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Review article in neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716389/biomedical-ethics-and-clinical-oversight-in-multisite-observational-neuroimaging-studies-with-children-and-adolescents-the-abcd-experience
#1
REVIEW
Duncan B Clark, Celia B Fisher, Susan Bookheimer, Sandra A Brown, John H Evans, Christian Hopfer, James Hudziak, Ivan Montoya, Margaret Murray, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles...
June 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716325/peripheral-and-sacral-neuromodulation-in-the-treatment-of-neurogenic-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#2
REVIEW
Paholo G Barboglio Romo, Priyanka Gupta
Sacral and peripheral neuromodulation are minimally invasive surgical procedures that are third-line therapy options for the treatment of patients with idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome. There has been interest in their efficacy in the management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). Contemporary data suggest promising outcomes for urinary and bowel symptoms in carefully selected patients with spinal cord injury and/or multiple sclerosis. This article reviews the current literature regarding urinary and bowel outcomes in patients with NLUTD and also discusses contemporary studies that suggest that treatment during particular stages of neurologic injury may prevent long-term urinary sequelae...
August 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716132/a-patient-safety-and-professional-perspective-on-non-conveyance-in-ambulance-care-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Remco H A Ebben, Lilian C M Vloet, Renate F Speijers, Nico W Tönjes, Jorik Loef, Thomas Pelgrim, Margreet Hoogeveen, Sivera A A Berben
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to describe non-conveyance in ambulance care from patient-safety and ambulance professional perspectives. The review specifically focussed at describing (1) ambulance non-conveyance rates, (2) characteristics of non-conveyed patients, (3) follow-up care after non-conveyance, (4) existing guidelines or protocols, and (5) influencing factors during the non-conveyance decision making process. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and reference lists of included articles, in June 2016...
July 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715518/early-accurate-diagnosis-and-early-intervention-in-cerebral-palsy-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Iona Novak, Cathy Morgan, Lars Adde, James Blackman, Roslyn N Boyd, Janice Brunstrom-Hernandez, Giovanni Cioni, Diane Damiano, Johanna Darrah, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Linda S de Vries, Christa Einspieler, Michael Fahey, Darcy Fehlings, Donna M Ferriero, Linda Fetters, Simona Fiori, Hans Forssberg, Andrew M Gordon, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Mijna Hadders-Algra, Regina Harbourne, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Petra Karlsson, Lena Krumlinde-Sundholm, Beatrice Latal, Alison Loughran-Fowlds, Nathalie Maitre, Sarah McIntyre, Garey Noritz, Lindsay Pennington, Domenico M Romeo, Roberta Shepherd, Alicia J Spittle, Marelle Thornton, Jane Valentine, Karen Walker, Robert White, Nadia Badawi
Importance: Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. Objectives: To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714503/protective-effects-of-fisetin-and-other-berry-flavonoids-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Pamela Maher
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated degenerative disease of the midbrain that results from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. It initially presents as a movement disorder with cognitive and other behavioral problems appearing later in the progression of the disease. Current therapies for PD only delay the onset or reduce the motor symptoms. There are no treatments to stop the nerve cell death or to cure the disease. It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases such as PD are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems...
July 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713101/-extracorporeal-shock-waves-esw-as-an-alternative-treatment-method-for-improving-the-limb-muscles-spasticity-after-cerebral-stroke-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Robert Dymarek, Kuba Ptaszkowski, Lucyna Słupska, Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz, Jakub Taradaj, Tomasz Halski, Joanna Rosińczuk
Extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) is a physical factor, of which the clinical use is observed in a wide range of disorders, particularly musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Recently, one can observe that the list of indications for ESW treatment is continuously growing and adapting the increasingly different systemic diseases in terms of etiology and pathomechanism. Nevertheless, it should be remembered that the potential biological mechanisms of ESW stimulation conditioning advantageous and desirable therapeutic effects are not clearly explained...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712904/pitfalls-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-testicular-choriocarcinoma-metastatic-to-the-brain-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#7
REVIEW
Haydn Hoffman, Gentian Toshkezi, Joseph M Fullmer, Walter Hall, Lawrence S Chin
INTRODUCTION: Pure choriocarcinoma of the testes is a rare, aggressive germ cell tumor (GCT) that can metastasize to the brain. Although its prognosis has improved with the development of cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens, cerebral metastases are prone to hemorrhage and are associated with high morbidity. Here, we present two cases of testicular choriocarcinoma with cerebral metastasis and discuss potential pitfalls in their diagnosis and management. We also review cases in the literature that feature these rare lesions...
