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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812061/behavioral-comorbidities-and-drug-treatments-in-a-zebrafish-scn1lab-model-of-dravet-syndrome
#1
Brian P Grone, Tiange Qu, Scott C Baraban
Loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A cause Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy in which patients experience comorbid behavioral conditions, including movement disorders, sleep abnormalities, anxiety, and intellectual disability. To study the functional consequences of voltage-gated sodium channel mutations, we use zebrafish with a loss-of-function mutation in scn1lab, a zebrafish homolog of human SCN1A. Homozygous scn1lab(s552/s552) mutants exhibit early-life seizures, metabolic deficits, and early death...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806600/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-newer-5-6-dihydropyrimidine-2-1h-thiones-as-gaba-at-inhibitors-for-anticonvulsant-potential
#2
Meeta Sahu, Nadeem Siddiqui, Ramsha Iqbal, Vidushi Sharma, Sharad Wakode
Several new 5,6-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-thione derivatives have been prepared and investigated for their potencies for anticonvulsant activity against maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test in mice. The acute neurotoxicity was measured by rotarod test. Compounds 3c and 3l were found active in both of the animal models. Further, in vitro GABA-AT enzyme activity assay was carried out to investigate the possible mechanism of action through GABA-AT inhibition. The most potent compounds 3c and 3l showed inhibitory potency (IC50) of 18...
July 28, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805971/anticonvulsive-evaluation-of-thip-in-the-murine-pentylenetetrazole-kindling-model-lack-of-anticonvulsive-effect-of-thip-despite-functional-%C3%AE-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptors-in-dentate-gyrus-granule-cells
#3
Charlotte Simonsen, Kim Boddum, Nadia L von Schoubye, Alissa Kloppenburg, Kasper Sønderskov, Suzanne L Hansen, Uffe Kristiansen
THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) is a GABAA receptor agonist with varying potencies and efficacies at γ-subunit-containing receptors. More importantly, THIP acts as a selective superagonist at δ-subunit-containing receptors (δ-GABAA Rs) at clinically relevant concentrations. Evaluation of THIP as a potential anticonvulsant has given contradictory results in different animal models and for this reason, we reevaluated the anticonvulsive properties of THIP in the murine pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804613/novel-derivatives-of-phthalimide-with-potent-anticonvulsant-activity-in-ptz-and-mes-seizure-models
#4
Asghar Davood, Maryam Iman, Hanieh Pouriaiee, Hamed Shafaroodi, Sepideh Akhbari, Leila Azimidoost, Erfan Imani, Somaieh Rahmatpour
OBJECTIVES: Phthalimide-based derivatives have anticonvulsant activity like as phenytoin by inhibition of sodium channel. In our previously research we mentioned about some phthalimide derivatives as potent anticonvulsant agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen analogs of 2-substituted phthalimide pharmacophore were synthesized and then were evaluated for the anticonvulsant activities in pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures (PTZ) and maximal electroshock seizure (MES) models...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802513/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-review-of-literature
#5
Awais Aftab, Ashley VanDercar, Ayham Alkhachroum, Christine LaGrotta, Keming Gao
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation and risk factors of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in the context of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are poorly understood, and guidance regarding diagnosis and management remains scarce. In this article, we identify case reports of ECT-induced NCSE from literature, and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these cases in the context of what is known about NCSE from the neurology literature. METHODS: A literature search on PubMed for case reports of NCSE after ECT...
July 15, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799513/ketogenic-diets-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#6
Maurizio Elia, Joerg Klepper, Baerbel Leiendecker, Hans Hartmann
BACKGROUND: Although a larger number of antiepileptic drugs became available in the last decades, epilepsy remains drug-resistant in approximately a third of patients. Ketogenic diet (KD), first proposed at the beginning of the last century, is complex and has anticonvulsant effects, yet not completely understood. Over the last decades, different types of ketogenic diets (KDs) have been developed, namely classical KD and modified Atkins diet (MAD). They offer an effective alternative for children and adults with drug-resistant epilepsies...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799512/modulation-of-gabaa-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#7
Eleonora Palma, Gabriele Ruffolo, Pierangelo Cifelli, Cristina Roseti, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
BACKGROUND: A variety of evidence suggested that an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission could be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of seizures. Understanding the causes of this imbalance may provide essential insight into the basic mechanisms of epilepsy and may uncover novel targets for future drug therapies. Accordingly, GABA is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS and its receptors (e.g., GABAARs) can still be relevant targets of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799177/racemic-and-enantiopure-forms-of-3-ethyl-3-phenylpyrrolidin-2-one-adopt-very-different-crystal-structures
#8
Arcadius V Krivoshein, Sergey V Lindeman, Tatiana V Timofeeva, Victor N Khrustalev
3-Ethyl-3-phenylpyrrolidin-2-one (EPP) is an experimental anticonvulsant based on the newly proposed α-substituted amide group pharmacophore. These compounds show robust activity in animal models of drug-resistant epilepsy and are thus promising for clinical development. In order to understand pharmaceutically relevant properties of such compounds, we are conducting an extensive investigation of their structures in the solid state. In this article, we report chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, determination of absolute configuration of enantiomers, and crystal structures of EPP...
