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Alexey A Larionov
The median survival of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has more than doubled, since the discovery of HER2-targeted treatments: it rose from less than 2 years in 2001 (prior introduction of trastuzumab) to more than 4 years in 2017. The initial generation of HER2-targeted therapies included trastuzumab with taxanes in the first line, followed by the addition of lapatinib and by a switch to another cytotoxic agent after progression. Results of CLEOPATRA, EMILIA, and TH3RESA trials have changed this clinical practice...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Zhiliang Ma, Wenqiang Zhao, Chunzhang Zhao, Dong Wang, Mei Liu, Dandan Li, Qing Liu
Information on how soil microbial communities respond to warming is still scarce for alpine scrub ecosystems. We conducted a field experiment with two plant treatments (plant removal or undisturbed) subjected to warmed or unwarmed conditions to examine the effects of warming and plant removal on soil microbial community structures during the growing season in a Sibiraea angustata scrubland of the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The results indicate that experimental warming significantly influenced soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), but the warming effects were dependent on the plant treatments and sampling seasons...
2018: PloS One
Jing Li, Xueping Wu, Mesfin Tsegaye Gebremikael, Huijun Wu, Dianxiong Cai, Bisheng Wang, Baoguo Li, Jiancheng Zhang, Yongshan Li, Jilong Xi
Microbial mechanisms associated with soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition are poorly understood. We aim to determine the effects of inorganic and organic fertilizers on soil labile carbon (C) pools, microbial community structure and C mineralization rate under an intensive wheat-maize double cropping system in Northern China. Soil samples in 0-10 cm layer were collected from a nine-year field trial involved four treatments: no fertilizer, CK; nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers, NP; maize straw combined with NP fertilizers, NPS; and manure plus straw and NP fertilizers, NPSM...
2018: PloS One
Niklas Engels, Jürgen Wienands
The generation of memory B cells (MBCs) that have undergone immunoglobulin class switching from IgM, which dominates primary antibody responses, to other immunoglobulin isoforms is a hallmark of immune memory. Hence, humoral immunological memory is characterized by the presence of serum immunoglobulins of IgG subtypes known as the γ-globulin fraction of blood plasma proteins. These antibodies reflect the antigen experience of B lymphocytes and their repeated triggering. In fact, efficient protection against a previously encountered pathogen is critically linked to the production of pathogen-specific IgG molecules even in those cases where the primary immune response required cellular immunity, for example, T cell-mediated clearance of intracellular pathogens such as viruses...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
Martina Bonechi, Francesca Galardi, Chiara Biagioni, Francesca De Luca, Mattias Bergqvist, Magnus Neumüller, Cristina Guarducci, Giulia Boccalini, Stefano Gabellini, Ilenia Migliaccio, Angelo Di Leo, Marta Pestrin, Luca Malorni
The aim of this study was to investigate if thymidine kinase-1 (TK1), a well-known proliferation marker, could represent a valid circulating biomarker to identify hormone receptor positive (HR+)/HER2 negative (HER2neg) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients most likely to benefit from endocrine therapy (ET). We used the DiviTum™ assay to analyze TK1 activity in cell lysates of three HR+/HER2neg BC cell lines and in plasma of 31 HR+/HER2neg MBC patients receiving ET. Blood samples were collected at treatment initiation, after one month and at disease progression...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Azeem Tariq, Anna Gunina, Norbert Lamersdorf
Initial changes in soil structure and C stocks were studied under short-rotation coppices (SRC) planted on former cropland near Göttingen, Central Germany. Plantations were established either as monocultures with willow (Willow-SRC) or poplar (Poplar-SRC), or as an agroforestry system with willow strips and grassland alleys in between (Willow-AF). A neighbouring cropland served as a control. Three sampling campaigns were applied in this study. The first sampling was conducted at a fine scale to reveal the differences in soil C with depth (i...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elisa Gobbini, Monia Ezzalfani, Véronique Dieras, Thomas Bachelot, Etienne Brain, Marc Debled, William Jacot, Marie Ange Mouret-Reynier, Anthony Goncalves, Florence Dalenc, Anne Patsouris, Jean Marc Ferrero, Christelle Levy, Veronique Lorgis, Laurence Vanlemmens, Claudia Lefeuvre-Plesse, Simone Mathoulin-Pelissier, Thierry Petit, Lionel Uwer, Christelle Jouannaud, Marianne Leheurteur, Magali Lacroix-Triki, Audrey Lardy Cleaud, Mathieu Robain, Coralie Courtinard, Christian Cailliot, David Perol, Suzette Delaloge