July 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712898/iatrogenic-vertebral-artery-injury-during-anterior-cervical-spine-surgery-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Qing Guan, Long Chen, Ye Long, Zhou Xiang
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic vertebral artery injury (VAI) during anterior cervical surgery is rare but potentially catastrophic. METHOD: The causes, presentation, diagnosis, management, prognosis, and prevention of VAI were reviewed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. English-language studies and case reports published from 1980 to 2017 were retrieved. Data on diagnosis, surgical procedures and approach, site and cause of VAI, management, outcomes, and VA status were extracted...
July 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712719/ages-rages-and-s-rage-friend-or-foe-for-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Saheem Ahmad, Hamda Khan, Zeba Siddiqui, Mohd Yasir Khan, Shahnawaz Rehman, Uzma Shahab, Tatyana Godovikova, Vladimir Silnikov, Moinuddin
Impaired awareness of glycation biology in cancer initiation and progression is one of the fundamental reasons for its meticulous investigation of the molecules involved in signalling pathway. Glycation of biological macromolecules results in the progression of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that proliferates the process of carcinogenesis by activation of transcription factors and release of cytokines. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGEs) with the binding of its different ligands like; AGEs, HMGB1 and S100 activate the signalling arrays...
July 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711202/miscellaneous-and-emerging-applications-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-for-the-evaluation-of-intracranial-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Hirofumi Kuno, Kotaro Sekiya, Margaret N Chapman, Osamu Sakai
Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) has the potential to improve detection of abnormalities and increase diagnostic confidence in the evaluation of a variety of neurologic conditions by using different x-ray energy-dependent absorption behaviors of different materials. This article reviews the virtual monochromatic imaging applications of dual-energy CT, particularly material decomposition algorithms to improve lesion conspicuity, define lesion-normal tissue interface using different reconstruction techniques, and discuss miscellaneous emerging applications of dual-energy CT for neuroimaging, with an emphasis on their potential clinical utility...
August 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704466/hand-arm-vibration-and-the-risk-of-vascular-and-neurological-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Tohr Nilsson, Jens Wahlström, Lage Burström
BACKGROUND: Increased occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon, neurosensory injury and carpal tunnel syndrome has been reported for more than 100 years in association with work with vibrating machines. The current risk prediction modelling (ISO-5349) for "Raynaud's phenomenon" is based on a few studies published 70 to 40 years ago. There are no corresponding risk prediction models for neurosensory injury or carpal tunnel syndrome, nor any systematic reviews comprising a statistical synthesis (meta-analysis) of the evidence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704229/treatment-of-hyponatremic-encephalopathy-in-the-critically-ill
#12
Steven G Achinger, Juan Carlos Ayus
OBJECTIVES: Hyponatremic encephalopathy, symptomatic cerebral edema due to a low osmolar state, is a medical emergency and often encountered in the ICU setting. This article provides a critical appraisal and review of the literature on identification of high-risk patients and the treatment of this life-threatening disorder. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: Online search of the PubMed database and manual review of articles involving risk factors for hyponatremic encephalopathy and treatment of hyponatremic encephalopathy in critical illness...
July 11, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701923/cell-polarity-in-cerebral-cortex-development-cellular-architecture-shaped-by-biochemical-networks
#13
REVIEW
Andi H Hansen, Christian Duellberg, Christine Mieck, Martin Loose, Simon Hippenmeyer
The human cerebral cortex is the seat of our cognitive abilities and composed of an extraordinary number of neurons, organized in six distinct layers. The establishment of specific morphological and physiological features in individual neurons needs to be regulated with high precision. Impairments in the sequential developmental programs instructing corticogenesis lead to alterations in the cortical cytoarchitecture which is thought to represent the major underlying cause for several neurological disorders including neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700042/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-serious-post-earthquake-complication
#14
Mudassir Farooqui, Syed A Quadri, Sajid S Suriya, Muhammad Adnan Khan, Muhammad Ovais, Zohaib Sohail, Samra Shoaib, Hassaan Tohid, Muhammad Hassan
Objectives: Earthquakes are unpredictable and devastating natural disasters. They can cause massive destruction and loss of life and survivors may suffer psychological symptoms of severe intensity. Our goal in this article is to review studies published in the last 20 years to compile what is known about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurring after earthquakes. The review also describes other psychiatric complications that can be associated with earthquakes, to provide readers with better overall understanding, and discusses several sociodemographic factors that can be associated with post-earthquake PTSD...