August 11, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777735/evidence-for-the-involvement-of-the-gaba-ergic-pathway-in-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-the-roots-bark-aqueous-extract-of-anthocleista-djalonensis-a-chev-loganiaceae
#9
Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Arielle Larissa Ndieudieu Kouamou, Armelle Rosalie Mbang Ambassa, Joseph Renaud Menanga, Thierry Bang Tchoya, Paul Desire Djomeni Dzeufiet
BACKGROUND: The root bark of Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev. (Loganiaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine in Northern Cameroon to treat epilepsy and related conditions, such as migraine, insomnia, dementia, anxiety, and mood disorders. METHODS: To investigate the anticonvulsant effects and the possible mechanisms of this plant, an aqueous extract of Anthocleista djalonensis (AEAD) was evaluated by using animal models of bicuculline-, picrotoxin-, pilocarpine-, and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777257/chronic-levetiracetam-decreases-hippocampal-and-testicular-aromatase-expression-in-normal-but-not-kainic-acid-induced-experimental-model-of-acute-seizures-in-rats
#10
Mehtap Cincioğlu-Palabiyik, Meral Üner, Dilek Ertoy-Baydar, Yildirim Sara, Hande Karahan, Pelin Kelicen-Uğur
Reproductive disorders are more common in men with epilepsy taking anticonvulsant medications. Antiseizure/anticonvulsant drugs and seizures in medial temporal lobe structures may cause gonadal dysfunction, including infertility, decreased libido, and potency. Levels of circulating bioavailable testosterone are affected by the aromatase enzyme, which converts testosterone into estrogen and may be affected by seizure medications. However, the relationship of anticonvulsant drugs with central aromatase levels is not clear...
August 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771044/retrospective-analysis-of-nonepileptic-patients-with-isolated-epileptiform-discharges-treated-with-anticonvulsants
#11
Ronald J Swatzyna, Jay D Tarnow, Meyer L Proler, Alexandra J Roark, Erin K MacInerney, Gerald P Kozlowski
Many antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been tested on nonepileptic patients with a variety of diagnoses. The Food and Drug Administration has only approved certain AEDs for a small number of psychiatric conditions. There are few studies of nonepileptic patients that recommend an empirical trial of AEDs when isolated epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are identified in the electroencephalogram (EEG). However, no trials have been published. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of treating nonepileptic patients with AEDs when IEDs are present...
September 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768356/-singultus-diagnostic-workup-and-therapy
#12
Ohlrich Marcus, Georg Royl
A hiccup is a reflex movement with diffusely distributed afferents and efferents in the thorax; its functional relevance is controversial. In its physiological form, it is mostly a minor complaint that stops spontaneously and rarely leads to medical consultation. However, prolonged agonizing hiccups represent serious deterioration of quality of life. Chronic hiccups by definition last for more than 48 h, with gastroesophageal reflux being the frequent underlying disease. Various other causes affect multiple organ systems, some with serious underlying diseases...
July 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767528/should-benzodiazepines-and-anticonvulsants-be-used-during-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-case-study-and-literature-review
#13
Victor M Tang, Akash N Pasricha, Daniel M Blumberger, Daphne Voineskos, Suvercha Pasricha, Benoit H Mulsant, Zafiris J Daskalakis
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the clinical effects of benzodiazepines or anticonvulsant use during a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). METHOD: A case report study of a patient who received ECT with and without concomitant flurazepam and pregabalin is presented. The literature on the use of benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants during ECT is reviewed. RESULTS: A woman with treatment resistant depression received a course of ECT while taking flurazepam and pregabalin, but seizures were of short duration and symptomatic improvement was minimal...
