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Lin Wang, Mary A S Melo, Michael D Weir, Xianju Xie, Mark A Reynolds, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of tooth root caries is increasing as the world population ages and tooth retention in seniors increases. Class V restorations with subgingival margins are difficult to clean and often lead to periodontitis. The objectives of this study were to develop a Class V composite containing dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and investigate mechanical properties and the inhibition of six species of periodontitis-related biofilms for the first time...
September 23, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Kunneng Liang, Michael D Weir, Xianju Xie, Lin Wang, Mark A Reynolds, Jiyao Li, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of poly (amido amine) (PAMAM), composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and the combined PAMAM+NACP nanocomposite treatment, on remineralization of demineralized dentin in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. METHODS: Dentin specimens were prepared and demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15s. Four groups were prepared: (1) dentin control, (2) dentin coated with PAMAM, (3) dentin with NACP composite, (4) dentin with PAMAM+NACP...
September 22, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Jonathan Mensah Dapaah, Rachel Spronk
With the upscaling of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor countries, many HIV-positive persons in Ghana have been accessing treatment in hospitals. Prevalence is relatively low compared to other African countries, 1.30%. HIV/AIDS remains heavily stigmatised in Ghana, which influences the provision and use of ART. This article investigates how HIV-positive persons accessing care and treatment go about their everyday lives in the ART clinic and how they have eventually come to see the clinic as a safe place that they call 'home'...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Jessica A Ziegler, Robert G Bergman, John Arnold
Reaction of (BDI)Nb(N(t)Bu)Cl2py with NaCp results in the κ(1)-coordination of the BDI ligand in the complex (κ(1)-N,BDI)CpNb(N(t)Bu)Cl (2). Via chloride abstraction from 2, we develop synthetic routes to structurally analogous cationic and Nb(IV) pseudo-four coordinate complexes where the BDI ligand returns to the κ(2)-coordination mode. We compare these to our previously reported tetrahedral niobium bis(imido) complexes to investigate the effects of the Cp ligand on the properties of Nb-BDI-imido systems...
August 9, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xianju Xie, Lin Wang, Dan Xing, Dwayne D Arola, Michael D Weir, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: We recently developed a new rechargeable composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) having long-term calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release; however, this composite was not antibacterial. The objectives of this study were to: (1) incorporate dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) into rechargeable NACP composite, and (2) investigate mechanical properties, protein adsorption and biofilm response of composite, and the pH of biofilm medium...
September 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Lei Cheng, Ke Zhang, Chen-Chen Zhou, Michael D Weir, Xue-Dong Zhou, Hockin H K Xu
Dental composites are commonly used restorative materials; however, secondary caries due to biofilm acids remains a major problem. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a composite containing quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and (2) to conduct the first investigation of the mechanical properties, biofilm response and acid production vs water-ageing time from 1 day to 12 months. A 4 × 5 design was utilized, with four composites (NACP-QADM composite, NACP-NAg composite, NACP-QADM-NAg composite, and a commercial control composite), and five water-ageing time periods (1 day, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months)...
2016: International Journal of Oral Science
David Bonekamp, Maya B Wolf, Christopher Edler, Sonja Katayama, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Klaus Herfarth, Matthias Röthke
PURPOSE: To characterize parametric changes measured by sequential dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion MRI (DCE-MRI) during primary proton and carbon ion irradiation of prostate cancer using a novel hypofractionated raster scan technique to determine the potential of pharmacokinetic analysis for monitoring treatment effects of this novel irradiation scheme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-two patients were evaluated prospectively with DCE-MRI at baseline, day 10 during therapy, and 6weeks, 6months and 18months after treatment completion...
August 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Ning Zhang, Michael D Weir, Chen Chen, Mary A S Melo, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: White spot lesions often occur in orthodontic treatments. The objective of this study was to develop a novel resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI) as an orthodontic cement with protein-repellent, antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. METHODS: Protein-repellent 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), antibacterial dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) were incorporated into a RMGI...
July 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Subash Chandra Sonkar, Kirti Wasnik, Anita Kumar, Pratima Mittal, Daman Saluja
BACKGROUND: Trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in both men and women. Screening of trichomoniasis is problematic in resource challenged settings as currently available, inexpensive diagnostic methods are of low sensitivity and/or specificity. In India, National AIDS Control organization (NACO) recommended syndromic case management (SCM) for treatment. The objective of the present study was to compare the utility of the NACO-NACP III Algorithms for STI/RTI treatment used by clinicians with PCR based diagnosis...
May 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
C Matrosic, W Culberson, B Rosen, E Madsen, G Frank, B Bednarz
In vivo dosimetry is a greatly underutilized tool for patient safety in clinical external beam radiotherapy treatments, despite being recommended by several national and international organizations (AAPM, ICRU, IAEA, NACP). The reasons for this underutilization mostly relate to the feasibility and cost of in vivo dosimetry methods. Due to the increase in the number of beam angles and dose per fraction in modern treatments, there is a compelling need for a novel dosimeter that is robust and affordable while able to operate properly in these complex conditions...
