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Cytochrome c oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088729/new-insights-into-aox2-transcriptional-regulation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#1
Mariya Ostroukhova, Zhanneta Zalutskaya, Elena Ermilova
A feature of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in plants, some protists and many fungi is the presence of two terminal oxidases, the energy-conserving cytochrome oxidase and another termed alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX branches from the main respiratory chain, directly coupling the oxidation of ubiquinol with reduction of oxygen to water. The AOX genes can be divided into two discrete subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2. Although AOX has been proposed to play essential roles in stress tolerance of organisms, the role of subfamily AOX2 is largely unknown...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087904/-protective-effect-of-diosgenin-on-chondrocytes-mediated-by-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-mice-with-osteoarthritis
#2
Jun Liu, Xiaole He, Ping Zhen, Shenghu Zhou, Xusheng Li
Objective: To investigate the effect of diosgenin (Dgn) on chondrocytes and its relation to JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in mice with osteoarthritis (OA).Methods: Fifteen male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups:control group, OA group and OA+Dgn group. After 4 weeks of treatment, the histopathological changes of cartilage tissue were observed by toluidine blue staining under light microscopy and the ultrastructure of chondrocytes was observed under electron microscopy. The primarily cultured chondrocytes of OA mice were randomly divided into 4 groups:(1) OA group, (2) Dgn group, (3) Dgn+AG490 group, (4) AG490 group...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078310/polg2-deficiency-causes-adult-onset-syndromic-sensory-neuropathy-ataxia-and-parkinsonism
#3
Lionel Van Maldergem, Arnaud Besse, Boel De Paepe, Emma L Blakely, Vivek Appadurai, Margaret M Humble, Juliette Piard, Kate Craig, Langping He, Pierre Hella, François-Guillaume Debray, Jean-Jacques Martin, Marion Gaussen, Patrice Laloux, Giovanni Stevanin, Rudy Van Coster, Robert W Taylor, William C Copeland, Eric Mormont, Penelope E Bonnen
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as ataxia and Parkinson's disease. We describe an extended Belgian pedigree where seven individuals presented with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia, axonal peripheral ataxic neuropathy, and tremor, in variable combination with parkinsonism, seizures, cognitive decline, and ophthalmoplegia. We sought to identify the underlying molecular etiology and characterize the mitochondrial pathophysiology of this neurological syndrome...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075132/discovery-of-imidazo-1-2-a-pyridine-ethers-and-squaramides-as-selective-and-potent-inhibitors-of-mycobacterial-adenosine-triphosphate-atp-synthesis
#4
Subramanyam J Tantry, Shankar D Markad, Vikas Shinde, Jyothi Bhat, Gayathri Balakrishnan, Amit K Gupta, Anisha Ambady, Anandkumar V Raichurkar, Chaitanyakumar Kedari, Sreevalli Sharma, Naina V Mudugal, Ashwini Narayan, C N Naveen Kumar, Robert Nanduri, Sowmya Bharath, Jitendar Reddy, Vijender Panduga, Prabhakar K R, Karthikeyan Kandaswamy, Ramanatha Saralaya, Parvinder Kaur, Neela Dinesh, Supreeth Guptha, Kirsty Rich, David Murray, Helen Plant, Marian Preston, Helen Ashton, Darren Plant, Jarrod Walsh, Peter Alcock, Kathryn Naylor, Matthew Collier, James Whiteaker, Robert E McLaughlin, Meenakshi Mallya, Manoranjan Panda, Suresh Rudrapatna, Vasanthi Ramachandran, Radha K Shandil, Vasan K Sambandamurthy, Khisimuzi Mdluli, Christopher B Cooper, Harvey Rubin, Takahiro Yano, Pravin S Iyer, Shridhar Narayanan, Stefan Kavanagh, Kakoli Mukherjee, V Balasubramanian, Vinayak P Hosagrahara, Suresh Solapure, Sudha Ravishankar, Shahul Hameed P
The approval of bedaquiline to treat tuberculosis has validated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase as an attractive target to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Herein, we report the discovery of two diverse lead series imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine ethers (IPE) and squaramides (SQA) as inhibitors of mycobacterial ATP-synthesis. Through medicinal chemistry exploration, we established a robust structure activity relationship of these two scaffolds resulting in nanomolar potencies in an ATP-synthesis inhibition assay...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070758/phylogeography-of-the-asian-rice-gall-midge-orseolia-oryzae-wood-mason-diptera-cecidomyiidae-in-thailand
#5
Solene Janique, Wantana Sriratanasak, Kulchana Ketsuwan, Jirapong Jairin, Ekgachai Jeratthitikul
The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified...
