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Cytochrome c oxidase

Yu-Ling Zou, Wen-Bin Luo, Lin Xie, Xin-Bang Mao, Chao Wu, Zhi-Peng You
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major vision threatening disease mainly induced by high glucose. Despite great efforts were made to explore the etiology of DR, the exact mechanism responsible for its pathogenesis remains elusive. METHODS: In our study, we constructed diabetic rats via Streptozotocin (STZ) injection. TUNEL assay was employed to examine retinal cell apoptosis. The levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed via flow cytometry...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine
Masahide Yoshikawa, Yukiteru Ouji, Nobuyasu Hirai, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Minoru Yamada, Naoki Arizono, Naoaki Akamatsu, Takaharu Yoh, Daisuke Kaya, Toshiya Nakatani, Eiryo Kikuchi, Yuichi Katanami, Kimitoshi Satoh, Ryosuke Maki, Yusuke Miyazato, Yuichiro Oba, Kei Kasahara, Keiichi Mikasa
Background: Countries in the Southeast Asia region have a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth, such as roundworm, whipworm, and hookworms [ Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ancylostoma ceylanicum ]. Recent molecular-based surveys have revealed that A . ceylanicum , a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in that part of the world, while others have noted that this infection is an emerging public health risk not only for indigenous people but also for visitors from other countries...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Bruno Leite Rodrigues, Luís Fernando Carvalho-Costa, Israel de Souza Pinto, José Manuel Macário Rebêlo
Sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) taxonomy is complex and time-consuming, which hampers epidemiological efforts directed toward controlling leishmaniasis in endemic regions such as northeastern Brazil. Here, we used a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene to identify sand fly species in Maranhão State (northeastern Brazil) and to assess cryptic diversity occurring at different spatial scales. For this, we obtained 148 COI sequences of 15 sand fly species (10 genera) from Maranhão (fine spatial scale), and joined them to COI sequences from other Brazilian localities (distant about 2,000 km from Maranhão, broad spatial scale) available in GenBank...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Vajira R Wanniarachchi, Lettee Dametto, Crystal Sweetman, Yuri Shavrukov, David A Day, Colin L D Jenkins, Kathleen L Soole
Plants have a non-energy conserving bypass of the classical mitochondrial cytochrome c pathway, known as the alternative respiratory pathway (AP). This involves type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDs) on both sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane, ubiquinone, and the alternative oxidase (AOX). The AP components have been widely characterised from Arabidopsis, but little is known for monocot species. We have identified all the genes encoding components of the AP in rice and barley and found the key genes which respond to oxidative stress conditions...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Taeman Han, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, In Gyun Park, Haechul Park
We reassessed species diversity and genetic structure in Korean bumble bees using DNA barcode analyses of 484 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from 24 morphospecies. Based on COI, all of the Korean species formed distinct clades in the phylogenetic trees, except for Bombus (Megabombus) koreanus in the maximum likelihood tree. Five species exhibited low interspecific genetic distances (range: 1.2-2.7%), indicating that they are recently diverged species. COI data could not be used to identify bumble bees at the subspecies level...
March 20, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Arun Kumar C Huded, Pavankumar Jingade, Manoj Kumar Mishra
Isolation of high-quality RNA from coffee is challenging because of high level of polysaccharides, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites. In the present study, a rapid and efficient RNA extraction protocol from different tissues of coffee was optimized. Sufficiently high quality and quantity (225.6-454.8 µg/g) of RNA was obtained by using the optimized protocol. The presence of two distinct bands of 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA in agarose gel proved the intactness of the RNA samples. The average spectrophotometric values of the isolated RNA ranged from 1...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Bryan S McLean, Batsaikhan Nyamsuren, Andrey Tchabovsky, Joseph A Cook
Impacts of Quaternary environmental changes on mammal faunas of central Asia remain poorly understood due to a lack of geographically comprehensive phylogeographic sampling for most species. To help address this knowledge gap, we conducted the most extensive molecular analysis to date of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus Pallas 1778) in Mongolia, a country that comprises the southern core of this species' range. Drawing on material from recent collaborative field expeditions, we genotyped 128 individuals at 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I; 1 797 bp total)...
