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Rat achilles tendon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094399/nonuniform-displacement-and-strain-between-the-soleus-and-gastrocnemius-subtendons-of-rat-achilles-tendon
#1
Taija Finni, Michel Bernabei, Guus C Baan, Wendy Noort, Chris Tijs, Huub Maas
Achilles tendon (AT) comprises of three subtendons arising from the soleus (SOL) and the lateral (LG) and medial (MG) heads of the gastrocnemius muscle. While recent human studies show differential displacement within AT, these displacement have not been attributed to specific subtendons. We tested the hypothesis that the SOL and LG subtendons show differential displacement and strain during various combinations of SOL, LG and MG excitations. Movement of knots, sutured onto SOL and LG subtendons of 12 Wistar rats, was videotaped while the muscles were stimulated intramuscularly and ankle torque was assessed...
November 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094396/polydeoxyribonucleotide-improves-tendon-healing-following-achilles-tendon-injury-in-rats
#2
Shin Hyuk Kang, Min Seok Choi, Han Koo Kim, Woo Seob Kim, Tae Hui Bae, Mi Kyung Kim, Seung Hwan Chang
Tendon injuries are major musculoskeletal disorders. Polydeoxyribonucleotide activates the adenosine receptor subtype A2A, resulting in tissue growth and neogenesis. This experimental study confirms that polydeoxyribonucleotide can improve secretion of various growth factors, promote collagen synthesis, and restore tensile strength of the Achilles tendon in a rat model with Achilles tendon injury. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 weeks, were divided into two groups, and the Achilles tendon was transected and repaired using the modified Kessler's method...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067092/effect-of-tendon-hydrogel-on-healing-of-tendon-injury
#3
Zheng Chen, Yongjun Rui, Yajun Xu, Quanrong Zhang, Zhenzhong Sun, Jiandong Zhou, Xueming Chen
Hand trauma arising from postoperative acute or chronic tendon injuries leads to delayed union and is one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice. The present study hypothesized that an extracellular matrix hydrogel made from tendons can promote tendon healing and improve tissue regeneration. To verify this, 36 Wistar rats were subjected to bilateral full-thickness injury of their Achilles tendons, starting from the heel bone along the center line to remove a segment of 5 mm in length and 0.5 mm in width...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065066/severe-burn-induced-inflammation-and-remodeling-of-achilles-tendon-in-a-rat-model
#4
Paula Hernandez, Dustin Buller, Thomas Mitchell, Jamie Wright, Haixiang Liang, Kshitij Manchanda, Tre Welch, Ryan M Huebinger, Deborah L Carlson, Steven E Wolf, Juquan Song
Severe burn causes systemic inflammation and hypercatabolism, resulting in damage to multiple organs distant to the burn site, including the musculoskeletal system. Bone mass and muscle loss have been reported. However, tendon that connects bone and muscle has not been studied in comparable detail. Here we aimed to characterize the molecular and functional changes in Achilles tendon triggered by severe burn. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats received 40% total body surface area scald burn. Achilles tendons were collected up to 14 days post burn...
October 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026107/achilles-tendon-compositional-and-structural-properties-are-altered-after-unloading-by-botox
#5
Hanifeh Khayyeri, Parmis Blomgran, Malin Hammerman, Mikael J Turunen, Annika Löwgren, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Per Aspenberg, Hanna Isaksson
Tendon function and homeostasis rely on external loading. This study investigates the biological mechanisms behind tendon biomechanical function and how the mechanical performance is affected by reduced daily loading. The Achilles tendons of 16 weeks old female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40) were unloaded for 5 weeks by inducing muscle paralysis with botulinum toxin injections in the right gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The contralateral side was used as control. After harvest, the tendons underwent biomechanical testing to assess viscoelasticity (n = 30 rats) and small angle X-ray scattering to determine the structural properties of the collagen fibrils (n = 10 rats)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024580/fos-promotes-early-stage-teno-lineage-differentiation-of-tendon-stem-progenitor-cells-in-tendon
#6
Jialin Chen, Erchen Zhang, Wei Zhang, Zeyu Liu, Ping Lu, Ting Zhu, Zi Yin, Ludvig J Backman, Huanhuan Liu, Xiao Chen, Hongwei Ouyang
Stem cells have been widely used in tendon tissue engineering. The lack of refined and controlled differentiation strategy hampers the tendon repair and regeneration. This study aims to find new effective differentiation factors for stepwise tenogenic differentiation. By microarray screening, the transcript factor Fos was found to be expressed in significantly higher amounts in postnatal Achilles tendon tissue derived from 1 day as compared with 7-days-old rats. It was further confirmed that expression of Fos decreased with time in postnatal rat Achilles tendon, which was accompanied with the decreased expression of multiply tendon markers...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975451/increased-mast-cell-degranulation-and-co-localization-of-mast-cells-with-the-nmda-receptor-1-during-healing-after-achilles-tendon-rupture
#7
Md Abdul Alim, Paul W Ackermann, Pernilla Eliasson, Parmis Blomgran, Per Kristiansson, Gunnar Pejler, Magnus Peterson
The role of inflammation and the mechanism of tendon healing after rupture has historically been a matter of controversy. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the role of mast cells and their relation to the NMDA receptor-1 (a glutamate receptor) during healing after Achilles tendon rupture. Eight female Sprague Dawley rats had their right Achilles tendon transected. Three weeks after rupture, histological quantification of mast cell numbers and their state of degranulation was assessed by histochemistry...
