil on the management of Achilles tendon rupture, comparing normal therapeutic ultrasound with a combination of ultrasound and fish oil. Eighty-five Sprague-Dawley rats underwent surgical hemitenotomy of the right medial Achilles tendon. The rats received daily treatment of either topical placebo ointment (control group [CON]), topical fish oil (FO), therapeutic ultrasound (US) or ultrasound with fish oil as the coupling medium (FU)...
September 27, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Kang Chen, Ping Li, Huakun Zhao, Xiaoyan Yan, Yanhong Ma
Mechanical stress plays an important role in preserving the integrity of bone and ligament. Stress shielding reduces mechanical load on bone or tendons, resulting in tissue degradation. Previous studies showed that deterioration of the tendon structure during stress shielding is associated with elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This study examined the therapeutic potential of the TNF inhibitor etanercept in preventing morphologic deterioration of the Achilles tendon after stress shielding...
September 29, 2016: Orthopedics
B Hajipour, A M Navali, S Ali Mohammad, G Mousavi, M Gahvechi Akbari, T Maleki Miyandoab, L Roshangar, B Mohammadi Saleh, T Asvadi Kermani, F Moutab Laleh, M Ghabili
INTRODUCTION: Tendons are vulnerable to various types of acute or chronic injures. Different methods have been investigated to achieve better healing. Phenytoin is a drug which could stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagen. This experimental study was performed to assess the effect of phenytoin on tendon healing in a rat model of tendon rupture. METHODS: Thirty healthy rats were divided into 3 groups, 1) Sham group; 2) Tendon rupture; 3) Tendon rupture+phenytoin (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 21 days...
2016: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
George W Fryhofer, Benjamin R Freedman, Cody D Hillin, Nabeel S Salka, Adam M Pardes, Stephanie N Weiss, Daniel C Farber, Louis J Soslowsky
Achilles tendon ruptures are common injuries. Sex differences are present in mechanical properties of uninjured Achilles tendon, but it remains unknown if these differences extend to tendon healing. We hypothesized that ovariectomized females (OVX) and males would exhibit inferior post-injury tendon properties compared to females. Male, female, and OVX Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32/group) underwent acclimation and treadmill training prior to blunt transection of the Achilles tendon mid-substance. Injured hindlimbs were immobilized for 1 week, followed by gradual return to activity and assessment of active and passive hindlimb function...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jessica Pingel, Jacob Wienecke, Jakob Lorentzen, Jens Bo Nielsen
Botulinum toxin is used to diminish spasticity and reduce the risk of development of contractures. Here, we investigated changes in muscle stiffness caused by reflex activity or elastic muscle properties following botulinum toxin injection in the triceps surae muscle in rats. Forty-four rats received injection of botulinum toxin in the left triceps surae muscle. Control measurements were performed on the non-injected contralateral side in all rats. Acute experiments were performed 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks following injection...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sturla Haslerud, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão Lopes-Martins, Lúcio Frigo, Jan Magnus Bjordal, Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Ingvill Fjell Naterstad, Liv Heide Magnussen, Jon Joensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and cryotherapy are widely used treatments in the acute phase of tendon injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of these two treatments on tendon inflammation and mechanical properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six groups of six Wistar rats were used in this study. The Achilles tendons of the healthy control group were not subjected to injury or treatment. The tendons of the injured nontreated group (ING) were injured, but not treated...
September 14, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Takafumi Watanabe, Kiyokazu Kametani, Yohichi Koyama, Daisuke Suzuki, Yasutada Imamura, Kazushige Takehana, Kohzy Hiramatsu
Tendons are composed of collagen fibrils and proteoglycan predominantly consisting of decorin. Decorin is located on the d-band of collagen fibrils, and its glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains have been observed between collagen fibrils with transmission electron microscopy. GAG chains have been proposed to interact with each other or with collagen fibrils, but its three-dimensional organization remains unclear. In this report, we used focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy to examine the three-dimensional organization of the GAG chain in the Achilles tendon of mature rats embedded in epoxy resin after staining with Cupromeronic blue, which specifically stains GAG chains...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Anna Cristina de Farias Marques, Regiane Albertini, Andrey Jorge Serra, Evela Aparecida Pereira da Silva, Vanessa Lima Cavalcante de Oliveira, Luciana Miatto Silva, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
This study investigates the effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on collagen type I and III, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in experimentally induced tendinopathy in female aged rats. Tendinopathy was induced by the Achilles tendoncollagenase peritendinous. Forty-two Wistar rats (Norvegicus albinus) were used; groups consisted of 36 aged animals (18 months old; mean body weight, 517.7 ± 27.54 g) and 6 adult animals (12 weeks old; mean body weight, 266± 19...
September 13, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Christian Couppé, René B Svensson, Katja M Heinemeier, Emilie Wøjdemann Thomsen, Monika Lucia Bayer, Lise Christensen, Michael Kjær, S Peter Magnusson, Peter Schjerling
Increased tendon cell nuclei density (TCND) has been proposed to induce tendon mechanical adaptations. However, it is unknown whether TCND is increased in tendon tissue after mechanical loading and whether such an increase can be quantified in a reliable manner. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method for quantification of TCND and to investigate potential changes in TCND in rat Achilles tendons in response to 12 weeks of running. Eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats ran (RUN) on a treadmill with 10° incline, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk (17-20 m/min) for 12 weeks (which improved tendon mechanical properties) and were compared with 11 control rats (SED)...