April 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697315/an-update-on-anesthetics-and-impact-on-the-brain
#15
Vincenzo Fodale, Vincenzo F Tripodi, Olivia Penna, Fausto Famà, Francesco Squadrito, Epifanio Mondello, Antonio David
While anesthetics are indispensable clinical tools and generally considered safe and effective, a growing concern over the potential neurotoxicity of anesthesia or specific anesthetic agents has called into question the safety of general anesthetics, especially when administered at extremes of age. Areas covered: This article reviews and updates research findings on the safety of anesthesia and anesthetics in terms of long-term neurotoxicity, with particular focus on postoperative cognitive dysfunctions, Alzheimer's disease and dementias, developing brain, post-operative depression and autism spectrum disorder...
July 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697013/the-clinical-significance-of-isolated-traumatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-meta-analysis
#16
Farshad Nassiri, Jetan H Badhiwala, Christopher D Witiw, Alireza Mansouri, Benjamin Davidson, Saleh A Almenawer, Nir Lipsman, Leodante Da Costa, Farhad Pirouzmand, Avery B Nathens
BACKGROUND: The rates of clinical and radiographic progression, and need for neurosurgical intervention in patients with isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (itSAH) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, GCS 13-15) has not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence regarding patient outcomes after mTBI with itSAH DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Electronic databases were searched for human studies without language restrictions from January 2000 to February 2017...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696987/nutritional-supplements-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-sports-related-concussion-evidence-still-lacking
#17
Thomas H Trojian, David H Wang, John J Leddy
Concussions are common neurologic events that affect many athletes. Very little has been studied on the treatment of concussions with supplements and medications. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reminds us that no supplement has been proven to treat concussions. Many animal studies show that supplements have potential for improving the effects of a brain injury but none have been shown to be of consistent benefit in human studies. Animal studies on severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may not therefore be applicable transfer to sports-related concussions (SRC)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694777/pharmacological-properties-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-thymol-prospects-for-its-therapeutic-potential-and-pharmaceutical-development
#18
REVIEW
Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran, Hayate Javed, Hasan Al Taee, Sheikh Azimullah, Shreesh K Ojha
Thymol, chemically known as 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol is a colorless crystalline monoterpene phenol. It is one of the most important dietary constituents in thyme species. For centuries, it has been used in traditional medicine and has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic and antitumor activities. The present article presents a detailed review of the scientific literature which reveals the pharmacological properties of thymol and its multiple therapeutic actions against various cardiovascular, neurological, rheumatological, gastrointestinal, metabolic and malignant diseases at both biochemical and molecular levels...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694624/neuropsychiatric-manifestations-of-scrub-typhus
#19
REVIEW
Sanjay K Mahajan, Sanyam K Mahajan
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi characterized by focal or disseminated vasculitis and perivasculitis which may involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and central nervous system. It was thought to have been eradicated from India. Recently it is being reported from many areas of India. The clinical picture and severity of the symptoms varies widely. The neurological manifestations of scrub typhus are not uncommon but are diverse. Meningoencephalitis is classical manifestation of scrub typhus but cerebellitis, cranial nerve palsies, plexopathy, transverse myelitis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Guillan-Barré syndrome are other manifestations reported in literature...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693401/formulating-autism-systemically-part-1-a-review-of-the-published-literature-and-case-assessments
#20
Patricia M Crittenden
Autism is a psychiatric disorder of unknown aetiology. In this article, the literature on genetic, neurological, psychological, relational and cultural causes of autism is reviewed, beginning with the 2014 review of Crittenden, Dallos, Landini et al. (pp. 64-70) up to and including recent publications in 2017. Some of the findings were unexpected; others led to new questions. The unexpected findings were the minimal contribution of genes to autism, the extremely evident neurological differences, the interpersonal quality of the psychological findings (that lacked evidence of parents' behaviour), the relational evidence that mothers' childhood trauma, perinatal stress and marital stress increased the risk of autism, and the reciprocal relation between funding for treatment of autism and diagnoses of autism...
July 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
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