March 8, 2018: Zoological Research
Yan He, Kun Jia, Lei Li, Qi Wang, Shuhui Zhang, Jiaming Du, Heng Du
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a featured pathology underlying synaptic injury and neuronal stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In recent years, the vicious cycle between mitochondrial deficits and intra-neuronal Redox state imbalance has received considerable attention. In this regard, it is of great interest to determine whether antioxidants could alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction in AD-related conditions. Salvianolic acid B (SalB), a bioactive component of alvia miltiorrhiza Bge, is a potent antioxidant...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Martyna Pakuła, Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Łukasz Stryczyński, Paweł Uruski, Sebastian Szubert, Rafał Moszyński, Dariusz Szpurek, Stefan Sajdak, Andrzej Tykarski, Krzysztof Książek
Very little is known about the mechanisms by which malignant ascites modulates the cancer-promoting activity of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Because malignant ascites induces pro-tumoral senescence in HPMCs, here we examined if this effect could be driven by oxidative stress. The study showed that malignant ascites generated by serous ovarian tumors induced oxidative damage to the DNA (γH2A.X, 53BP1, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) and lipids (8-isoprostane) in HPMCs as well as increased the production of mitochondrial superoxides and cellular peroxides in these cells...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
André Campaniço, Rui Moreira, Francisca Lopes
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem worldwide. The infectious agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has a unique ability to survive within the host, alternating between active and latent disease states, and escaping the immune system defences. The extended duration of anti-TB regimens and the increasing prevalence of multidrug- (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains have created an urgent need for new antibiotics active against drug-resistant organisms and that can shorten standard therapy...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Megumi Endo, Mamiko Hirose, Masanao Honda, Hiroyuki Koga, Yoshiaki Morino, Masato Kiyomoto, Hiroshi Wada
The marine environment around Japan experienced significant changes during the Cenozoic Era. In this study, we report findings suggesting that this dynamic history left behind traces in the genome of the Japanese sand dollar species Peronella japonica and P. rubra. Although mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase I sequences did not indicate fragmentation of the current local populations of P. japonica around Japan, two different types of intron sequence were found in the Alx1 locus. We inferred that past fragmentation of the populations account for the presence of two types of nuclear sequences as alleles in the Alx1 intron of P...
March 13, 2018: Gene
Rosa Margesin, De-Chao Zhang, Luciana Albuquerque, Hugo J C Froufe, Conceição Egas, Milton S da Costa
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-positive bacterial strain, designated AM20-91T , was isolated from alpine forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain AM20-91T was related to the genus Lysobacter and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of Lysobacter novalis THG-PC7T (97.8 %), Luteimonas tolerans UM1T (97.7 %) and Lysobacter ximonensis XM415T (97.0 %). The strain contained ubiquinone 8 as the predominant respiratory quinone; its polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified aminophospholipids...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Pankaj Soni, Pravata K Pradhan, T R Swaminathan, Neeraj Sood
A cell line, designated as PHF, has been established from caudal fin of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. The cell line was developed using explant method and PHF cells have been subcultured for more than 72 passages over a period of 14 months. The cells were able to grow at temperatures between 24 and 32° C, with an optimum temperature of 28° C. The growth rate of PHF cells was directly proportional to FBS concentration, with optimum growth observed at 20% FBS concentration. On the basis of immunophenotyping assay, PHF cells were confirmed to be of epithelial type...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Neeraja Purandare, Mallika Somayajulu, Maik Hüttemann, Lawrence I Grossman, Siddhesh Aras
Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain-containing 10 (CHCHD10) and CHCHD2 (MNRR1) are homologous proteins with 58% sequence identity and belong to the twin CX9C family of proteins that mediate cellular stress responses. Despite the identification of several neurodegeneration-associated mutations in the CHCHD10 gene, few studies have assessed its physiological role. Here, we investigated CHCHD10's function as a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria and the nucleus. We show that CHCHD10 co-purifies with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and up-regulates COX activity by serving as a scaffolding protein required for MNRR1 phosphorylation, mediated by ARG (ABL proto-oncogene 2, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [ABL2])...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
'Ale'alani Dudoit, Matthew Iacchei, Richard R Coleman, Michelle R Gaither, William E Browne, Brian W Bowen, Robert J Toonen
The banded coral shrimp, Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea) is a popular marine ornamental species with a circumtropical distribution. The planktonic larval stage lasts ∼120-253 days, indicating considerable dispersal potential, but few studies have investigated genetic connectivity on a global scale in marine invertebrates. To resolve patterns of divergence and phylogeography of S. hispidus , we surveyed 525 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from 198 individuals sampled at 10 locations across ∼27,000 km of the species range...
