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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146027/medication-for-behavior-modification-in-birds
#1
REVIEW
Yvonne van Zeeland
The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144441/g-protein-coupled-receptors-targeted-by-analgesic-venom-peptides
#2
REVIEW
James T Daniel, Richard J Clark
Chronic pain is a complex and debilitating condition associated with a large personal and socioeconomic burden. Current pharmacological approaches to treating chronic pain such as opioids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants exhibit limited efficacy in many patients and are associated with dose-limiting side effects that hinder their clinical use. Therefore, improved strategies for the pharmacological treatment of pathological pain are urgently needed. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitously expressed on the surface of cells and act to transduce extracellular signals and regulate physiological processes...
November 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141569/isatin-new-hope-against-convulsion
#3
Rameshwar S Cheke, Sandip D Firke, Ravindra R Patil, Sanjay B Bari
Epilepsy is one of the most significant chronic neurological disorders with high occurrence worldwide. Many epileptic patients are not completely treated with currently available marketed drugs as well as so many drugs have shown unfavorable side effect and drug interaction. Therefore, there are continuing interests to find new anticonvulsant drugs. Recently, there has been wide interest in compounds containing the isatin moiety with diverse biological effects. In view of the previous continuation of an ongoing program aiming at finding new structure leads to potential anticonvulsant activities, we are trying to compile recent efforts which have been made in the design and development of isatin derived anticonvulsant agents...
November 13, 2017: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141182/optogenetic-activation-of-5-ht-neurons-in-the-dorsal-raphe-suppresses-seizure-induced-respiratory-arrest-and-produces-anticonvulsant-effect-in-the-dba-1-mouse-sudep-model
#4
Honghai Zhang, Haiting Zhao, Chang Zeng, Christa Van Dort, Carl L Faingold, Norman E Taylor, Ken Solt, Hua-Jun Feng
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication. Seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) occurs in many witnessed SUDEP patients and animal models as an initiating event leading to death. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying S-IRA will advance the development of preventive strategies against SUDEP. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important modulator for many vital functions, including respiration and arousal, and a deficiency of 5-HT signaling is strongly implicated in S-IRA in animal models, including the DBA/1 mouse...
November 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139256/-correlative-analysis-advance-of-chemical-constituents-of-polyporus-umbellatus-and-armillaria-mellea
#5
REVIEW
Jing-Wen Huang, Chang-Jiang-Sheng Lai, Yuan Yuan, Min Zhang, Jun-Hui Zhou, Lu-Qi Huang
Medicinal Polyporus umbellatus is the dry sclerotia of P. umbellatus, with the effect of diuresis; Armillaria mellea is a parasitic fungus which can infect plants up to 300 genera, with sedative, anticonvulsant and some other biological activities. As the medicinal value of P. umbellatus and A. mellea is increasingly wide concerned, the market quantity demanded of them is gradually increased and the demand outstrips the supply. The symbiotic A. mellea and P. umbellatus are both the medicinal and edible fungi with diverse activities, including hypoglycemic action, improve immunity and antitumor and so on...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138928/mechanisms-of-drug-binding-to-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#6
M E O'Leary, M Chahine
Voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channels are expressed in virtually all electrically excitable tissues and are essential for muscle contraction and the conduction of impulses within the peripheral and central nervous systems. Genetic disorders that disrupt the function of these channels produce an array of Na(+) channelopathies resulting in neuronal impairment, chronic pain, neuromuscular pathologies, and cardiac arrhythmias. Because of their importance to the conduction of electrical signals, Na(+) channels are the target of a wide variety of local anesthetic, antiarrhythmic, anticonvulsant, and antidepressant drugs...
November 15, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138643/interactions-of-desmethoxyyangonin-a-secondary-metabolite-from-renealmia-alpinia-with-human-monoamine-oxidase-a-and-oxidase-b
#7
Narayan D Chaurasiya, Francisco León, Yuanqing Ding, Isabel Gómez-Betancur, Dora Benjumea, Larry A Walker, Stephen J Cutler, Babu L Tekwani
Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), a medicinal plant of tropical rainforests, is used to treat snakebites and other injuries and also as a febrifuge, analgesic, antiemetic, antiulcer, and anticonvulsant. The dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia leaves showed potent inhibition of human monoamine oxidases- (MAOs-) A and B. Phytochemical studies yielded six known compounds, including pinostrobin 1, 4'-methyl ether sakuranetin 2, sakuranetin 3, pinostrobin chalcone 4, yashabushidiol A 5, and desmethoxyyangonin 6...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138154/pharmacologic-management-of-chronic-neuropathic-pain-review-of-the-canadian-pain-society-consensus-statement
#8
REVIEW
Alex Mu, Erica Weinberg, Dwight E Moulin, Hance Clarke
OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with a practical clinical summary of the Canadian Pain Society (CPS) revised consensus statement on the pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A multidisciplinary interest group within the CPS conducted a systematic review of the literature on the current treatments of neuropathic pain in drafting the revised consensus statement. MAIN MESSAGE: Gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are the first-line agents for treating neuropathic pain...
