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Pediatric hepatology

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October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
L Rodriguez, M Sood, C Di Lorenzo, M Saps
BACKGROUND: Over the last few years, the study of the colon and anorectal function has experienced great technical advances that have facilitated the performance of the tests and have allowed a more detailed characterization of reflexes and motor patterns. As a result, we have achieved a much better understanding of the pathophysiology of children with defecation problems. Anorectal and colonic manometry are now commonly used in all major pediatric referral centers as diagnostic tools and to guide the management of children with intractable constipation and fecal incontinence, particularly when a surgical intervention is being considered...
October 9, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Girish Gupte, Anshu Srivastava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Joel A Friedlander, Quin Y Liu, Benjamin Sahn, Koorosh Kooros, Catharine M Walsh, Robert E Kramer, Jenifer R Lightdale, Julie Khlevner, Mark McOmber, Jacob Kurowski, Matthew J Giefer, Harpreet Pall, David M Troendle, Elizabeth C Utterson, Herbert Brill, George M Zacur, Richard A Lirio, Diana G Lerner, Carrie Reynolds, Troy E Gibbons, Michael Wilsey, Chris A Liacouras, Douglas S Fishman
Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 as a less invasive method to visualize the distal small bowel in adults. As this technology has advanced it has been adapted for use in pediatric gastroenterology. Several studies have described its clinical use, utility, and various training methods but pediatric literature regarding capsule endoscopy is limited. This clinical report developed by the Endoscopic and Procedures Committee of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition outlines the current literature, and describes the recommended current role, use, training, and future areas of research for CE in pediatrics...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Mike Thomson, Andrea Tringali, Rosario Landi, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Marta Tavares, Jorge Amil-Dias, Marc Benninga, Merit M Tabbers, Raoul Furlano, Manon Spaander, Cesare Hassan, Christos Tzvinikos, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Jérôme Viala, Luigi Dall'Oglio, Rok Orel, Yvan Vandenplas, Radan Keil, Štěpán Hlava, Claudio Romano, Eva Brownstone, Patrick Gerner, Werner Dolak, Wolf Dietrich Huber, Simon Everett, Andreas Vecsei, Lars Aabakken, Alessandro Zambelli
This Guideline refers to infants, children and adolescents aged 0-18 years. The areas covered include: indications for diagnostic and therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileo-colonoscopy; endoscopy for foreign body ingestion; corrosive ingestion and stricture/stenosis endoscopic management; upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding; endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and endoscopy specific to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been dealt with in other Guidelines [1-3] and are therefore not mentioned in this Guideline...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Andrea Tringali, Mike Thomson, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Marta Tavares, Merit M Tabbers, Raoul Furlano, Manon Spaander, Cesare Hassan, Christos Tzvinikos, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Jérôme Viala, Luigi Dall'Oglio, Marc Benninga, Rok Orel, Yvan Vandenplas, Radan Keil, Claudio Romano, Eva Brownstone, Štěpán Hlava, Patrick Gerner, Werner Dolak, Rosario Landi, Wolf Dietrich Huber, Simon Everett, Andreas Vecsei, Lars Aabakken, Jorge Amil-Dias, Alessandro Zambelli
This Executive summary of the Guideline on pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) refers to infants, children, and adolescents aged 0 - 18 years. The areas covered include: indications for diagnostic and therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy; endoscopy for foreign body ingestion; endoscopic management of corrosive ingestion and stricture/stenosis; upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasonography...