January 9, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070154/proposed-mechanisms-of-photobiomodulation-or-low-level-light-therapy
#6
Lucas Freitas de Freitas, Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT), has been known for almost 50 years but still has not gained widespread acceptance, largely due to uncertainty about the molecular, cellular, and tissular mechanisms of action. However, in recent years, much knowledge has been gained in this area, which will be summarized in this review. One of the most important chromophores is cytochrome c oxidase (unit IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), which contains both heme and copper centers and absorbs light into the near-infra-red region...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056927/kudiezi-injection-mitigates-myocardial-injury-induced-by-acute-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#7
Xuemei Liu, Ye Tao, Fengli Wang, Ting Yao, Chen Fu, Hong Zheng, Yan Yan, Xiao Liang, Xiangning Jiang, Yunling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kudiezi (KDZ) injection is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine as treatment for cerebral infarction and angina pectoris. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of KDZ injection on myocardial injury induced by acute cerebral ischemia and the possibly protective mechanisms. METHODS: Rats were divided into three groups: sham, 6h-ischemia, and KDZ treatment (KDZ). The neurological deficits were determined by the Garcia score. The cerebral infarct volume was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and brain water content was also evaluated...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049732/nadph-oxidase-4-nox4-suppresses-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-bioenergetics-in-lung-fibroblasts-via-a-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-nrf2-dependent-pathway
#8
Karen Bernard, Naomi J Logsdon, Veronica Miguel, Gloria A Benavides, Jianhua Zhang, A Brent Carter, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Victor J Thannickal
Mitochondrial bioenergetics are critical for cellular homeostasis and stress responses. The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes, including cellular differentiation, host defense and tissue fibrosis. In this study, we explored the role of constitutive Nox4 activity in regulating mitochondrial function. An increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reserve capacity was observed in murine and human lung fibroblasts with genetic deficiency (or silencing) of Nox4...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044453/contrasting-morphological-and-dna-barcode-suggested-species-boundaries-among-shallow-water-amphipod-fauna-from-the-southern-european-atlantic-coast
#9
Jorge Lobo, Maria S Ferreira, Ilisa C Antunes, Marcos A L Teixeira, Luisa M S Borges, Ronaldo Sousa, Pedro A Gomes, Maria Helena Costa, Marina R Cunha, Filipe O Costa
In this study we compared DNA barcode-suggested species boundaries with morphology-based species identifications in the amphipod fauna of the southern European Atlantic coast. DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region (COI-5P) were generated for 43 morphospecies (178 specimens) collected along the Portuguese coast which, together with publicly available COI-5P sequences, produced a final dataset comprising 68 morphospecies and 295 sequences. Seventy-five BINs (Barcode Index Numbers) were assigned to these morphospecies, of which 48 were concordant (i...
October 21, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043299/-mechanism-of-protective-effects-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-protein-1-on-hypoxic-cardiomyocytes-of-rats
#10
F Xiang, D X Zhang, S Y Ma, Y S Huang
Objective: To investigate the mechanism of protective effects of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated protein 1 (TRAP1) on hypoxic cardiomyocytes of rats. Methods: Primary cultured cardiomyocytes were obtained from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 1 to 3 days) and then used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into group TRAP1 and control group according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), and then the total protein of cells was extracted. Total protein of cells in group TRAP1 was added with mouse anti-rat TRAP1 monoclonal antibody, while that in control group was added with the same type of IgG from mouse...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040265/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-deficiency-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#11
Chang Joo Oh, Chae-Myeong Ha, Young-Keun Choi, Sungmi Park, Mi Sun Choe, Nam Ho Jeoung, Yang Hoon Huh, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Hee-Seok Kweon, Ji-Min Lee, Sun Joo Lee, Jae-Han Jeon, Robert A Harris, Keun-Gyu Park, In-Kyu Lee
Clinical prescription of cisplatin, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, is limited by its side effects, particularly tubular injury-associated nephrotoxicity. Since details of the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, we investigated the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Among the PDK isoforms, PDK4 mRNA and protein levels were markedly increased in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was involved in cisplatin-induced renal PDK4 expression...
December 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034723/methylene-blue-improves-streptozotocin-induced-memory-deficit-by-restoring-mitochondrial-function-in-rats
#12
Lei Li, Li Qin, Hai-Long Lu, Ping-Jing Li, Yuan-Jian Song, Rong-Li Yang
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well documented to involve mitochondrial dysfunction which causes subsequent oxidative stress and energy metabolic failure in hippocampus. Methylene blue (MB) has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases by restoring mitochondrial function. The present work was to examine if MB was able to improve streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Alzheimer's type dementia in a rat model by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction-derived oxidative stress and ATP synthesis decline...
December 26, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034343/genetic-structure-and-historical-demography-of-the-blue-swimming-crab-portunus-pelagicus-from-southeastern-sea-of-china-based-on-mitochondrial-coi-gene
#13
Guijing Ren, Guidong Miao, Chunyan Ma, Jianxue Lu, Xiaolong Yang, Hongyu Ma
In this study, the population genetic structure and historical demography of the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, from southeastern sea of China were investigated using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrion. A total of 889 bp segment of COI gene was sequenced, which showed a high haplotype diversity (0.6833-0.8142) and low nucleotide diversity (0.0021-0.0034). Among 30 haplotypes defined in this study, one (H1) was the most dominant (47.7%) and shared by each locality, while the majority (23) were rare and only existed in one individual...