November 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130688/from-classification-to-regression-multitasking-qsar-modeling-using-a-novel-modular-neural-network-simultaneous-prediction-of-anticonvulsant-activity-and-neurotoxicity-of-succinimides
#9
Davor Antanasijević, Jelena Antanasijević, Nemanja Trišović, Gordana Ušćumlić, Viktor Pocajt
Succinimides, which contain a pharmacophore responsible for anticonvulsant activity, are frequently used antiepileptic drugs and the synthesis of their new derivatives with improved efficacy and tolerability presents an important task. Nowadays, multitarget/tasking methodologies focused on quantitative-structure activity relationships (mt-QSAR/mtk-QSAR) have an important role in the rational design of drugs since they enable simultaneous prediction of several standard measures of biological activities at diverse experimental conditions and against different biological targets...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128797/sotalol-enhances-the-anticonvulsant-action-of-valproate-and-diphenylhydantoin-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#10
Monika Banach, Monika Popławska, Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt
BACKGROUND: Sotalol as a drug blocking β-receptors and potassium KCNH2 channels may interact with different substances that affect seizures. Herein, we present interactions between sotalol and four conventional antiepileptic drugs: carbamazepine, valproate, phenytoin and phenobarbital. METHODS: Effects of sotalol and antiepileptics alone on seizures were determined in the electroconvulsive threshold test, while interactions between sotalol and antiepileptic drugs were estimated in the maximal electroshock test in mice...
May 11, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127345/the-synthetic-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-reduces-seizure-burden-and-improves-survival-in-a-dravet-syndrome-mouse-model
#11
Nicole A Hawkins, Michael Lewis, Rebecca S Hammond, James J Doherty, Jennifer A Kearney
Dravet syndrome is an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy with multiple seizure types that are often refractory to conventional therapies. Treatment with standard benzodiazepines like clobazam, in combination with valproate and stiripentol, provides only modest seizure control. While benzodiazepines are a first-line therapy for Dravet syndrome, they are limited by their ability to only modulate synaptic receptors. Unlike benzodiazepines, neuroactive steroids potentiate a wider-range of GABAA receptors. The synthetic neuroactive steroid SGE-516 is a potent positive allosteric modulator of both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127295/clinical-potential-of-an-enzyme-based-novel-therapy-for-cocaine-overdose
#12
Ting Zhang, Xirong Zheng, Ziyuan Zhou, Xiabin Chen, Zhenyu Jin, Jing Deng, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
It is a grand challenge to develop a truly effective medication for treatment of cocaine overdose. The current available, practical emergence treatment for cocaine overdose includes administration of a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant agent (e.g. diazepam) and/or physical cooling with an aim to relieve the symptoms. The inherent difficulties of antagonizing physiological effects of drugs in the central nervous system have led to exploring protein-based pharmacokinetic approaches using biologics like vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and enzymes...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125945/periodic-eeg-patterns-in-sporadic-creutzfeld-jakob-disease-can-be-benzodiazepine-responsive-and-be-difficult-to-distinguish-from-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#13
Justus Marquetand, Susanne Knake, Adam Strzelczyk, Bernhard J Steinhoff, Holger Lerche, Matthis Synofzik, Niels K Focke
PURPOSE: Periodic discharges in EEG and a history of rapidly progressive dementia are known to be associated with sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (sCJD). Doubts regarding this rare but fatal diagnosis can arise, when episodic symptoms (seizures, psychiatric features, speech disturbances) are present and the EEG shows epileptiform discharges within this periodicity. This scenario may indicate non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), which is - in contrast to sCJD - a treatable and frequent condition...
