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Review article in neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820759/thromboprophylaxis-in-spinal-surgery
#1
William P Mosenthal, David C Landy, Haroutioun H Boyajian, Olumuyiwa A Idowu, Lewis L Shi, Edwin Ramos, Michael J Lee
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis OBJECTIVE.: Determine the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in spinal surgery patients receiving no thromboprophylaxis, mechanoprophylaxis, and chemoprophylaxis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The incidence of thromboembolic complications after spinal surgery is not well established. While a variety of effective mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis interventions exist, their role in spinal surgery remains unclear...
August 17, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819602/fracture-dislocation-of-shoulder-with-brachial-plexus-palsy-a-case-report-and-review-of-management-options
#2
Sameer Rathore, Srinivas Kasha, Srinivas Yeggana
INTRODUCTION: Injuries causing fracture dislocation of shoulder and brachial plexus palsy are extremely rare. As per authors' knowledge, three part fracture of proximal humerus with shoulder dislocation and brachial plexus palsy has not been reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53 year old female sustained a three part fracture of right proximal humerus along with dislocation of shoulder joint and brachial plexus palsy following a fall from a flight of stairs...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818727/neuroprotective-effects-of-plant-polysaccharides-a-review-of-the-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Qing-Han Gao, Xueyan Fu, Rui Zhang, Zhisheng Wang, Muzhen Guo
Polysaccharides are an important class of phytochemicals, and many studies have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the context of a number of pathologies including neurological disorders. Numerous studies have indicated that polysaccharides exhibit neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to consolidate studies for the period 2010-2016, and assessed the protection mechanisms on brain function of polysaccharide-rich extracts from natural sources...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816878/do-formal-laminectomy-and-timing-of-decompression-for-patients-with-sacral-fracture-and-neurologic-deficit-affect-outcome
#4
Christopher K Kepler, Gregory D Schroeder, Douglas A Hollern, Jens R Chapman, Michael G Fehlings, Marcel Dvorak, Carlo Bellabarba, Alexander R Vaccaro
OBJECTIVES: To identify whether formal sacral decompression provides improvement in outcome for patients with neurologic deficit after sacral fracture compared with patients treated with indirect decompression and whether the timing of surgical decompression influences neurologic outcome? DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched via PubMed using combinations of the following search terms: "Sacral fracture," "Traumatic Sacral fracture," "Sacral fracture decompression," "Sacral fracture time to decompression," "Sacral Decompression...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816877/fractures-in-spinal-ankylosing-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-disease-and-injury-types-treatment-techniques-and-outcomes
#5
Tarush Rustagi, Doniel Drazin, Cumhur Oner, Jonathan York, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman
INTRODUCTION: Spinal ankylosing disorders encompass ankylosing spondylitis (AS), disseminated hyperostosis of the spine, and end-stage spondylosis. All these result in a stiffened and frequently deformed spinal column. This makes the spinal column highly susceptible to severe injuries that are commonly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Improved understanding of the underlying disease processes and clinical comorbidities may alter the poor injury related morbidity and mortality outcomes...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816874/does-surgical-intervention-or-timing-of-surgery-have-an-effect-on-neurological-recovery-in-the-setting-of-a-thoracolumbar-burst-fracture
#6
So Kato, Jean-Christophe Murray, Brian K Kwon, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures are one of the most common forms of spinal trauma with the majority occurring at the junctional area where mechanical load is maximal (AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System Subtype A3 or A4). Burst fractures entail the involvement of the middle column, and therefore, they are typically associated with bone fragment in the spinal canal, which may cause compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, cauda equina, or a combination of these. Fortunately, approximately half of the patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures are neurologically intact due to the wide canal diameter...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816870/spinal-cord-injury-what-are-the-controversies
#7