December 30, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033565/isolation-molecular-characterization-and-in-vitro-schizogonic-development-of-sarcocystis-sp-ex-accipiter-cooperii-from-a-naturally-infected-cooper-s-hawk-accipiter-cooperii
#14
David S Lindsay, Shiv K Verma, David Scott, Jitender P Dubey, Alexa R von Dohlen
Raptors serve as the definitive host for several Sarcocystis species. The complete life cycles of only a few of these Sarcocystis species that use birds of prey as definitive hosts have been described. In the present study, Sarcocystis species sporocysts were obtained from the intestine of a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and were used to infect cell cultures of African green monkey kidney cells to isolate a continuous culture and describe asexual stages of the parasite. Two clones of the parasite were obtained by limiting dilution...
December 26, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030331/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-cucullanus-bourdini-petter-et-le-bel-1992-ascaridida-cucullanidae-from-the-yellowback-fusilier-caesio-xanthonota-bleeker-perciformes-caesionidae
#15
Zhen Xu, Hui-Xia Chen, Hui-Dong Ju, Liang Li
The detailed morphology of Cucullanus bourdini Petter et Le Bel, 1992 was further studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the yellowback fusilier Caesio xanthonota Bleeker (Perciformes: Caesionidae) from off the Taiwan Strait. In addition, C. bourdini was characterized genetically for the first time using molecular approaches by sequencing and analysing ribosomal [small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029692/isoflavin-beta-modifies-muscle-oxidative-stress-and-prevents-a-thyrotoxicosis-induced-loss-of-muscle-mass-in-rats
#16
Poliana C Marinello, Sara S Bernardes, Flávia A Guarnier, Thamara N X da Silva, Fernando H Borges, Natália M D Lopes, Andréa N C Simão, André Armani, Rubens Cecchini, Alessandra L Cecchini
: Introduction We sought to verify whether Isoflavin-beta (Iso-β), a mixture of isoflavones with antioxidant properties could prevent thyrotoxicosis-induced loss of muscle mass and the participation of oxidative stress (OS) in the mechanisms of this prevention. METHODS: Two experimental periods of thyrotoxicosis induction were used in Wistar rats: 3 and 5 days to assess Iso-β effects before and after thyrotoxicosis-induced muscle wasting. After euthanasia, peritoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected, weighed, and muscle OS was assessed...
December 28, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029226/meeting-the-challenge-of-dna-barcoding-neotropical-amphibians-polymerase-chain-reaction-optimization-and-new-coi-primers
#17
Mariana L Lyra, Célio F B Haddad, Ana Maria L de Azeredo-Espin
Amphibians are one of the most threatened vertebrate classes, yet at the same time new species are being described every year, demonstrating that the number of existing species is grossly underestimated. In groups such as amphibians, with high extinction rates and poorly known species boundaries, DNA barcoding is a tool that can rapidly assess genetic diversity and estimate species richness for prioritizing conservation decisions. However, reliable recovery of the 5' region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene is critical for the ongoing effort to gather DNA barcodes for all amphibian species...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028141/first-records-of-culicoides-sonorensis-diptera-ceratopogonidae-a-known-vector-of-bluetongue-virus-in-southern-ontario
#18
A Jewiss-Gaines, L Barelli, F F Hunter
Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) were collected on sheep farms in southern Ontario to establish whether Culicoides spp pose a threat to the livestock industry. Specimens were collected in modified CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps, returned to the laboratory, freeze-killed, and identified to species under a microscope. In addition to Culicoides variipennis (Coquillet), we found that Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones occurred on a number of farms over a 2-yr period. These records represent a significant departure from C...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027968/establishment-of-the-complete-life-cycle-of-spirometra-cestoda-diphyllobothriidae-in-the-laboratory-using-a-newly-isolated-triploid-clone
#19
Tetsuya Okino, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Kumiko Matoba, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Mineki Saito
Methods to maintain the life cycle of pathogenic organisms become powerful tools for studying molecular and cellular bases of infectious diseases. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei is a parasitic tapeworm that causes sparganosis in humans. Because S. erinaceieuropaei has a complex life cycle with different stages and host species requirements, there have been no reports to establish the complete life cycle in the laboratory. In this study, using Cyclops as the first intermediate host, mouse as the experimental second intermediate host, and dog as the final host, we succeeded in maintaining S...
December 24, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027967/co-phylogeographic-study-of-the-flatworm-gyrodactylus-gondae-and-its-goby-host-pomatoschistus-minutus
#20
Tine Huyse, Merel Oeyen, Maarten H D Larmuseau, Filip A M Volckaert
We performed a comparative phylogeographic study on the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus gondae Huyse, Malmberg & Volckaert 2005 (Gyrodactylidae) and its sand goby host Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) (Gobiidae). G. gondae is a host-specific parasite with a direct life cycle and a very short generation time. These properties are expected to increase the chance to track the genealogical history of the host with genetic data of the parasite ('magnifying glass principle'). To investigate this hypothesis we screened nine sand goby populations (n=326) along the Atlantic coasts of Europe for Gyrodactylus specimens...
December 24, 2016: Parasitology International
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