AIM: Real-life analysis of overall survival (OS) trends among metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients may help define medical needs and evaluate the impact of public health investments. The present study aimed to evaluate the independent impact of the year of MBC diagnosis on OS in the Epidemio-Strategy-Medical-Economical (ESME)-MBC cohort. METHODS: ESME-MBC (NCT03275311) is a French, national, multicentre, observational cohort including 16,702 consecutive newly diagnosed MBC patients (01 January 2008-31 December 2014)...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
L Barr, M Alamer, P D Darbre
The human population is widely exposed to benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC), 4-methylbenzilidenecamphor (4-MBC) and homosalate from their use in consumer goods to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. Their oestrogenic activity and presence in human milk suggest a potential to influence breast cancer development. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure concentrations of these UV filters in human breast tissue from three serial locations across the breast from 40 women undergoing mastectomy for primary breast cancer...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Ngadino, Setiawan, Koerniasari, Ernawati, S A Sudjarwo
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial activity of the Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in vitro . Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of C. xanthorrhiza was set by maceration method. The broth microdilution and disc diffusion method were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), respectively, of C. xanthorrhiza ethanol extract on strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Intan Nirwana, Devi Rianti, R Helal Soekartono, Rr Dwi Listyorini, Desi Putri Basuki
Background: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the bacteria that commonly found in root canal and pulp infection after root canal treatment. Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used root canal irrigation, but it has toxic properties if exposed to periradicular tissues. It is necessary to develop an alternative for root canal irrigation. Fig leaf ( Ficus carica Linn.) extract contains active substances such as flavonoid, tannin, and terpenoid which have been known for their antibacterial potency...
March 2018: Veterinary World
Jingru Liu, Ruxin Ma, Fangchao Bi, Fa Zhang, Chaoyu Hu, Henrietta Venter, Susan J Semple, Shutao Ma
A novel series of 5-methyl-2-phenylphenanthridium derivatives were displayed outstanding activity against a panel of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria strains compared with their precursor sanguinarine, ciprofloxacin and oxacillin sodium. Compounds 7 l, 7m and 7n were found to display the most effective activity against five sensitive strains (0.06-2 μg/mL) and three resistant strains (0.25-4 μg/mL). The kinetic profiles indicated that compound 7l possessed the strongest bactericidal effect on S...
April 7, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Douglas J Haney, Michael D Lock, Marc Gurwith, Jakub K Simon, Glenn Ishioka, Mitchell B Cohen, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Caroline E Lyon, Wilbur H Chen, Marcelo B Sztein, Myron M Levine, Jason B Harris
BACKGROUND: The single-dose live attenuated vaccine CVD 103-HgR protects against experimental Vibrio cholerae infection in cholera-naïve adults for at least 6 months after vaccination. While vaccine-induced vibriocidal seroconversion is associated with protection, vibriocidal titers decline rapidly from their peak 1-2 weeks after vaccination. Although vaccine-induced memory B cells (MBCs) might mediate sustained protection in individuals without detectable circulating antibodies, it is unknown whether oral cholera vaccination induces a MBC response...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
Mabrouka Bouacha, Hayette Ayed, Nedjoud Grara
Medicinal benefits of honey bee have been recognized in the medical community since ancient times as a remedy for many diseases and infections. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, isolated from urinary tract infections of pregnant women, to six honey samples collected from different localities in the east of Algeria. The evaluation of the antibacterial activity was performed by the well method followed by the broth dilution method using two-fold dilutions of each honey sample ranging from 2...
