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Beta-alanine and rats

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889753/renal-denervation-attenuates-multi-organ-fibrosis-and-improves-vascular-remodeling-in-rats-with-transverse-aortic-constriction-induced-cardiomyopathy
#1
Kai Wang, Dasheng Lu, Bin Zhang, Shengchan Wang, Qian Liu, Qi Zhang, Jie Geng, Qijun Shan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on multi-organ fibrosis and vascular remodeling in cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Five weeks later, 28 surviving TAC rats were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) RDN, (2) Sham, (3) Carvedilol. Six male Sham TAC rats served as the Control. Ten weeks after TAC, samples were collected. RESULTS: TAC rats showed an increased diastolic interventricular septal thickness at week 5...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829813/olanzapine-induced-biochemical-and-histopathological-changes-after-its-chronic-administration-in-rats
#2
Rehmat Shah, Fazal Subhan, Gowhar Ali, Ihsan Ullah, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Shahid, Nisar Ahmad, Khwaja Fawad
Objective: Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic acting mainly as a dopamine D2 and serotonine 5-HT2 receptors antagonist prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia and various other psychiatric illnesses. Even though olanzapine is widely used in psychiatry, its effects on the architecture of pancreas, liver and kidneys are little known. The histology of pancreas especially has never been studied. For these reasons, the current study was designed to elucidate the toxic effects of chronic administration of olanzapine on pancreas, liver and kidneys and the enzymes released by these tissues in an escalating dose manner...
November 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793418/omega-3-fatty-acids-decreases-oxidative-stress-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-interleukin-1-beta-in-hyperthyroidism-induced-hepatic-dysfunction-rat-model
#3
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Ebtihal A Abd El-Aziz
Hyperthyroidism is associated with abnormalities of the liver. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially their long-chain forms: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial health effects. The objectives of the present study were to assess hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction in adult male rats and to evaluate the ameliorative effects of omega-3 on hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms. Twenty four adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups; control group which received water for 6 weeks, hyperthyroid group which received L-thyroxine orally for 6 weeks and hyperthyroid omega-3 treated group which received L-thyroxine for 2 weeks and then co-treated with L-thyroxine and omega-3 oral compound containing 18% of EPA and 12% of DHA for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754152/os-29-04-sympathetic-nervous-system-regulation-of-the-renal-ncc-and-blood-pressure-during-high-dietary-salt-intake
#4
Richard Wainford, Kathryn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: These studies tested the hypothesis that the SNS release of norepinephrine modulates NCC activity via a WNK1 mechanism to contribute to the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension in rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats receiving a continuous s.c. saline or NE (600 ng/min) infusion or naïve Dahl Salt-Resistant (DSR) and Dahl Salt-Sensitive (DSS) rats were fed a 0.6% (NS) or 8% NaCl (HS) diet for 14 or 21 days respectively (N = 6/group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664884/effects-of-myrtus-communis-extract-treatment-in-bile-duct-ligated-rats
#5
Ali Sen, Sevil Ozkan, Kafiye Recebova, Ozge Cevik, Feriha Ercan, Elif Kervancıoglu Demirci, Leyla Bitis, Goksel Sener
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to investigate the antifibrotic and antioxidant effects of Myrtus communis subsp. communis (MC) extract against liver injury and fibrosis occurring in rats with biliary obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were randomized into four groups (n = 8). Control group (C), MC-administrated group (MC), the bile duct ligation (BDL), and BDL + MC groups. MC was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg a day orally for 28 days. In blood samples, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase levels, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β measurement were measured...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643082/os-29-04-sympathetic-nervous-system-regulation-of-the-renal-ncc-and-blood-pressure-during-high-dietary-salt-intake
#6
Richard Wainford, Kathryn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: These studies tested the hypothesis that the SNS release of norepinephrine modulates NCC activity via a WNK1 mechanism to contribute to the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension in rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats receiving a continuous s.c. saline or NE (600 ng/min) infusion or naïve Dahl Salt-Resistant (DSR) and Dahl Salt-Sensitive (DSS) rats were fed a 0.6% (NS) or 8% NaCl (HS) diet for 14 or 21 days respectively (N = 6/group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633729/anti-hepatic-fibrosis-effects-of-a-novel-turtle-shell-decoction-by-inhibiting-hepatic-stellate-cell-proliferation-and-blocking-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#7
Ganping Bai, Guohe Yan, Guojian Wang, Ping Wan, Ronghua Zhang
Hepatic fibrosis (HF), a wound-healing response to a variety of chronic stimuli, is characterized by the excessive synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and eventually the development of hepatic cirrhosis. Turtle shell pill (TSP) is a common traditional Chinese medicine used for preventing and treating HF and early hepatic cirrhosis, but its side-effects and the shortage of ingredients limit its clinical application. In addition, its mechanism of action is not clear...
