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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919504/successful-treatment-of-paroxysmal-ataxia-and-dysarthria-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-levetiracetam
#1
Shikha J Goodwin, Adam F Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal ataxia and dysarthria (PAD) is a relatively rare symptom in Multiple Sclerosis patients. PAD involves transient dysfunction in control, coordination and initiation of speech and/or limb movements. OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful use of levetiracetam for the treatment of PAD. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 37-year-old woman with MS developed PAD approximately 3 months after a multifocal MS relapse...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917287/measuring-the-complexity-of-treatment-for-challenging-behavior-using-the-treatment-intensity-rating-form
#2
Jennifer Zarcone, Louis Hagopian, Jennifer Ninci, Chloe McKay, Andrew Bonner, Christopher Dillon, Nicole Hausman
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a tool to measure the complexity and intensity of psychotropic medication interventions, behavioral interventions, and issues related to crisis management for challenging behavior using a standardized rating form. METHOD: The Treatment Intensity Rating Form (TIRF) is a 10-item scale with three categories: pharmacological interventions, behavior supports, and protective equipment. In a retrospective review we examined the final treatment recommendations for 74 individuals with self-injurious behavior (SIB) based on psychiatric and behavioral notes and reports...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916842/synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-new-3-4-dihydroisoquinolin-derivatives-containing-heterocycle-as-potential-anticonvulsant-agents
#3
Hong-Jian Zhang, Qing-Kun Shen, Chun-Mei Jin, Zhe-Shan Quan
Two novel series of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin with heterocycle derivatives (4a-t and 9a-e) were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock (MES) test and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure test. All compounds were characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Among them, 9-(exyloxy)-5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]isoquinolin-3(2H)-one (9a) showed significant anticonvulsant activity in MES tests with an ED50 value of 63.31 mg/kg and it showed wide margins of safety with protective index (PI > 7...
November 29, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916449/a-case-of-severe-movement-disorder-with-gnao1-mutation-responsive-to-topiramate
#4
Saori Sakamoto, Yukifumi Monden, Ryoko Fukai, Noriko Miyake, Hiroshi Saito, Akihiko Miyauchi, Ayumi Matsumoto, Masako Nagashima, Hitoshi Osaka, Naomichi Matsumoto, Takanori Yamagata
We report the case of a 19-year-old female patient who had progressive chorea associated with a GNAO1 mutation. Chorea was refractory to multiple anticonvulsants, and the patient suffered from tiapride-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome. After identification of a GNAO1 missense mutation at the age of 18years, topiramate treatment was initiated and the frequency of chorea decreased dramatically. The efficacy of topiramate may have been related to the inhibitory modulation of voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels...
December 1, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915186/role-of-the-purinergic-signaling-in-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Marek Cieślak, Andrzej Wojtczak, Michał Komoszyński
Adenine nucleotides and adenosine are signaling molecules that activate purinergic receptors P1 and P2. Activation of A1 adenosine receptors has an anticonvulsant action, whereas activation of A2A receptors might initiate seizures. Therefore, a significant limitation to the use of A1 receptor agonists as drugs in the CNS might be their peripheral side effects. The anti-epileptic activity of adenosine is related to its increased concentration outside the cell. This increase might result from the inhibition of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs)...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915183/search-for-new-potential-anticonvulsants-with-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-properties-among-derivatives-of-4-4-diphenylpyrrolidin-2-one
#6
Katarzyna Malawska, Aleksandra Rak, Beata Gryzło, Kinga Sałat, Małgorzata Michałowska, Elżbieta Żmudzka, Krzysztof Lodarski, Barbara Malawska, Katarzyna Kulig
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of new N-Mannich bases derived from 4,4-diphenylpyrrolidin-2-one having differently substituted 4-phenylpiperazines as potential anticonvulsant agents with additional (beneficial) pharmacological properties. METHODS: The target compounds 8-12 were prepared in one step from the 4-substituted phenylpiperazines, paraformaldehyde, and synthesized 4,4-diphenylpyrrolodin-2-one (7) by a Mannich-type reaction...