May 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mary Anne Melo, Santiago Orrego, Michael D Weir, Huakun H K Xu, Dwayne D Arola
The oral environment is considered to be an asperous environment for restored tooth structure. Recurrent dental caries is a common cause of failure of tooth-colored restorations. Bacterial acids, microleakage, and cyclic stresses can lead to deterioration of the polymeric resin-tooth bonded interface. Research on the incorporation of cutting-edge anticaries agents for the design of new, long-lasting, bioactive resin-based dental materials is demanding and provoking work. Released antibacterial agents such as silver nanoparticles (NAg), nonreleased antibacterial macromolecules (DMAHDM, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate), and released acid neutralizer amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles (NACP) have shown potential as individual and dual anticaries approaches...
May 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rashmi Sharma, Pradeep Kumar, Brijesh Patel, Sanju Gajjar
INTRODUCTION: Second key strategy of National AIDS Control Program (NACP IV) is comprehensive care and support by providing quality services through zero stigma and discrimination. Quality of services can be improved by eliminating stigma and discrimination and making health care provider aware of associated occupational hazards. Nursing staff play crucial role and are more at risk therefore their understanding, perception and skill must be assessed in different domains of learning to improve the contents and methodology of trainings...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Ke Zhang, Lei Cheng, Michael D Weir, Yu-Xing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
Composites containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. A recent study synthesized quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs) with chain lengths (CLs) of 3-18 and determined their effects on a bonding agent. This study aimed to incorporate these QAMs into NACP nanocomposites for the first time to simultaneously endow the material with antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities and to investigate the effects of the CL on the mechanical and biofilm properties...
March 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
Ning Zhang, Ke Zhang, Huakun Xu, Yuxing Bai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) on the protein-repellent property of dental adhesive. METHODS: MPC and NACP were incorporated into SBMP as the test group. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) was used as control group. Human dentin shear bond strengths were measured. Protein adsorption onto samples was determined by micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate biofilm viability...
March 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Arezoo Jahanbin, Fahimeh Farzanegan, Mohammad Atai, Saeed Amel Jamehdar, Parvaneh Golfakhrabadi, Hooman Shafaee
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this 'split-mouth design' trial was to evaluate the effect of the nano amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) containing composite on enamel mineral contents and streptococcus mutans population in fixed orthodontic patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTION: Randomized, prospective, single-center controlled trial. Twenty-four patients between the ages of 13-18 years participated in this study. The control and test sides were randomly selected by a coin toss (1:1 ratio)...
March 11, 2016: European Journal of Orthodontics
P Dako-Gyeke, B Dornoo, S Ayisi Addo, M Atuahene, N A Addo, A E Yawson
BACKGROUND: Despite global scale up of interventions for Preventing Mother to child HIV Transmissions (PMTCT), there still remain high pediatric HIV infections, which result from unequal access in resource-constrained settings. Sub-Saharan Africa alone contributes more than 90 % of global Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) burden. As part of efforts to address this, African countries (including Ghana) disproportionately contributing to MTCT burden were earmarked in 2009 for rapid PMTCT interventions scale-up within their primary care system for maternal and child health...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Ling Zhang, Michael D Weir, Laurence C Chow, Joseph M Antonucci, Jihua Chen, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: Calcium phosphate (CaP) composites with Ca and P ion release can remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. But the ion release lasts only a few months. The objectives of this study were to develop rechargeable CaP dental composite for the first time, and investigate the Ca and P recharge and re-release of composites with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) to achieve long-term inhibition of caries. METHODS: Three NACP nanocomposites were fabricated with resin matrix of: (1) bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) at 1:1 mass ratio (referred to as BT group); (2) pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at 1:1 ratio (PE group); (3) BisGMA, TEGDMA, and Bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (BisMEP) at 2:1:1 ratio (BTM group)...
February 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Shastri Suresh, Burugina N Sharath, Shet Anita, Ravindra Lalitha, Tripathy J Prasad, Bharat B Rewari
Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes...
July 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Junling Wu, Han Zhou, Michael D Weir, Mary Anne S Melo, Eric D Levine, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: Biofilm acids contribute to secondary caries which is a reason for restoration failure. Previous studies synthesized nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM). The objectives of this study were to develop DMAHMD-NACP nanocomposite for double benefits of antibacterial and remineralization capabilities, and investigate the DMAHMD mass fraction effects on fracture toughness and biofilm response of NACP nanocomposite for the first time...
December 2015: Journal of Dentistry
Suresh Shastri, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Srinath Satyanarayana, Bharat Bhushan Rewari
BACKGROUND: In India, TB and HIV co-infection remains as a serious public health problem. From 2006 onwards, the intensified TB-HIV collaborative activities are being jointly implemented by National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) and Revised National TB Control programme (RNTCP) at high HIV burden states. OBJECTIVES: To determine (a) the predictors of outcome among a cohort of HIV-TB co-infected patients after two years after initiation of ART treatment. (b) prognostic significance of time difference between the initiation of ATT and ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients...
2015: PloS One
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