September 9, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563222/protective-effects-of-silymarin-alone-or-in-combination-with-chlorogenic-acid-and-or-melatonin-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity
#8
Nouf Al-Rasheed, Laila Faddah, Nawal Al-Rasheed, Yieldez A Bassiouni, Iman H Hasan, Ayman M Mahmoud, Raeesa A Mohamad, Hazar I Yacoub
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of silymarin (SIL), alone and combined with chlorogenic acid (CA) and/or melatonin (ME), using a rat model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, IP). One day after, rats were received SIL (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with CA (60 mg/kg) and/or ME (20 mg/kg) for 21 days. RESULTS: SIL significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, inflammatory cytokines, and vascular endothelial growth factor levels...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471884/attenuation-of-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatic-toxicity-by-a-dietary-supplement
#9
Zhiqiang Zheng, Richard W Gelling
Advanced liver disease (ALD) is often characterized with overt malnutrition and liver fibrosis. In this study, a dietary supplement (DS) was first developed, including branch chain amino acids, fat soluble vitamins, zinc, medium chain triglycerides, soy lecithin, L-carnitine, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Benefits of DS were then tested using an ALD rat model treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 6, 8, and 10 weeks, respectively. Our study showed that CCl4-induced drop of serum albumin and ratio of branch chain to aromatic amino acids were significantly prevented at all three time points...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459811/-change-in-plasma-nesfatin-1-concentration-within-high-fat-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-rat-models
#10
Rui Wu, Zheng Chen, Yayun Xu, Jinfang Ge, Xiongwen Lü
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change of plasma nesfatin-1 concentration in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rat model induced by high-fat diet, and explore its effect on the dysfunction of glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease rat model was established through introduction of a high-fat diet, and four weeks later, the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted. Serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), total cholesterol (TC) triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected using chemiluminescence technique...
May 2016: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399769/total-flavonoids-from-rosa-laevigata-michx-fruit-ameliorates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-rats
#11
Xufeng Tao, Xiance Sun, Lina Xu, Lianhong Yin, Xu Han, Yan Qi, Youwei Xu, Yanyan Zhao, Changyuan Wang, Jinyong Peng
The effects of total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit against liver damage and cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have been reported, but its action on hepatic I/R injury remains unknown. In this work, the effects and possible mechanisms of TFs against hepatic I/R injury were examined using a 70% partial hepatic warm ischemia rat model. The results demonstrated TFs decreased serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, improved liver histopathology and ultrastructure through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and electron microscope observation...
2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351828/paeoniflorin-alleviates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-rats-involvement-with-the-rock-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#12
Zhihong Ma, Li Chu, Hongying Liu, Jieru Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Wentai Liu, Jun Dai, Jianfeng Yi, Yue Gao
Paeoniflorin (PF) is one of the major active ingredients of Paeonia lactiflora and has been suggested as a dietary therapy for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, the involved mechanism remains obscure. The present work investigates the anti-inflammatory effects of PF and explores the possible mechanisms in a rat model of NASH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat (HCF) diet for 12weeks to induce the NASH model, and PF (20mg/kg/d) was orally administered to the NASH rats during the last four weeks of the study...
September 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27275932/correlation-of-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-assay-results-for-assessment-of-free-radical-scavenging-activity-of-green-tea-nutraceuticals
#13
Heba-Alla H Abd-ElSalam, Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Muhammad Al-Shorbagy, Noha Nassar, Hala E Zaazaa, Mohamed A Ibrahim
Green tea (GT)-derived catechins; epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in particular are commonly used nutraceuticals for their free-radical scavenging activity (FRSA). The influence of photodegradation on the protective power of GT nutracenticals against oxidative stress was thoroughly explored. Photodegradation of GT extracts was carried out and monitored using orthogonal stability-indicating testing protocol; in vitro and in vivo assays. Total polyphenol content (TPC) and FRSA were determined spectrophotometrically while EGCG was selectively monitored using SPE-HPLC...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27246441/persistent-gabaa-c-responses-to-gabazine-taurine-and-beta-alanine-in-rat-hypoglossal-motoneurons
#14
D Chesnoy-Marchais
In hypoglossal motoneurons, a sustained anionic current, sensitive to a blocker of ρ-containing GABA receptors, (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) and insensitive to bicuculline, was previously shown to be activated by gabazine. In order to better characterize the receptors involved, the sensitivity of this atypical response to pentobarbital (30μM), allopregnanolone (0.3μM) and midazolam (0.5μM) was first investigated. Pentobarbital potentiated the response, whereas the steroid and the benzodiazepine were ineffective...