April 13, 2018: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Diana Salagean, Catherine Streutker, Hala Faragalla, Kiran Jakate
Distinguishing primary diffuse-type gastric carcinoma (PDGC) versus gastric involvement by metastatic breast carcinoma (mBC), particularly the lobular subtype, is difficult on histology alone. Both can appear morphologically similar. GATA3, a novel transcription factor, is used in certain scenarios as an immunohistochemical marker of breast origin. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of GATA3 in differentiating PDGC and mBC and how it compares to another breast marker, BRST2. We retrospectively stained 40 cases of PDGC and 10 control cases of mBC from upper gastrointestinal tract specimens for antibodies: GATA3, BRST2, CDX2, and estrogen receptor...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Fujing Pan, Wei Zhang, Yueming Liang, Shujuan Liu, Kelin Wang
Studying the influence of topography and litter and soil nutrients on soil enzymes and microbial biomass is important to the understanding of soil nutrient transformation and cycling, but these relationships in heterogeneous soils of karst ecosystem remains poorly understood. We determined environment factors influencing the urease (URS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) with advancing vegetation succession. The results showed that ALP increased but URS decreased with the advancing vegetation succession...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hamed Memariani, Mojtaba Memariani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
During the past decade, cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) have gained particular interest among researchers, since they often display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and low possibility of resistance emergence. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro effectiveness of Mastoparan-1 (MP-1), a tetradecapeptide CAP from hornet venom, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. MP-1 had a high propensity to form alpha-helix based on structural predictions. MP-1 was found to possess strong antimicrobial activities and weak cytotoxic effects...
April 4, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Darcy G Gordon, James F A Traniello
Social insect polyphenisms provide models to examine the neural basis of division of labor and anatomy of the invertebrate social brain. Worker size-related behavior is hypothesized to enhance task performance, raising questions concerning the integration of morphology, behavior, and cellular neuroarchitecture, and how variation in sensory inputs and cognitive demands of behaviorally differentiated workers is reflected in higher-order processing ability. We used the highly polymorphic ant Pheidole rhea, which has three distinct worker size classes - minors, soldiers, and supersoldiers - to examine variation in synaptic circuitry across worker size and social role...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
H Valpotić, I Zura Zaja, M Samardzija, B Habrun, M Ostović, D Duricić, N Maćesić, Z Mikulec, P Kocila, P Sobiech, I Valpotić, S Vince
The aim of this study was to assess modulatory effects of dietary supplements mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and clinoptilolite (CPL) as potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) given to 4-week old pigs at weaning (Day 0) on their innate/adaptive immunity by determining: alterations in C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (HpG) serum levels, efficiency of blood monocytes (MO) and neutrophilic granulocytes (GR) for in vitro phagocytosis (PHC)/microbicidity (MBC) and proportion of extrathymic double positive CD4 CD8 (CD4+CD8+) T cells throughout 35 days of the study...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Katy Vaillancourt, Geneviève LeBel, Li Yi, Daniel Grenier
Greasy pig disease or exudative epidermitis, a generalized or localized skin disease affecting piglets, is mainly caused by Staphylococcus hyicus, although other staphylococcal species such as Staphylococcus aureus may also induce disease. Piglets with skin lesions can be treated systemically with antibiotics. However, antimicrobial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics are now frequently observed in S. hyicus and S. aureus isolates. In this study, the antibacterial activity of plant essential oils as well as their ability to potentiate the effect of several antimicrobial compounds against S...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Yuniati Yuniati, Nurul Hasanah, Sjarif Ismail, Silvia Anitasari, Swandari Paramita
Background: Staphylococcus aureus , methicillin-resistant and Escherichia coli , multidrug-resistant included in the list of antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens from WHO. As multidrug-resistant bacteria problem is increasing, it is necessary to probe new sources for identifying antimicrobial compounds. Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents. One of the potential plants for further examined as antibacterial is Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe. The present study designed to find the antibacterial activity of D...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
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