November 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122802/emergency-obstetric-care-provision-in-southern-ethiopia-a-facility-based-survey
#14
Mitchell Windsma, Tienke Vermeiden, Floris Braat, Andualem Mengistu Tsegaye, Asheber Gaym, Thomas van den Akker, Jelle Stekelenburg
OBJECTIVES: To assess the provision of basic emergency obstetric and newborn care (BEmONC), knowledge of high-risk pregnancies and referral capacity at health centres in Southern Ethiopia. DESIGN: A facility-based survey, using an abbreviated version of the Averting Maternal Death and Disability needs assessment tool for emergency obstetric and newborn care. Modules included infrastructure, staffing, number of deliveries, maternal and perinatal mortality, BEmONC signal functions, referral capacity and knowledge of risk factors in pregnancy...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119932/relevance-of-cyp2c9-function-in-valproate-therapy
#15
Katalin Monostory, Andrea Nagy, Katalin Toth, Tamas Budi, Adam Kiss, Mate Deri, Gabor Csukly
Genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes can substantially modify the pharmacokinetics of a drug and eventually its efficacy or toxicity; however, inferring a patient's drug metabolizing capacity merely from his or her genotype can lead to false prediction. Non-genetic host factors (age, sex, disease states) and environmental factors (nutrition, co-medication) can transiently alter the enzyme expression and activities resulting in genotype-phenotype mismatch. Although valproic acid is a well-tolerated anticonvulsant, pediatric patients are particularly vulnerable to valproate injury that can be partly attributed to the age-related differences in metabolic pathways...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114367/the-comparison-of-anti-seizure-and-tocolytic-effects-of-phenytoin-and-magnesium-sulphate-in-the-treatment-of-eclampsia-and-preeclampsia-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#16
Maryam Khooshideh, Majid Ghaffarpour, Sama Bitarafan
Background: To date, magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is the treatment of choice for prevention of seizure in eclampsia and preeclampsia. However, there are some limitations in the administration of MgSO4 due to its tocolytic effects. The aim of this study was to compare the anticonvulsant and tocolytic effects of MgSO4 and another drug, phenytoin, in patients with eclampsia and preeclampsia. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women hospitalised with eclampsia or preeclampsia, during 2014-2016...
July 6, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111525/crystallographic-studies-of-cinnamamide-derivatives-as-a-means-of-searching-for-anticonvulsant-activity
#17
Ewa Żesławska, Wojciech Nitek, Henryk Marona, Agnieszka Gunia-Krzyżak
A cinnamamide (3-phenylprop-2-enamide) core is present in many pharmacologically active compounds. We report three new crystal structures of N-substituted cinnamamide derivatives which were screened for anticonvulsant activity, namely (R,S)-(2E)-N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-phenylprop-2-enamide, C12H15NO2, (1), (R,S)-(2E)-N-(1-hydroxybutan-2-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-enamide, C13H17NO2, (2), and (2E)-1-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one, C14H17NO2, (3). Compounds (1) and (2) crystallize in the Pbca space group with one molecule in the asymmetric unit, whereas compound (3) crystallizes in the P21/c space group with two molecules in the asymmetric unit...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106000/delayed-type-hypersensitivity-to-oral-and-parenteral-drugs
#18
Oliver Brandt, Andreas J Bircher
Adverse drug reactions of the delayed type rank among the most common dermatoses and are predominantly characterized by exanthematous macular or maculopapular eruptions. However, approximately 2 % of affected individuals develop severe or even life-threatening systemic immune reactions associated with organ involvement, requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment. Numerous drugs are capable of eliciting delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, with antibiotics, anticonvulsant drugs, and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol being the most common...
November 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105060/cannabinoid-receptor-1-2-double-knockout-mice-develop-epilepsy
#19
Shane Rowley, Xiaofei Sun, Isabel V Lima, Alexandra Tavenier, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Sudhansu K Dey, Steve C Danzer
The endocannabinoid system has gained attention as an important modulator of activity in the central nervous system. Initial studies focused on cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), which is widely expressed in the brain, but recent work also implicates cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in modulating neuronal activity. Both receptors are capable of reducing neuronal activity, generating interest in cannabinoid receptor agonists as potential anticonvulsants. CB1 (Cnr1) and CB2 (Cnr2) single-knockout mice have been generated, with the former showing heightened seizure sensitivity, but not overt seizures...
November 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104044/calcitonin-potentiates-the-anticonvulsant-and-antinociceptive-effects-of-valproic-acid-and-pregabalin-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-mice
#20
Nada M Hamada, Rehab H Ashour, Amany A Shalaby, Hussien M El-Beltagi
Antiepileptic drugs are the backbone for epilepsy management. Epilepsy may be accompanied by decreased pain threshold. Thus, anticonvulsant agents with antinociceptive properties are of great importance. This study investigated the possible anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects of calcitonin in combination with either valproic acid or pregabalin and whether these effects might occur through γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulation. Eighty-four male Balb/C mice were divided into 7 groups: control-naïve, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, PTZ-calcitonin, PTZ-valproic acid, PTZ-pregabalin, PTZ-calcitonin-valproic acid (PCV) combination, and PTZ-calcitonin-pregabalin (PCP) combination...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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