August 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241356/hepatoprotective-effects-of-allyl-isothiocyanate-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rat
#15
Meejung Ahn, Jeongtae Kim, Hyojin Bang, Jihwan Moon, Gi Ok Kim, Taekyun Shin
We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were orally administered AITC at doses of 5 (AITC 5) and 50 (AITC 50) mg/kg body weight once daily for 3 days, with or without intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Serum chemistry was assessed for changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in liver tissues, while pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) mRNA expression were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
July 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232443/hepatoprotective-effects-of-lycopene-on-liver-enzymes-involved-in-methionine-and-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-hyperhomocysteinemic-rats
#16
Aicha Yefsah-Idres, Yasmina Benazzoug, Amel Otman, Alizée Latour, Sandrine Middendorp, Nathalie Janel
Hyperhomocysteinemia, defined by an increased plasma homocysteine level, is commonly associated with chronic liver diseases. A link between the elevated homocysteine level and oxidative stress has been demonstrated. Indeed the pathogenesis of liver diseases in the case of hyperhomocysteinemia could be due to this production of oxidative stress. Many studies have demonstrated the antioxidative properties of lycopene, a carotenoid. Therefore, the present study was designed to induce hyperhomocysteinemia in male Wistar rats in order to analyze the effect of lycopene supplementation on homocysteine metabolism, on phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities, and on liver injury by histological examination and analysis of biochemical markers...
June 15, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209705/beta-vulgaris-subspecies-cicla-var-flavescens-swiss-chard-flavonoids-hepatoprotective-and-hypolipidemic-activities
#17
A N Hashem, M S Soliman, M A Hamed, N F Swilam, U Lindequist, M A Nawwar
The novel flavonoids, 2",2"'-di-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-vicenin II, a di-C-glycosyl flavone, and herbacetin 3-O-β-xylopyranosyl- (1"' --> 2")-O-β-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the leaves of Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla L. var. flavescens, an edible plant which is consumed in the Mediterranean areas, additional to the known flavonoids, 6-C-glucosyl isoscutellarein, vitexin-(1"' --> 2")-O-β-xylopyranosyl, vitexin-(1'" --> 2")-O-α-rhamnopyranosyI and vitexin. All metabolites were established by conventional methods of analysis and their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis, including 1 D and 2D-NMR and by HR-ESIMS, as well...
April 2016: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197862/role-of-histidyl-dipeptides-in-contractile-function-of-fast-and-slow-motor-units-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#18
Dominik Kaczmarek, Dawid Łochyński, Inge Everaert, Maciej Pawlak, Wim Derave, Jan Celichowski
The physiological role of the muscle histidyl dipeptides carnosine and anserine in contractile function of various types of muscle fibers in vivo is poorly understood. Ten adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: control and supplemented for 10 wk with beta-alanine, the precursor of carnosine (∼640 mg·kg body wt(-1)·day(-1)). Thereafter, contractile properties and fatigability of isolated fast fatigable (FF), fast resistant to fatigue (FR), and slow motor units (MUs) from the medial gastrocnemius were determined in deeply anaesthetized animals...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27153445/hepatocyte-like-versus-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis
#19
Suzy Fayez Ewida, Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Amal Abd El-Rasol Elhosary, Shaimaa Abd El-Ghane Metawe
It is still a matter of debate as to whether in vitro mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived hepatocytes may efficiently repopulate a host liver to provide adequate functional substitution. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and consistency of in vitro hepatic differentiation from Wharton jelly-derived MSCs, and to validate their therapeutic potential in experimentally induced liver fibrosis compared with nondifferentiated MSCs. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into 4 main groups: (I) normal control group; (II) carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated group (injected CCl4 solution twice a week for 8 wk); (III) MSC-treated group (a single intravenous dose of MSCs from human umbilical cord at the fourth week of induction of fibrosis); and (IV) hepatocyte-like stem cells (HLCs)-treated group (a single intravenous dose of MSCs after in vitro conversion to hepatocyte at the fourth week of induction of fibrosis)...
May 5, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27023909/mitochondrial-defects-associated-with-%C3%AE-alanine-toxicity-relevance-to-hyper-beta-alaninemia
#20
Aza Shetewy, Kayoko Shimada-Takaura, Danielle Warner, Chian Ju Jong, Abu-Bakr Al Mehdi, Mikhail Alexeyev, Kyoko Takahashi, Stephen W Schaffer
Hyper-beta-alaninemia is a rare metabolic condition that results in elevated plasma and urinary β-alanine levels and is characterized by neurotoxicity, hypotonia, and respiratory distress. It has been proposed that at least some of the symptoms are caused by oxidative stress; however, only limited information is available on the mechanism of reactive oxygen species generation. The present study examines the hypothesis that β-alanine reduces cellular levels of taurine, which are required for normal respiratory chain function; cellular taurine depletion is known to reduce respiratory function and elevate mitochondrial superoxide generation...
May 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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