August 26, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Érika P Rampazo, Richard E Liebano, Carlos Eduardo Pinfildi, Roberta A C Folha, Lydia M Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy of high voltage pulsed current in collagen realignment and synthesis and in angiogenesis after the partial rupturing of the Achilles tendon in rats. METHOD: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups of 10 animals each: sham, cathodic stimulation, anodic stimulation, and alternating stimulation. Their Achilles tendons were submitted to direct trauma by a free-falling metal bar. Then, the treatment was administered for six consecutive days after the injury...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Carlotta Perucca Orfei, Arianna B Lovati, Marco Viganò, Deborah Stanco, Marta Bottagisio, Alessia Di Giancamillo, Stefania Setti, Laura de Girolamo
Tendinopathy is a big burden in clinics and it represents 45% of musculoskeletal lesions. Despite the relevant social impact, both pathogenesis and development of the tendinopathy are still under-investigated, thus limiting the therapeutic advancement in this field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent and time-related tissue-level changes occurring in a collagenase-induced tendinopathy in rat Achilles tendons, in order to establish a standardized model for future pre-clinical studies...
2016: PloS One
M B Fauzi, Y Lokanathan, B S Aminuddin, B H I Ruszymah, S R Chowdhury
Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in the human body, thus widely used in tissue engineering and subsequent clinical applications. This study aimed to extract collagen from ovine (Ovis aries) Achilles tendon (OTC), and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and its potential to fabricate thin film with collagen fibrils in a random or aligned orientation. Acid-solubilized protein was extracted from ovine Achilles tendon using 0.35M acetic acid, and 80% of extracted protein was measured as collagen...
November 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Nicole Danos, Natalie C Holt, Gregory S Sawicki, Emanuel Azizi
Efficient muscle-tendon performance during cyclical tasks is dependent on both active and passive mechanical tissue properties. Here we examine whether age-related changes in the properties of muscle-tendon units (MTUs) compromise their ability to do work and utilize elastic energy storage. We empirically quantified passive and active properties of the medial gastrocnemius muscle and material properties of the Achilles tendon in young (~6 mos) and old (~32 mos) rats. We then used these properties in computer simulations of a Hill-type muscle model in series with a Hookean spring...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Parmis Blomgran, Robert Blomgran, Jan Ernerudh, Per Aspenberg
Loading influences tendon healing, and so does inflammation. We hypothesized that the two are connected. 48 rats underwent Achilles tendon transection. Half of the rats received Botox injections into calf muscles to reduce mechanical loading. Cells from the regenerating tissue were analyzed by flow cytometry. In the loaded group, the regenerating tissue contained 83% leukocytes (CD45(+)) day 1, and 23% day 10. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio (CCR7/CD206) peaked at day 3, while T helper (CD3(+)CD4(+)) and Treg cells (CD25(+) Foxp3(+)) increased over time...
2016: Scientific Reports
Weizhong Zhang, Xuanyi Li, Mauro Comes Franchini, Ke Xu, Erica Locatelli, Robert C Martin, Ilaria Monaco, Yan Li, Shusen Cui
We introduced curcumin-loaded nanomicelles into a tendon-healing model to evaluate their effects on tendon healing and adhesion. Three groups consisting of 36 rats underwent rupture and repair of the Achilles tendon. The treatment group received an injection of curcumin-loaded nanomicelles (gold nanorods [GNRs]-1/curcumin in polymeric nanomicelles [curc@PMs] at a dosage of 0.44 mg curcumin/kg in 0.1 mL saline) into the surgical site and exposed to laser postoperatively at weeks 1, 2, and 3, for three times 10 seconds each, on the surgical site in the rats that underwent tendon rupture and repair, while the other two groups received 0...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hidetsugu Suzuki, Yoshiaki Ito, Masahiro Shinohara, Satoshi Yamashita, Shizuko Ichinose, Akio Kishida, Takuya Oyaizu, Tomohiro Kayama, Ryo Nakamichi, Naoki Koda, Kazuyoshi Yagishita, Martin K Lotz, Atsushi Okawa, Hiroshi Asahara
Cell-based or pharmacological approaches for promoting tendon repair are currently not available because the molecular mechanisms of tendon development and healing are not well understood. Although analysis of knockout mice provides many critical insights, small animals such as mice have some limitations. In particular, precise physiological examination for mechanical load and the ability to obtain a sufficient number of primary tendon cells for molecular biology studies are challenging using mice. Here, we generated Mohawk (Mkx)(-/-) rats by using CRISPR/Cas9, which showed not only systemic hypoplasia of tendons similar to Mkx(-/-) mice, but also earlier heterotopic ossification of the Achilles tendon compared with Mkx(-/-) mice...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bingyu Zhang, Qing Luo, Dongdong Kuang, Yang Ju, Guanbin Song
OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible beneficial effects of a synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide (MGF-C25E) on the healing of rat Achilles tendon. RESULTS: A significantly increased Achilles functional index was found in the MGF-C25E-treated tendons relative to the saline-treated tendons. Macroscopic observation showed that the repair of MGF-C25E-treated (1000 ng/ml) tendons was superior to that of the saline-treated tendons. The mean value of the stiffness of the repaired tendons was significantly increased in the MGF-C25E-treated (1000 ng/ml) tendons relative to the saline-treated tendons...
October 2016: Biotechnology Letters
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