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Review article in neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337127/nlrp3-inflammasome-in-neurological-diseases-from-functions-to-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Limin Song, Lei Pei, Shanglong Yao, Yan Wu, You Shang
Neuroinflammation has been identified as a causative factor of multiple neurological diseases. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a subcellular multiprotein complex that is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), can sense and be activated by a wide range of exogenous and endogenous stimuli such as microbes, aggregated and misfolded proteins, and adenosine triphosphate, which results in activation of caspase-1...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#2
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322170/utilizing-delta-opioid-receptors-and-peptides-for-cytoprotection-implications-in-stroke-and-other-neurological-disorders
#3
Marci G Crowley, M Grant Liska, Trenton Lippert, Sydney Coreya, Cesar V Borlongan
The opioid system has been elucidated as a potential target for therapy in a variety of neurological disorders including stroke. Delta opioid receptors have been revealed to pose an especially compelling biological function for new neuroprotective therapies. Two distinct therapeutic mechanisms have been characterized for delta opioid receptors s, namely, these receptors aid in maintaining ionic homeostasis and initiate endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Specific agonists of delta opioid receptors, such as (D-Ala2, D-Leu5) enkephalin (DADLE), have displayed the ability to promote neuronal survival and mitigate apoptotic pathways...
March 20, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315798/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-in-anterior-cervical-fusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Aidin Abedi, Seyed Behnam Jazayeri, Hirbod Nasiri Bonaki, Seyed Behzad Jazayeri, Alexander R Vaccaro, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
OBJECTIVE: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been commonly used as a graft substitute in spinal fusion. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued warning on life-threatening complications of recombinant human BMPs (rhBMPs) in cervical spine fusion in 2008, their off-label use has been continued. This investigation aimed to review the evidence for the use of rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 in anterior cervical spine fusions. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed through Ovid (MEDLINE), PubMed and Embase...
March 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315032/novel-indications-for-fecal-microbial-transplantation-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Nitsan Maharshak
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series, and while many studies and reviews have been published on the use of FMT for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), its potential use for other disease conditions has not been thoroughly reviewed...
March 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314470/infectious-encephalitis-management-without-etiological-diagnosis-48hours-after-onset
#6
REVIEW
P Fillatre, Y Crabol, P Morand, L Piroth, J Honnorat, J P Stahl, M Lecuit
INTRODUCTION: The etiological diagnosis of infectious encephalitis is often not established 48hours after onset. We aimed to review existing literature data before providing management guidelines. METHOD: We performed a literature search on PubMed using filters such as "since 01/01/2000", "human", "adults", "English or French", and "clinical trial/review/guidelines". We also used the Mesh search terms "encephalitis/therapy" and "encephalitis/diagnosis". RESULTS: With Mesh search terms "encephalitis/therapy" and "encephalitis/diagnosis", we retrieved 223 and 258 articles, respectively...
March 14, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303559/-thoracic-outlet-syndrome
#7
Sven Seifert, Pavel Sebesta, Marian Klenske, Mirko Esche
Introduction Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is one of the most extensively discussed diagnoses. There is neither a clear and homogenous clinical presentation nor an accepted definition. The term describes a complex of symptoms and complaints caused by the compression of nerves and vascular structures at one of the three defined constrictions of the upper thoracic aperture. Methods Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article presents the etiology, epidemiology and clinical diagnostics as well as the possibilities and outcomes of surgical treatment...
February 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302280/blunt-cerebrovascular-injury-in-children
#8
Stephen J Fenton, Robert J Bollo
Blunt cerebrovascular injury in children is an uncommon occurrence that if missed and left untreated can result in devastating long-term neurologic consequences. Diagnosis can be readily obtained by a computed tomographic angiogram of the head and neck. If confirmed, treatment with antithrombotic therapy dramatically reduces the risk of a cerebrovascular accident. The difficulty lies in determining which child should be screened for such an injury. Several institutions have come up with criteria for screening...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301076/clinical-development-of-anti-cd19-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy-for-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#9
Shinichi Makita, Kiyoshi Yoshimura, Kensei Tobinai
B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) is the most frequent hematological malignancy. Although refined chemotherapy regimens and several new therapeutics including rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, have improved its prognosis in recent decades, there are still a substantial number of patients with chemorefractory B-NHL. Anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is expected to be an effective adoptive cell treatment and has the potential to overcome the chemorefractoriness of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300708/clinical-outcome-tumor-recurrence-and-causes-of-death-a-long-term-follow-up-of-surgically-treated-meningiomas
#10
Antonio Nogueira de Almeida, Benedito Jamilson Araújo Pereira, Paulo Henrique Pires Aguiar, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Hector Navarro Cabrera, Clemar Corrêa da Silva, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie
OBJECTIVE: The medical literature still lacks information about the impacts of surgery and adjuvant treatment on the life of patients with meningioma. The clinical outcome, timing of tumor recurrence, and causes of death are often overlooked. The paper evaluates these data taking into account tumor localization and histological grade. METHODS: The article is a cross-sectional study of patients operated on between 2000 and 2014 in a single institution. The series has 593 adult patients (442 females and 151 males) and follow-up of 68...
March 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299224/a-rare-cause-of-childhood-cerebellitis-influenza-infection-a-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-literature
#11
Şule Gökçe, Zafer Kurugol, Aslı Aslan
Acute cerebellitis is a benign neurologic condition generally caused by viral or bacterial infections. Influenza associated cerebellitis is extremely rare; a 6-year-old boy with acute cerebellitis, who presented with fever, vomiting, weakness, febrile seizure, and acute cerebellar features, is discussed in this article.