October 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963482/systemic-corticosteroids-improve-tendon-healing-when-given-after-the-early-inflammatory-phase
#8
Parmis Blomgran, Malin Hammerman, Per Aspenberg
Inflammation initiates tendon healing and then normally resolves more or less completely. Unresolved inflammation might disturb the remodeling process. We hypothesized that suppression of inflammation during the early remodeling phase by systemic dexamethasone treatment can improve healing. 36 rats underwent Achilles tendon transection and were randomized to dexamethasone or saline on days 0-4 after surgery (early inflammatory phase), and euthanasia day 7. Another 54 rats received injections days 5-9 (early remodeling phase) and were euthanized day 12 for mechanical, histological and flow cytometric evaluation...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963019/an-epigenetic-bioactive-composite-scaffold-with-well-aligned-nanofibers-for-functional-tendon-tissue-engineering
#9
Can Zhang, Xianliu Wang, Erchen Zhang, Long Yang, Huihua Yuan, Wenjing Tu, Huilan Zhang, Zi Yin, Weiliang Shen, Xiao Chen, Yanzhong Zhang, Hongwei Ouyang
Poor tendon repair is often a clinical challenge due to the lack of ideal biomaterials. Electrospun aligned fibers, resembling the ultrastructure of tendon, have been previously reported to promote tenogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear and the aligned fibers alone are not capable enough to commit teno-differentiation of stem cells. Here, based on our observation of reduced expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) cultured on aligned fibers, we proposed a strategy to enhance the tenogenesis effect of aligned fibers by using a small molecule Trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor...
September 26, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951538/effect-of-tendon-stem-cells-in-chitosan-%C3%AE-glycerophosphate-collagen-hydrogel-on-achilles-tendon-healing-in-a-rat-model
#10
Zhijin Yang, Honghui Cao, Shang Gao, Mingyu Yang, Jingtong Lyu, Kanglai Tang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine whether the local application of tendon stem cells (TSCs) with chitosan/β-glycerophosphate/collagen(C/GP/Co) hydrogel promotes healing after an acute Achilles tendon injury in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to make an Achilles tendon defect model, then the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups consisting of 8 rats each: control group, hydrogel group, TSCs group, and TSCs with hydrogel group. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks after treatment, tendon samples were harvested, and the quality of tendon repair was evaluated based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and biomechanical properties...
September 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902469/time-dependent-changes-in-the-structure-of-calcified-fibrocartilage-in-the-rat-achilles-tendon-bone-interface-with-sciatic-denervation
#11
Hideaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Mineo Oyama, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki Onishi
The enthesis transmits a physiological load from soft to hard tissue via fibrocartilage. The histological alterations induced by this physiological loading remain unclear. This study was performed to examine the histomorphological alterations in the collagen fiber bundle alignment and depth of collagen interdigitation between the calcified fibrocartilage and the bone. We examined the Achilles enthesis of rats with sciatic denervation to explore the mechanical effects of structural changes in the enthesis. The parallelism of the collagen fiber bundles was significantly reduced 8 weeks after denervation...
September 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901376/mechanical-loading-modulates-heterotopic-ossification-in-calcific-tendinopathy-through-the-mtorc1-signaling-pathway
#12
Guorong Chen, Huaji Jiang, Xinggui Tian, Jiajun Tang, Xiaochun Bai, Zhongmin Zhang, Liang Wang
Excessive mechanical loading is a major factor affecting heterotopic ossification (HO), which is a major pathological alteration in calcific tendinopathy. However, physical therapies with mechanical loading as the functional element have exhibited promising results in the treatment of calcific tendinopathy. The dual effects that mechanical loading may have on the pathogenesis and rehabilitation of calcified tendinopathy remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of mechanical loading on HO in calcific tendinopathy...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821728/dynamic-weight-bearing-analysis-is-effective-for-evaluation-of-tendinopathy-using-a-customized-corridor-with-multi-directional-force-sensors-in-a-rat-model
#13
Po-Ting Wu, Chieh-Hsiang Hsu, Fong-Chin Su, I-Ming Jou, Shih-Yao Chen, Chao-Liang Wu, Wei-Ren Su, Li-Chieh Kuo
Few studies discuss kinetic changes in tendinopathy models. We propose a customized corridor to evaluate dynamic weight bearing (DWB) and shearing forces. Sixty rats were randomly given ultrasound-assisted collagenase injections (Collagenase rats) or needle punctures (Control rats) in their left Achilles tendons, and then evaluated 1, 4, and 8 weeks later. The Collagenase rats always had significantly (p < 0.001) higher histopathological and ultrasound feature scores than did the Controls, significantly lower DWB values in the injured than in the right hindlimbs, and compensatorily higher (p < 0...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806294/the-tissue-engineered-tendon-bone-interface-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-synergistic-effects-of-adipo-derived-stem-cells-platelet-rich-plasma-and-extracellular-matrix-hydrogel
#14
Rory McGoldrick, Arhana Chattopadhyay, Christopher Crowe, Grace Chiou, Kenneth Hui, Simon Farnebo, Christopher Davis, Anais Le Grand, Molly Jacobs, Hung Pham, James Chang
INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal healing of the tendon bone interface (TBI) remains an unsolved problem. One solution is a biocompatible tissue engineered construct that promotes augmented healing. We hypothesisze that 1.) the presence of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) and prolonged in vitro incubation produces tissue engineered tendon bone interface scaffolds with greater reseeding of viable Adipo-derived Stem Cells (ADSC) and 2.) when implanted with extracellular matrix hydrogel, constructs will display superior in vivo strength repair and biocompatibility...