August 1, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766469/the-forsaking-of-the-clinical-eeg-by-psychiatry-how-justified
#14
Nash N Boutros
Despite decades of publications attesting to the role of the clinical EEG in diagnosing and managing psychiatric disorders, the procedure remains highly underutilized in the practice of psychiatry. The visually inspected EEG (vEEG) can detect various forms of abnormalities, each with its own clinical significance. Abnormalities can be paroxysmal (i.e., suggestive of an epileptic-like process) or stationary. The most important unanswered question remains the value of detecting epileptiform activity in a nonepileptic psychiatric patient in predicting favorable responses to anticonvulsant treatment...
August 2, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766407/anticonvulsant-effects-of-thiamine-on-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizure-in-mice
#15
Azam Mesdaghinia, Marziye Alinejad, Alireza Abed, Azhdar Heydari, Hamid Reza Banafshe
OBJECTIVES: Thiamine serves as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in brain function and neurotransmitters biosynthesis. Thiamine-dependent enzymes are important for oxidant stress defenses. Several studies have reported that thiamine deficiency in the central nervous system reduces seizure threshold. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of acute and chronic administration of thiamine alone and in combination with sub-effective dose of diazepam on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced tonic-clonic seizures in mice...
August 2, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765248/adherence-and-persistence-with-drug-therapy-among-fibromyalgia-patients-data-from-a-large-health-maintenance-organization
#16
Dana Ben-Ami Shor, Dahlia Weitzman, Shani Dahan, Omer Gendelman, Yael Bar-On, Daniela Amital, Varda Shalev, Gabriel Chodick, Howard Amital
OBJECTIVE: To assess 1-year persistence and adherence rates with drug therapy among patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and to identify factors associated with therapy discontinuation. METHODS: This retrospective, cohort study included members ≥ 21 years old from the Maccabi Healthcare Services, a large health maintenance organization in Israel, who were diagnosed with FM from 2008 through 2011. Medications of interest included the anticonvulsant pregabalin, antidepressants [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)], and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761832/anticonvulsant-and-antioxidant-effects-of-pitavastatin-against-pentylenetetrazol-induced-kindling-in-mice
#17
Nastaran Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi
Purpose: The pleiotropic effects of statins (antioxidant and anti-inflammation) have been reported by previous studies. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether pitavastatin has protective effects against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice and also whether pitavastatin improves the brain antioxidant capacity and attenuates the oxidative injuries in kindled mice. Methods: Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into four groups (each group n=6); control, PTZ-kindling and PTZ-kindled rats treated with pitavastatin (1&4 mg/kg)...
June 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759866/oral-health-impacts-of-medications-used-to-treat-mental-illness
#18
N Cockburn, A Pradhan, M W Taing, S Kisely, P J Ford
BACKGROUND: Many psychotropic medications affect oral health. This review identified oral side effects for antidepressant, antipsychotic, anticonvulsant, antianxiety and sedative drugs that are recommended in Australia for the management of common mental illnesses and provides recommendations to manage these side-effects. METHODS: The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat common mental health conditions...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759750/neuropharmacological-and-neuroprotective-activities-of-some-metabolites-produced-by-cell-suspension-culture-of-waltheria-americana-linn
#19
Jorge Mundo, Juana Villeda-Hernández, Maribel Herrera-Ruiz, María Del Carmen Gutiérrez, Jesús Arellano-García, Ismael León-Rivera, Irene Perea-Arango
Waltheria americana is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat some nervous system disorders. The aims of the present study were to isolate and determine the neuropharmacological and neurprotective activities of metabolites produced by a cell suspension culture of Waltheria americana. Submerged cultivation of W. americana cells provided biomass. A methanol-soluble extract (WAsc) was obtained from biomass. WAsc was fractionated yielding the chromatographic fractions 4WAsc-H2O and WAsc-CH2Cl2. For the determination of anticonvulsant activity in vivo, seizures were induced in mice by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758238/design-synthesis-and-docking-study-of-pyrimidine-triazine-hybrids-for-gaba-estimation-in-animal-epilepsy-models
#20
Meeta Sahu, Nadeem Siddiqui, Mohd Javed Naim, Ozair Alam, Mohammad Shahar Yar, Vidushi Sharma, Sharad Wakode
A series of new pyrimidine-triazine hybrids (4a-t) was designed and synthesized, from which potent anticonvulsant agents were identified. Most of the compounds exhibited promising anticonvulsant activity against the maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) tests, along with minimal motor impairment with higher safety compared to the standard drugs, phenytoin and carbamazepine. In the series, 5-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4o) and 5-(6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-thioxo-5,6-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(6H)-one (4s) emerged as most potent anticonvulsant agents with median doses of 22...
July 31, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
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