September 12, 2016: Endoscopy
Amal Mohamed Ahmed, Maha Abdel Ghany, Gehan Lotfy Abdel Hakeem, Aya Kamal, Rania Khattab, Asmaa Abdalla, Laila El Morsi Abou El Fotoh, Abdel Azeem El Mazary, Madiha Abdalla Sayed, Ashraf Mohamed Abdel Fadil
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the health problems with great burden on the liver that may end with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to assess serum vitamin D level in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease children. METHODS: This cross sectional case control study involved 47 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease selected while recruiting the pediatric hepatology clinics. Their ages ranged from 5-15 years and were compared with 23 healthy age and sex matched children...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Albert Feng, Sara M O'hara, Resmi Gupta, Lin Fei, Tom K Lin
OBJECTIVE: The normal diameter of the extrahepatic bile duct (EHD) in children has been poorly studied. Prior studies have enrolled small subject numbers, have studied only specific pediatric age groups or have potential bias due to loosely defined exclusion criteria. We sought to establish parameters for the normal diameter of the EHD in children from birth to late adolescence, including premature infants. METHODS: A 12½ month IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective chart review of all transabdominal ultrasounds performed on children (<18 years old) was conducted at a single pediatric tertiary referral center...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Seema Rajani, Hien Q Huynh, Leanne Shirton, Cheryl Kluthe, Donald Spady, Connie Prosser, Jon Meddings, Gwen R Rempel, Rabindranath Persad, Justine M Turner
Background. The European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition endorses serological diagnosis (SD) for pediatric celiac disease (CD). The objective of this study was to pilot SD and to prospectively evaluate gastrointestinal permeability and mucosal inflammation at diagnosis and after one year on the gluten-free diet (GFD). We hypothesized that SD would be associated with similar short term outcomes as ED. Method. Children, 3-17 years of age, referred for possible CD were eligible for SD given aTTG level ≥200 U/mL, confirmed by repeat aTTG and HLA haplotypes...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Rima Fawaz, Ulrich Baumann, Udeme Ekong, Björn Fischler, Nedim Hadzic, Cara L Mack, Valérie A McLin, Jean P Molleston, Ezequiel Neimark, Vicky Lee Ng, Saul J Karpen
Cholestatic jaundice in infancy affects approximately 1 in every 2500 term infants and is infrequently recognized by primary providers in the setting of physiologic jaundice. Cholestatic jaundice is always pathologic and indicates hepatobiliary dysfunction. Early detection by the primary care physician and timely referrals to the pediatric gastroenterologist/hepatologist are important contributors to optimal treatment and prognosis. The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice in the first months of life are biliary atresia (BA, 25-40%) followed by an expanding list of monogenic disorders (25%), plus many unknown or multifactorial (e...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jatinder Bhatia
Breastfeeding is universally accepted as the preferred feeding for all newborn infants, including premature infants. The World Health Organization, American Academy of Pediatrics, Canadian Pediatric Society and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, among others, recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months in term infants, while complementary feeding is introduced over the next several months. However, for preterm infants, fortification is recommended to meet requirements...
2016: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Naim Alkhouri, Nizar N Zein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Enthusiastic physicians and medical researchers are investigating the role of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The purpose of the current review is to provide a concise summary of the role of three-dimensional printing technology as it relates to the field of pediatric hepatology and liver transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Our group and others have recently demonstrated the feasibility of printing three-dimensional livers with identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks to the native liver to facilitate presurgical planning of complex liver surgeries...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Jennifer L Dotson, Tolulope Falaiye, Josh B Bricker, Jennifer Strople, Joel Rosh
BACKGROUND: Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care is complex and rapidly evolving. The Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition cosponsored a needs assessment survey of pediatric gastroenterology trainees and program directors (PDs) to inform on educational programming. METHODS: A Web-based, self-completed survey was provided to North American trainees and PDs during the 2013-2014 academic year...
July 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Helma P Cotrim, Edison R Parise, Cláudio Figueiredo-Mendes, João Galizzi-Filho, Gilda Porta, Claudia P Oliveira
The prevalence of obesity-related metabolic syndrome has rapidly increased in Brazil, resulting in a high frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, that didn't receive much attention in the past. However, it has received increased attention since this disease was identified to progress to end-stage liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease have not been established in Brazil. The Brazilian Society of Hepatology held an event with specialists' members from all over Brazil with the purpose of producing guideline for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease based on a systematic approach that reflects evidence-based medicine and expert opinions...