2018: PeerJ
Lídia Cantacorps, Héctor González-Pardo, Jorge L Arias, Olga Valverde, Nélida M Conejo
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time...
March 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Emma Robson, Clare Tweedy, Nelson Manzanza, John-Paul Taylor, Peter Atkinson, Fiona Randall, Amy Reeve, Gavin J Clowry, Fiona E N LeBeau
Intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a key pathological process evident in Lewy body dementias (LBD), including Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). LBD results in marked cognitive impairments and changes in cortical networks. To assess the impact of abnormal α-syn expression on cortical network oscillations relevant to cognitive function, we studied changes in fast beta/gamma network oscillations in the hippocampus in a mouse line that over-expresses human mutant α-syn (A30P)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Yantao Wu, Li Li, Guoqiang Zhu, Wenhui Li, Nianzhang Zhang, Shuangnan Li, Gang Yao, Wenjun Tian, Baoquan Fu, Hong Yin, Xingquan Zhu, Hongbin Yan, Wanzhong Jia
BACKGROUND: Cervids used to be considered the only animal intermediate hosts of the G10 genotype of Echinococcus canadensis. Yaks are often herded in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, where echinococcosis remains prevalent. However, no E. canadensis G10 cases have been recorded in yaks until now. The aim of our study was to identify causative agents of echinococcosis in yaks in this region. METHODS: Total genomic DNA was extracted from the germinal layer of one hydatid using a Blood and Tissue Kit...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Kathleen M Scott, John Williams, Cody M B Porter, Sydney Russel, Tara L Harmer, John H Paul, Kirsten M Antonen, Megan K Bridges, Gary J Camper, Christie K Campla, Leila G Casella, Eva Chase, James W Conrad, Mercedez C Cruz, Darren S Dunlap, Laura Duran, Elizabeth M Fahsbender, Dawn B Goldsmith, Ryan F Keeley, Matthew R Kondoff, Breanna I Kussy, Marannda K Lane, Stephanie Lawler, Brittany A Leigh, Courtney Lewis, Lygia M Lostal, Devon Marking, Paola A Mancera, Evan C McClenthan, Emily A McIntyre, Jessica A Mine, Swapnil Modi, Brittney D Moore, William A Morgan, Kaleigh M Nelson, Kimmy N Nguyen, Nicholas Ogburn, David G Parrino, Anangamanjari D Pedapudi, Rebecca P Pelham, Amanda M Preece, Elizabeth A Rampersad, Jason C Richardson, Christina M Rodgers, Brent L Schaffer, Nancy E Sheridan, Michael R Solone, Zachery R Staley, Maki Tabuchi, Ramond J Waide, Pauline W Wanjugi, Suzanne Young, Alicia Clum, Chris Daum, Marcel Huntemann, Natalia Ivanova, Nikos Kyrpides, Natalia Mikhailova, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Manoj Pillay, T B K Reddy, Nicole Shapiro, Dimitrios Stamatis, Neha Varghese, Tanja Woyke, Rich Boden, Sharyn K Freyermuth, Cheryl A Kerfeld
Chemolithoautotrophic bacteria from the genera Hydrogenovibrio, Thiomicrorhabdus, and Thiomicrospira are common, sometimes dominant, isolates from sulfidic habitats including hydrothermal vents, soda and salt lakes, and marine sediments. Their genome sequences confirm their membership in a deeply branching clade of the Gammaproteobacteria. Several adaptations to heterogeneous habitats are apparent. Their genomes include large numbers of genes for sensing and responding to their environment (EAL- and GGDEF-domain proteins, and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins) despite their small sizes (2...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Elisa Rubino, Ming Zhang, Tiziana Mongini, Silvia Boschi, Liliana Vercelli, Alessandro Vacca, Flora Govone, Annalisa Gai, Maria Teresa Giordana, Mark Grinberg, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Innocenzo Rainero
Mutations in CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 were recently reported in a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, or mitochondrial myopathy (MM). The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 mutations in Italian MM patients without mitochondrial DNA mutations. The coding regions of CHCHD2 and CHCHD10 were sequenced in 62 MM patients. None of the patients showed CHCHD2 mutations, whereas 1 sporadic MM patient carried a homozygous Pro96Thr substitution in CHCHD10...
February 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
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