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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922108/meropenem-induced-valproic-acid-elimination-a-case-report-of-clinically-relevant-drug-interaction
#1
Martin Šíma, Jan Hartinger, Jan Rulíšek, Robert Šachl, Ondřej Slanař
We present two case reports of drug interaction between valproic acid and meropenem. In comparison with expected population-kinetic based serum levels, we observed 90.8 and 93.5% decrease in valproic acid serum levels during concomitant administration with meropenem. If carbapenems need to be administered to valproic acid treated patient, other anticonvulsant addition seems to be the appropriate as most probably the valproic acid dose escalation would not be sufficient to achieve therapeutic serum concentration...
2017: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919764/levetiracetam-is-associated-with-decrease-in-subclinical-epileptiform-discharges-and-improved-cognitive-functions-in-pediatric-patients-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Minjian Wang, Li Jiang, Xiaoju Tang
OBJECTIVE: Subclinical epileptiform discharges (SEDs) are common in pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the effect of antiepileptic drugs on SEDs in ASD remains inconclusive. This physician-blinded, prospective, randomized controlled trial investigated an association between the anticonvulsant drug levetiracetam and SEDs in children with ASD. METHODS: A total of 70 children with ASD (4-6 years) and SEDs identified by electroencephalogram were randomly divided into two equal groups to receive either levetiracetam and educational training (treatment group) or educational training only (control)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915351/relaxation-dynamics-vs-crystallization-kinetics-in-the-amorphous-state-the-case-of-stiripentol
#3
Guadalupe N Ruiz, Michela Romanini, Maria Del Barrio, Josep Ll Tamarit, Luis C Pardo, Roberto Macovez
With the aim of finding a correlation between the crystallization kinetics and the molecular dynamics of a substance that would allow to predict its crystallization time as a function of temperature for a given α relaxation time, we have studied Stiripentol, an anticonvulsant drug. Stiripentol has been characterized in its supercooled liquid, and amorphous (glass) and crystalline states by the concurrent use of Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS), differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913813/pharmacotherapy-pearls-for-emergency-neurological-life-support
#4
Gretchen M Brophy, Theresa Human
The appropriate use of medications during Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) is essential to optimize patient care. Important considerations when choosing the appropriate agent include the patient's organ function and medication allergies, potential adverse drug effects, drug interactions and critical illness and aging pathophysiologic changes. Critical medications used during ENLS include hyperosmolar therapy, anticonvulsants, antithrombotics, anticoagulant reversal and hemostatic agents, anti-shivering agents, neuromuscular blockers, antihypertensive agents, sedatives, vasopressors and inotropes, and antimicrobials...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913605/emergency-neurological-life-support-status-epilepticus
#5
Jan Claassen, Joshua N Goldstein
Patients with prolonged or rapidly recurring convulsions lasting more than 5 min should be considered to be in status epilepticus (SE) and receive immediate resuscitation. Although there are few randomized clinical trials, available evidence and experience suggest that early and aggressive treatment of SE improves patient outcomes, for which reason this was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. The current approach to the emergency treatment of SE emphasizes rapid initiation of adequate doses of first line therapy, as well as accelerated second line anticonvulsant drugs and induced coma when these fail, coupled with admission to a unit capable of neurological critical care and electroencephalography monitoring...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904588/a-case-of-epilepsia-partialis-continua-due-to-linear-nevus-syndrome-with-hemimegalencephaly
#6
Leema Pauline Cornelius, Vivekasaravanan Raju, Ravi A Lalapet
Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a form of focal status epilepticus often refractory to anticonvulsant therapy. A wide range of abnormalities such as inflammatory, vascular, metabolic-toxic, developmental malformations, and neoplasia cause EPC. Linear nevus syndrome with hemimegalencephaly is one of the developmental malformations that can present with EPC.
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902712/attenuation-of-pentylenetrazole-induced-acute-status-epilepticus-in-rats-by-adenosine-involves-inhibition-of-the-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-pathway
#7
Yuliang Wang, Xuewu Liu, Yuan Wang, Jinbo Chen, Tao Han, Lei Su, Kejun Zang
Adenosine (ADO) has been characterized as an endogenous anticonvulsant and alternative therapeutic drug, but its mechanism is not entirely clear. This study aimed to examine the relationship of ADO with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a Wistar rat model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced acute status epilepticus. ADO (200 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before PTZ (55-65 mg/kg) treatment, and Western blot assays and immunohistochemistry were performed 3 h after the onset of acute status epilepticus to detect phospho-TOR and the downstream target of mTOR, phospho-S6...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901475/valproic-acid-inhibits-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-decreasing-smad4-expression
#8
Shaowei Mao, Guoliang Lu, Xiaopeng Lan, Chuanwei Yuan, Wei Jiang, Yougen Chen, Xunbo Jin, Qinghua Xia
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy in urogenital neoplasms worldwide. According to previous studies, valproic acid (VPA), an anticonvulsant drug, can suppress tumor metastasis and decrease the expression level of Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) and therefore may inhibit epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for cancer metastasis. However, the association between VPA, EMT and SMAD4 in RCC metastasis remains obscure. In the present study, it was demonstrated that in the RCC cell lines 786‑O and Caki‑1 treated with VPA, the neural (N)‑cadherin, vimentin and SMAD4 protein and mRNA levels were decreased, accompanied with an increase in expression of epithelial (E)‑cadherin...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901248/review-on-synthetic-chemistry-and-antibacterial-importance-of-thiazole-derivatives
#9
Ankita Kashyap, Nayana Adhikari, Arpita Das, Anshul Shakya, Surajit Kumar Ghosh, Udaya Pratap Singh, Hans Raj Bhat
The heterocyclic compounds include a vast subject in chemistry and thiazole is one of the leading heterocyclic compounds which have a five-member ring with the molecular formula C3H3NS containing sulphur and nitrogen atoms, occupies an important place in pharmaceutical chemistry. Many natural and synthetic medicinally important compounds contain thiazole as essential moieties with a broad range of therapeutic activities. Diverse modifications of the thiazole ring at various positions led to a variety of novel compounds with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antioxidant, diuretic, antifungal, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anti-HIV, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-Alzheimer and anticancer activities...