April 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Inderpreet Grover, Richard Kim, Danielle C Spree, Christopher J Lahr, Archana Kedar, Shivangi Kothari, David Fleisher, Thomas L Abell
Background/Aims: Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a disabling migraine variant manifesting as severe episodes of nausea and vomiting and often refractory to many therapies. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES), which can reduce nausea and vomiting in gastroparesis, may provide symptomatic relief for drug-refractory CVS. This study assessed the utility GES in reducing the symptoms of CVS and improving quality of life. Methods: A one-year, non-randomized, clinical study was conducted...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Jonas F Ludvigsson, Lars Agreus, Carolina Ciacci, Sheila E Crowe, Marilyn G Geller, Peter H R Green, Ivor Hill, A Pali Hungin, Sibylle Koletzko, Tunde Koltai, Knut E A Lundin, M Luisa Mearin, Joseph A Murray, Norelle Reilly, Marjorie M Walker, David S Sanders, Raanan Shamir, Riccardo Troncone, Steffen Husby
The process of transition from childhood to adulthood is characterised by physical, mental and psychosocial development. Data on the transition and transfer of care in adolescents/young adults with coeliac disease (CD) are scarce. In this paper, 17 physicians from 10 countries (Sweden, Italy, the USA, Germany, Norway, the Netherlands, Australia, Britain, Israel and Denmark) and two representatives from patient organisations (Association of European Coeliac Societies and the US Celiac Disease Foundation) examined the literature on transition from childhood to adulthood in CD...
August 2016: Gut
Liron Birimberg-Schwartz, David C Wilson, Kaija-Leena Kolho, Katarzyna Karolewska-Bochenek, Nadeem Ahmad Afzal, Christine Spray, Claudio Romano, Paolo Lionetti, Almuthe C Hauer, Christine Martinez-Vinson, Gabor Veres, Johanna C Escher, Dan Turner
INTRODUCTION: No study to date has evaluated perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease-unclassified (IBDU) as compared with Crohn's colitis (CC) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which represent the diagnostic challenge. We aimed to explore the diagnostic utility of serology and to assess whether serology can predict disease severity in these subgroups. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective longitudinal study including 406 children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) from 23 centers affiliated with the Porto group of European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (mean age 10...
August 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Seema Alam, Vikrant Sood
Metabolic liver diseases are still considered by many as a 'rare' diagnosis, though scenario has definitely changed in recent times. With recent advances and wider availablility of newer techniques, many of these are now amenable to diagnosis and optimum management. Though the logistics involved are still out of reach of a significant proportion of our population, a stepwise and methodological approach with simple diagnostic tests can help point towards a probable diagnosis (with resultant directed investigations), helping to avoid unnecessary and costly workup...
April 29, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Yvan Vandenplas, Marc Benninga, Ilse Broekaert, Jackie Falconer, Frederic Gottrand, Carlos Lifschitz, Paolo Lionetti, Rok Orel, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Silvia Salvatore, Raanan Shamir, Michela Schäppi, Annamaria Staiano, Hania Szajewska, Nikhil Thapar, Michael Wilschanski, Alfredo Guarino
AIM: Implementing international guidelines guarantees high standards of clinical care. A group of experts developed an algorithm to drive the management of common gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy by paediatricians and general practitioners. METHODS: The algorithm started from the evidence-based recommendations of the European Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and an updated review of the literature...
August 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Aya M Fattouh, Engy A Mogahed, Nehal Abdel Hamid, Rodina Sobhy, Noha Saber, Hanaa El-Karaksy
BACKGROUND: There is deficiency of data about congenital heart defects (CHDs) in cholestatic disorders of infancy other than Alagille syndrome (AGS). We aimed to define the prevalence and types of CHDs in infants with various causes of cholestatic disorders of infancy. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 139 infants presenting with cholestasis whether surgical or non-surgical. The study was carried out at the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Children's Hospital, Egypt...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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