Christopher S Ahuja, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injuries have a tremendous impact on individuals, families, and society as a whole. Substantial heterogeneity in the patient population, their presentation and underlying pathophysiology has sparked debates along the care spectrum from initial assessment to definitive treatment. This article reviews spinal cord injury (SCI) management followed by a discussion of the salient controversies in the field. Current care practices modeled on the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons joint section guidelines are highlighted including key recommendations regarding immobilization, avoidance of hypotension, early International Standards for Neurological Classification of SCI examination and intensive care unit treatment...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816869/spine-trauma-what-are-the-current-controversies
#8
Cumhur Oner, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran, Jens R Chapman, Michael G Fehlings, Alexander R Vaccaro, Gregory D Schroeder, Said Sadiqi, James Harrop
Although less common than other musculoskeletal injuries, spinal trauma may lead to significantly more disability and costs. During the last 2 decades there was substantial improvement in our understanding of the basic patterns of spinal fractures leading to more reliable classification and injury severity assessment systems but also rapid developments in surgical techniques. Despite these advancements, there remain unresolved issues concerning the management of these injuries. At this moment there is persistent controversy within the spinal trauma community, which can be grouped under 6 headings...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813204/prefrontal-cortex-and-neurological-impairments-of-active-thought
#9
Tim Shallice, Lisa Cipolotti
This article reviews the effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on the ability to carry out active thought, namely, to reason, think flexibly, produce strategies, and formulate and realize plans.Wediscuss how and why relevant neuropsychological studies should be carried out. The relationships between active thought and both intelligence and language are considered. The following basic processes necessary for effective active thought are reviewed: concentration, set switching, inhibiting potentiated responses, and monitoring and checking...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808901/the-utility-of-routine-intensive-care-admission-for-patients-undergoing-intracranial-neurosurgical-procedures-a-systematic-review
#10
Cesar Cimonari de Almeida, M Dustin Boone, Yosef Laviv, Burkhard S Kasper, Clark C Chen, Ekkehard M Kasper
BACKGROUND: Patients who have undergone intracranial neurosurgical procedures have traditionally been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for close postoperative neurological observation. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence for routine ICU admission in patients undergoing intracranial neurosurgical procedures and to evaluate the safety of alternative postoperative pathways. METHODS: We were interested in identifying studies that examined selected patients who presented for elective, non-emergent intracranial surgery whose postoperative outcomes were compared as a function of ICU versus non-ICU admission...
August 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807107/etiologies-and-management-of-cutaneous-flushing-nonmalignant-causes
#11
REVIEW
Azeen Sadeghian, Hailey Rouhana, Brittany Oswald-Stumpf, Erin Boh
The flushing phenomenon may represent a physiologic or a pathologic reaction. Although flushing is usually benign, it is prudent that the physician remains aware of potentially life-threatening conditions associated with cutaneous flushing. A thorough investigation should be performed if the flushing is atypical or not clearly associated with a benign underlying process. The diagnosis often relies on a pertinent history, review of systems, physical examination, and various laboratory and imaging modalities, all of which are discussed in the 2 articles in this continuing medical education series...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802751/acute-management-of-hemostasis-in-patients-with-neurological-injury
#12
REVIEW
M Irem Baharoglu, Anneke Brand, Maria M Koopman, Marinus Vermeulen, Yvo B W E M Roos
Neurological injuries can be divided into those with traumatic and nontraumatic causes. The largest groups are traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic stroke. TBI patients may present with intracranial hemorrhages (contusions, or subdural or epidural hematomas). Strokes are ischemic or hemorrhagic. In all these disorders, thrombosis and hemostasis play a major role. Treatment aims to either cease bleeding and/or restore perfusion. We reviewed hemostatic and thrombolytic therapies in patients with neurological injuries by MEDLINE and EMBASE search using various key words for neurological disorders and hemostatic therapies restricted to English language and human adults...
July 13, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802513/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-review-of-literature
#13
Awais Aftab, Ashley VanDercar, Ayham Alkhachroum, Christine LaGrotta, Keming Gao
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation and risk factors of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in the context of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are poorly understood, and guidance regarding diagnosis and management remains scarce. In this article, we identify case reports of ECT-induced NCSE from literature, and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these cases in the context of what is known about NCSE from the neurology literature. METHODS: A literature search on PubMed for case reports of NCSE after ECT...