September 22, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914224/a-systematic-review-of-epileptic-seizures-in-adults-with-subdural-haematomas
#7
REVIEW
Sae-Yeon Won, Juergen Konczalla, Daniel Dubinski, Adriano Cattani, Colleen Cuca, Volker Seifert, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic epileptic seizures (PTS) are a serious complication in patients with subdural haematoma (SDH). However, to date, several studies have shown discordances about SDH-associated seizures in terms of incidence, risk factors and prophylactic antiepileptic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, risk factors of PTS and the role of prophylactic antiepileptic treatment in patients with SDH. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature review examining PTS in patients with SDH was performed using PubMed gateway, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Excerpta Medica dataBASE between September 1961 and February 2016...
November 25, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906695/metformin-induced-generalized-fixed-drug-eruption-with-cutaneous-hemophagocytosis
#8
Jose Luis Rodríguez-Belver, Joaquin Lopez, Elena Macias, Laura Fuertes, Irene Andres, Victoria Alegria, Ignacio Gimeno, Alejandra Perez, Yosmar Perez, Luis Requena
Fixed drug eruption (FDE) consists of recurrent dusky-red to brownish macules or patches at the same sites after the readministration of the causative drug. It usually presents as a solitary lesion, but generalized eruptions have been described. The most frequently implied drugs are antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and analgesics. Only 2 cases due to metformin have been reported. Histopathologic features of FDE include vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer, necrotic keratinocytes, and superficial and deep perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902848/topiramate-in-migraine-prevention-a-2016-perspective
#9
Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#10
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jayswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892441/a-prospective-study-of-commonly-prescribed-drugs-in-the-management-of-neuropathic-pain-and-its-medication-adherence-pattern
#11
R Shrestha, P Silwal, N Basnet, S Shakya Shrestha, R Shrestha, B R Pokharel
Background Neuropathic pain is one of the common complains of patients visiting neurology and orthopedic departments in hospitals. Management of neuropathic pain is difficult and is often symptomatic rather than being curative. Adherence to medication is necessary for pain management to be effective. However, there are various factors related to patient, physician, drug regimen and other socio-economic affecting adherence. Objective To study commonly prescribed drugs in neuropathic pain management and the medication adherence pattern including its associated factors...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890817/sec-butylpropylacetamide-spd-a-new-amide-derivative-of-valproic-acid-for-the-treatment-of-neuropathic-and-inflammatory-pain
#12
Dan Kaufmann, Peter J West, Misty D Smith, Boris Yagen, Meir Bialer, Marshall Devor, H Steve White, K C Brennan
Chronic pain is a multifactorial disease comprised of both inflammatory and neuropathic components that affect ∼20% of the world's population. sec-Butylpropylacetamide (SPD) is a novel amide analogue of valproic acid (VPA) previously shown to possess a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity. In this study we defined the pharmacokinetic parameters of SPD in rat and mouse, and then evaluated its antinociceptive potential in neuropathic and acute inflammatory pain models. In the sciatic nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain, SPD was equipotent to gabapentin and more potent than its parent compound VPA...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890743/considering-future-pharmacotherapy-for-ptsd
#13
REVIEW
Matthew J Friedman, Nancy C Bernardy
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling, and often chronic condition that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Despite the immense social and economic ramifications of PTSD, there has been relatively little recent development of new pharmacotherapies. The majority of pharmacological randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that has been conducted are now dated. Existing treatments for PTSD primarily have come out of research that tested medications developed for other disorders such as antidepressants, anti-hypertensives, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888513/decreased-allopregnanolone-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-obtained-during-status-epilepticus
#14
Stefano Meletti, Chiara Lucchi, Giulia Monti, Giada Giovannini, Roberta Bedin, Tommaso Trenti, Cecilia Rustichelli, Giuseppe Biagini
Neuroactive steroids are increasingly considered as relevant modulators of neuronal activity. Especially allopregnanolone (AP) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) have been shown to possess, respectively, anticonvulsant or proconvulsant properties. In view of the potential role of these steroids, we aimed at evaluating AP and PS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples obtained from patients with status epilepticus (SE). To this purpose, we enrolled 41 patients affected by SE and 41 subjects investigated for nonepileptic neurologic disorders...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887842/simple-n-n-dimethyl-phenylsulfonamides-show-potent-anticonvulsant-effect-in-two-standard-epilepsy-models
#15
Tomoyuki Tanaka, Nana Yajima, Tomoko Kiyoshi, Yoshiki Miura, Seiji Iwama
Optimization of the previously reported benzothiazine analogue A led to the identification of compound 1, which showed anti-convulsant activity in two golden standard animal models of seizure, the MES and scPTZ models. Structure-activity relationship investigation of compound 1 revealed compounds 2, 6 and 19 as attractive anti-epileptic drug (AED) candidates with potent anticonvulsant effect in both the MES and scPTZ models. As these compounds are structurally different from existing AEDs, determination of their mechanism of actions could provide clues to understanding current therapy-resistant seizures...