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296371/-autism-spectrum-disorder-etiological-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-aspects
#12
César Reynoso, María José Rangel, Virgilio Melgar
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was described for the first time in 1943 by Leo Kanner, and since 2004, 18 490 articles in the subject have been published, which in turn have been cited 48 416 times.1 Almost half of these publications come from the United States of America and the vast maority of the efforts to improve the quality of life of these patients have taken place in developed countries. This disorder consists of an inability to acquire social and emotional skills during early development that progressively results in variable degrees of social adaptation discapacity...
March 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295262/spatially-and-temporally-regulating-translation-via-mrna-binding-proteins-in-cellular-and-neuronal-function
#13
REVIEW
P G Donlin-Asp, W Rossoll, G J Bassell
Coordinated regulation of mRNA localization and local translation are essential steps in cellular asymmetry and function. It is increasingly evident that mRNA binding proteins play critical functions in controlling the fate of mRNA, including when and where translation occurs. In this review, we discuss the robust and complex roles that mRNA binding proteins play in the regulation of local translation that impact cellular function in vertebrates. First, we discuss the role of local translation in cellular polarity and possible links to vertebrate development and patterning...
March 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291299/-neurosyphilis-in-psychiatric-settings-three-case-reports
#14
Erhan Akıncı, Fatih Öncü, Barış Topçular
Syphilis is a generally sexually transmitted and multisystem disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. All of the organs of the body may be involved during the course of the disease. Neurosyphilis is a clinical form of syphilis with the central nervous system (CNS) involvement. While primarily meningeal and vascular structures are involved in early neurosyphilis, a parenchymal affection of the brain and spinal cord emerges at later stages of neurosyphilis. It presents with symptoms of meningitis, meningovasculitis and parenchymal neurosyphilis (presenting as tabes dorsalis and general paresis)...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289845/what-s-new-in-neuromyelitis-optica-a-short-review-for-the-clinical-neurologist
#15
Daniel Whittam, Martin Wilson, Shahd Hamid, Geoff Keir, Maneesh Bhojak, Anu Jacob
The evolution of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) from a rare, incurable and misunderstood disease with almost universally poor outcomes to its present state in just over a decade is unprecedented in neurology and possibly in medicine. Our knowledge of NMOSD biology has led to the recognition of wider phenotypes, new disease mechanisms, and thus clinical trials of new and effective treatments. This article aims to update readers on the recent developments in NMOSD with particular emphasis on clinical advances, the 2015 diagnostic criteria, biomarkers, imaging, and therapeutic interventions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289385/plant-derived-phytocompound-embelin-in-cns-disorders-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Uday P Kundap, Saatheeyavaane Bhuvanendran, Yatinesh Kumari, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
A Central nervous system (CNS) disease is the one which affects either the spinal cord or brain and causing neurological or psychiatric complications. During the nineteenth century, modern medicines have occupied the therapy for many ailments and are widely used these days. Herbal medicines have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons and also considered safer as they originate from natural sources. Embelin is a plant-based benzoquinone which is the major active constituent of the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287497/role-of-genetics-in-the-etiology-of-autistic-spectrum-disorder-towards-a-hierarchical-diagnostic-strategy
#17
REVIEW
Cyrille Robert, Laurent Pasquier, David Cohen, Mélanie Fradin, Roberto Canitano, Léna Damaj, Sylvie Odent, Sylvie Tordjman
Progress in epidemiological, molecular and clinical genetics with the development of new techniques has improved knowledge on genetic syndromes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this article is to show the diversity of genetic disorders associated with ASD (based on an extensive review of single-gene disorders, copy number variants, and other chromosomal disorders), and consequently to propose a hierarchical diagnostic strategy with a stepwise evaluation, helping general practitioners/pediatricians and child psychiatrists to collaborate with geneticists and neuropediatricians, in order to search for genetic disorders associated with ASD...
March 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285700/autoimmune-paraneoplastic-syndromes-associated-to-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-part-3-neurological-paraneoplastic-syndromes-involving-the-central-nervous-system
#18
REVIEW
Georgiana Bentea, Claudine Sculier, Bogdan Grigoriu, Anne-Pascale Meert, Valérie Durieux, Thierry Berghmans, Jean-Paul Sculier
The development of new immune treatment in oncology and particularly for lung cancer may induce new complications, particularly activation or reactivation of auto-immune diseases. In this context, a systematic review on the auto-immune paraneoplastic syndromes that can complicate lung cancer appears useful. This article is the third of a series of five and deals mainly with neurological paraneoplastic syndromes involving the central nervous system.
April 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284389/biochemical-analyses-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-for-the-diagnosis-of-neurometabolic-conditions-what-can-we-expect
#19
Marta Batllori, Marta Molero-Luis, Mercedes Casado, Cristina Sierra, Rafael Artuch, Aida Ormazabal
In this article, we review the state-of-the-art analysis of different biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of genetically conditioned, rare, neurometabolic diseases, including glucose transport defects, neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid) and pterin deficiencies, and vitamin defects (folate, vitamin B6, and thiamine) that affect the brain. The analysis of several key metabolites are detailed, which thus highlights the preanalytical and analytical factors that should be cautiously controlled to avoid misdiagnosis; moreover, these factors may facilitate an adequate interpretation of the biochemical profiles in the context of severe neuropediatric disorders...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281492/comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#20
REVIEW
H V Srinivas, Urvashi Shah
In epilepsy management, control of seizures is the prime objective. However, the quality of life is affected by comorbid conditions that include the neurological, neuropsychiatric, and neurobehavioural disorders. These are not only reactive processes to a chronic condition but also have a bidirectional relationship, sharing common underlying pathogenesis. This article besides addressing these issues also explores the therapeutic management. A systematic search of PubMed from Jan 2006 to August 2016 was undertaken using the terms "comorbidities" and "epilepsy...
2017: Neurology India
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