August 3, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759732/therapeutic-effects-of-doxycycline-on-the-quality-of-repaired-and-unrepaired-achilles-tendons
#15
Quynhhoa T Nguyen, Jolanta B Norelli, Adam Graver, Charles Ekstein, Johnathan Schwartz, Farzana Chowdhury, Mark C Drakos, Daniel A Grande, Nadeen O Chahine
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon tears are devastating injuries, especially to athletes. Elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity after a tendon injury has been associated with deterioration of the collagen network and can be inhibited with doxycycline (Doxy). HYPOTHESIS: Daily oral administration of Doxy will enhance the histological, molecular, and biomechanical quality of transected Achilles tendons. Additionally, suture repair will further enhance the quality of repaired tendons...
October 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750046/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-suppresses-expressions-of-scx-mkx-and-tnmd-in-tendon-derived-cells
#16
Yasuzumi Kishimoto, Bisei Ohkawara, Tadahiro Sakai, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Chisa Shukunami, Denitsa Docheva, Kinji Ohno
After tendon injuries, biomechanical properties of the injured tendon are not fully recovered in most cases. Modulation of signaling pathways, which are involved in tendon development and tendon repair, is one of attractive modalities to facilitate proper regeneration of the injured tendon. The roles of TGF-β signaling in tendon homeostasis and tendon development have been elucidated. In contrast, the roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in tendon remain mostly elusive. We found that the number of β-catenin-positive cells was increased at the injured site, suggesting involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in tendon healing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720001/differential-effects-of-heat-stress-on-fibre-capillarisation-in-tenotomised-soleus-and-plantaris-muscles
#17
Muthita Hirunsai, Ratchakrit Srikuea
PURPOSE: Capillary regression is commonly observed in response to disuse muscle atrophy. Heat stress is known to alleviate muscle atrophy, while effect of heat exposure on capillary adaptation following disuse atrophy is not defined. Here, we examined the effect of heat treatment on capillarisation and the associated signalling in slow-oxidative soleus and fast-glycolytic plantaris muscles following Achilles tendon ablation (tenotomy). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned into control (CON), control with heat stress (CON + HEAT), tenotomy (TEN) and tenotomy with heat stress (TEN + HEAT) groups...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705996/different-gene-response-to-mechanical-loading-during-early-and-late-phases-of-rat-achilles-tendon-healing
#18
Malin Hammerman, Parmis Blomgran, Arie Dansac, Pernilla Eliasson, Per Aspenberg
Mechanical loading stimulates tendon healing both when applied in the inflammatory phase and in the early remodeling phase of the process, although not necessarily via the same mechanisms. We investigated the gene response to mechanical loading in these two phases of tendon healing. The right Achilles tendon in rats was transected and the hind limbs were unloaded by tail suspension. The rats were exposed to 5 minutes of treadmill running 3 or 14 days after tendon transection. Thereafter, they were re-suspended for 15 minutes or 3 hours until euthanasia...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698601/characteristics-of-sonography-in-a-rat-achilles-tendinopathy-model-possible-non-invasive-predictors-of-biomechanics
#19
Su-Ya Lee, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, I-Ming Jou, Yung-Nien Sun, Li-Chieh Kuo, Po-Ting Wu, Fong-Chin Su
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic changes of histopathology, biomechanical properties, echo intensity, and ultrasound features in a collagenase-induced tendinopathy model of rat Achilles tendons, and to examine the associations among biomechanical properties, echo intensity, and ultrasound features. Forty-two rats received an ultrasound-guided collagenase injection on their left Achilles tendons, and needle puncture on the right ones as the control. At four, eight, and twelve weeks post-injury, the tendons were examined via measurements of their biomechanical properties, histopathological and ultrasonographic characteristics...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683928/aging-leads-to-inferior-achilles-tendon-mechanics-and-altered-ankle-function-in-rodents
#20
A M Pardes, Z M Beach, H Raja, A B Rodriguez, B R Freedman, L J Soslowsky
Spontaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon is increasingly common in the middle aged population. However, the cause for the particularly high incidence of injury in this age group is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify age-specific differences in the Achilles tendon-muscle complex using an animal model. Functional measures were performed in vivo and tissues were harvested following euthanasia for mechanical, structural, and histological analysis from young, middle aged, and old rats...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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