November 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880651/durations-of-opioid-nonopioid-drug-and-behavioral-clinical-trials-for-chronic-pain-adequate-or-inadequate
#16
Baraa O Tayeb, Ana E Barreiro, Ylisabyth S Bradshaw, Kenneth K H Chui, Daniel B Carr
OBJECTIVES:  A recent US federal review and clinical guideline on opioids for chronic pain asserted that the literature contributes no evidence on efficacy because all trials had "inadequate duration." To explore the evidence, we examined durations of studies on opioid, nonopioid drug, and behavioral therapies for chronic pain. METHODS:  We retrieved Cochrane reviews of anticonvulsants, antidepressants, NSAIDs, opioids, or behavioral interventions for chronic pain...
November 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876250/structure-anticonvulsant-activity-studies-in-the-group-of-e-n-cinnamoyl-aminoalkanols-derivatives-monosubstituted-in-phenyl-ring-with-4-cl-4-ch3-or-2-ch3
#17
Agnieszka Gunia-Krzyżak, Dorota Żelaszczyk, Anna Rapacz, Ewa Żesławska, Anna M Waszkielewicz, Katarzyna Pańczyk, Karolina Słoczyńska, Elżbieta Pękala, Wojciech Nitek, Barbara Filipek, Henryk Marona
A series of twenty two (E)-N-cinnamoyl aminoalkanols derivatives monosubstituted in phenyl ring with 4-Cl, 4-CH3 or 2-CH3 was designed, synthesized and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity in rodent models of seizures: maximal electroshock (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test, and 6-Hz test. There were identified three most active compounds: S-(2E)-N-(1-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-3-(2-methylphenyl)prop-2-enamide (5) (ED50 MES=42.56, ED50 scPTZ=58.38, ED50 6-Hz 44mA=42.27mg/kg tested in mice after intraperitoneal (i...
November 11, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875784/anticonvulsant-effect-of-dextrometrophan-on-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-mice-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-and-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors
#18
Gholamreza Mohseni, Sattar Ostadhadi, Reyhaneh Akbarian, Mohsen Chamanara, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Ahmad-Reza Dehpour
Dextrometrophan (DM), widely used as an antitussive, has recently generated interest as an anticonvulsant drug. Some effects of dextrometrophan are associated with alterations in several pathways, such as inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme and N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant effect of acute administration of dextrometrophan on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures and the probable involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway and NMDA receptors in this effect...
November 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875747/new-model-of-pharmacoresistant-seizures-induced-by-3-mercaptopropionic-acid-in-mice
#19
Andrea Enrique, Sofía Goicoechea, Rocío Castaño, Facundo Taborda, Luisa Rocha, Sandra Orozco, Elena Girardi, Luis Bruno Blanch
About 30% of the patients with epilepsy do not respond to clinically established anticonvulsants, despite having effective concentrations of the antiepileptic drug in plasma. Therefore, new preclinical models of epilepsy are needed to identify more efficacious treatments. We describe here a new drug-resistant seizure model in mice to be used at the early stages of pre-clinical trials. This model consists in inducing daily generalized seizures for 23 consecutive days by administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP)...
October 27, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873285/prescription-drug-use-and-polypharmacy-among-medicaid-enrolled-adults-with-autism-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis
#20
Rini Vohra, Suresh Madhavan, Usha Sambamoorthi, Claire StPeter, Susannah Poe, Nilanjana Dwibedi, Mayank Ajmera
BACKGROUND: A lack of gold standard treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), no clear ASD management guidelines, and lack of evidence-based pharmacological interventions other than aripiprazole and risperidone elevate the risk of off-label prescribing and adverse effects among individuals with ASD, more so among adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the types of prescription drug use, rates of polypharmacy, and characteristics associated with polypharmacy among adults with and without ASD in a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a three-state Medicaid Analytic eXtract database (2000-2008)...
December 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
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