July 15, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796901/from-peroxisomal-disorders-to-common-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-role-of-ether-phospholipids-in-the-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Fabian Dorninger, Sonja Forss-Petter, Johannes Berger
The emerging diverse roles of ether (phospho)lipids in nervous system development and function in health and disease are currently attracting growing interest. Plasmalogens, a subgroup of ether lipids, are important membrane components involved in vesicle fusion and membrane raft composition. They store polyunsaturated fatty acids and may serve as antioxidants. Ether lipid metabolites act as precursors for the formation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchors; others, like platelet-activating factor, are implicated in signaling functions...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793963/the-effect-of-team-based-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-on-outcomes-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-patients-a-meta-analysis
#15
Sola Kim, Ki Ok Ahn, Seungmin Jeong
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effects of team cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on outcomes of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database to identify relevant articles for this meta-analysis. All studies that described the implementation of team CPR performed by emergency medical services for OHCA patients with presumed cardiac etiology were included in this study...
July 30, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791702/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-the-organophosphorus-insecticide-chlorpyrifos-from-clinical-findings-to-preclinical-models-and-potential-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Richard D Burke, Spencer W Todd, Eric Lumsden, Roger J Mullins, Jacek Mamczarz, William P Fawcett, Rao P Gullapalli, William R Randall, Edna F R Pereira, Edson X Albuquerque
Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are pest-control agents heavily used worldwide. Unfortunately, they are also well known for the toxic effects that they can trigger in humans. Clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP insecticides include a well-defined cholinergic crisis that develops as a result of the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Prolonged exposures to levels of OP insecticides that are insufficient to trigger signs of acute intoxication, which are hereafter referred to as subacute exposures, have also been associated with neurological deficits...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790899/sensory-processing-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-the-contribution-of-thalamostriatal-pathways
#17
Kevin D Alloway, Jared B Smith, Todd M Mowery, Glenn D R Watson
The dorsal striatum has two functionally-defined subdivisions: a dorsomedial striatum (DMS) region involved in mediating goal-directed behaviors that require conscious effort, and a dorsolateral striatum (DLS) region involved in the execution of habitual behaviors in a familiar sensory context. Consistent with its presumed role in forming stimulus-response (S-R) associations, neurons in DLS receive massive inputs from sensorimotor cortex and are responsive to both active and passive sensory stimulation. While several studies have established that corticostriatal inputs contribute to the stimulus-induced responses observed in the DLS, there is growing awareness that the thalamus has a significant role in conveying sensory-related information to DLS and other parts of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779863/neurological-complications-of-cardiac-disease
#18
Nandini Madan, Karen S Carvalho
This article focuses on the complex interactions between the cardiovascular and neurologic systems. Initially, we focus on neurological complications in children with congenital heart disease both secondary to the underlying cardiac disease and complications of interventions. We later discuss diagnosis and management of common syncope syndromes with emphasis on vasovagal syncope. We also review the diagnosis, classification, and management of children and adolescents with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777179/comorbid-sleep-disturbances-in-neurologic-disorders
#19
Yo-El S Ju, Aleksandar Videnovic, Bradley V Vaughn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides a review of disturbances of sleep comorbid with common neurologic disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: A wide variety of neurologic disorders are frequently complicated by comorbid sleep disturbances. In many cases, a bidirectional relationship appears to occur between sleep function and the neurologic disease, such that treatment of comorbid sleep disturbances may improve the symptoms of the neurologic disease. SUMMARY: Neurologic disorders are often associated with abnormalities of sleep...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777174/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-other-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-parasomnias
#20
Birgit Ho Gl, Alex Iranzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most common rapid eye movement (REM) parasomnia encountered by neurologists is REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and nightmares are so frequent that every neurologist should be able to differentiate them from the dream enactment of RBD. Isolated sleep paralysis is relatively common and is often mistaken for other neurologic disorders. This article summarizes the current state of the art in the diagnosis of RBD, discusses the role of specific questionnaires and polysomnography in the diagnosis of RBD, and reviews recent studies on idiopathic RBD as an early feature of a synucleinopathy, secondary RBD, and its management...
August 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
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