September 11, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894547/a-novel-therapy-for-cocaine-dependence-during-abstinence-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Bijan Pirnia, Ali Reza Moradi, Kambiz Pirnia, Parisa Kolahi, Rasool Roshan
BACKGROUND: Topiramate is an anticonvulsant drug and an ideal candidate for reducing the craving in people relying on cocaine. Contingency management is one of the common therapies in the domain of addiction. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare three medication methods of Topiramate (TPM), Contingency Management (CM) and the combined TPM treatment and cash intervention on craving during abstinence. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted at Bijan Center for Substance Abuse Treatment in Tehran, Iran, from December 15, 2014 to November 20, 2015...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#11
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885590/ethnopharmacology-and-therapeutic-value-of-bridelia-micrantha-hochst-baill-in-tropical-africa-a-comprehensive-review
#12
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Bridelia micrantha is traditionally used in tropical Africa to treat a wide range of human and animal diseases. The aim of this study was to summarise the research that has been done on the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of B. micrantha so as to understand its importance and potential value in primary healthcare systems. The literature search for information on ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of B. micrantha was undertaken using databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, BioMed Central (BMC), PubMed and Springerlink...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884730/-pharmacological-effects-and-clinical-application-of-pantogam-and-pantogam-active
#13
T A Voronina, S A Litvinova
Clinical studies and experience in the use of pantogam (hopanthenic acid) and pantogam active (rac-gopantenic/D-, L-gopantenic acid) showed their efficacy and safety in patients with various pathologies. Pantogam has a unique spectrum of pharmacological effects (nootropic, anticonvulsant, mild activating) in the absence of addiction, hyperstimulation or withdrawal syndrome. Pantogam active, having also an additional anxiolytic effect, is characterized by bimodal activity, improves not only cognitive functions, but also emotional state in patients in psychiatric, neurological and cardiological practice with such diseases and conditions as anxiety/anxiety-depressive disorders, chronic brain ischemia, ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, epilepsy, craniocerebral trauma, schizophrenia as well as cognitive impairment in the structure of neurological and psychogenic deficiencies...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884396/ginsenoside-re-protects-trimethyltin-induced-neurotoxicity-via-activation-of-il-6-mediated-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-akt-signaling-in-mice
#14
Thu-Hien Thi Tu, Naveen Sharma, Eun-Joo Shin, Hai-Quyen Tran, Yu Jeung Lee, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jung Hwan Jeong, Seung Yeol Nah, Hoang-Yen Phi Tran, Jae Kyung Byun, Sung Kwon Ko, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Ginseng (Panax ginseng), an herbal medicine, has been used to prevent neurodegenerative disorders. Ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, or Rg1) were obtained from Korean mountain cultivated ginseng. The anticonvulsant activity of ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg/day × 3) against trimethyltin (TMT) insult was the most pronounced out of ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, and Rg1). Re itself did not significantly alter tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-ϒ (IFN-ϒ), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression, however, it significantly increases the interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression...
September 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878340/the-pharmacogenomics-of-valproic-acid
#15
REVIEW
Miao-Miao Zhu, Hui-Lan Li, Li-Hong Shi, Xiao-Ping Chen, Jia Luo, Zan-Ling Zhang
Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of valproic acid are rare, but hepatotoxicity is severe in particular in those younger than 2 years old and polytherapy. During valproic acid treatment, it is difficult for prescribers to predict its individual response. Recent advances in the field of pharmacogenomics have indicated variants of candidate genes that affect valproic acid efficacy and safety. In this review, a large number of candidate genes that influence valproic acid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are discussed, including metabolic enzymes, drug transporters, neurotransmitters and drug targets...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871229/gabapentin-modulates-hcn4-channel-voltage-dependence
#16
Han-Shen Tae, Kelly M Smith, A Marie Phillips, Kieran A Boyle, Melody Li, Ian C Forster, Robert J Hatch, Robert Richardson, David I Hughes, Brett A Graham, Steven Petrou, Christopher A Reid
Gabapentin (GBP) is widely used to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain. There is evidence that GBP can act on hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channel-mediated Ih in brain slice experiments. However, evidence showing that GBP directly modulates HCN channels is lacking. The effect of GBP was tested using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from human HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell recordings were also made from mouse spinal cord slices targeting either parvalbumin positive (PV(+)) or calretinin positive (CR(+)) inhibitory neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870844/inhibitory-synapse-deficits-caused-by-familial-%C3%AE-1-gabaa-receptor-mutations-in-epilepsy
#17
Xiumin Chen, Nela Durisic, Joseph W Lynch, Angelo Keramidas
Epilepsy is a spectrum of neurological disorders with many causal factors. The GABA type-A receptor (GABAAR) is a major genetic target for heritable human epilepsies. Here we examine the functional effects of three epilepsy-causing mutations to the α1 subunit (α1(T10'I), α1(D192N) and α1(A295D)) on inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) mediated by the major synaptic GABAAR isoform, α1β2γ2L. We employed a neuron - HEK293 cell heterosynapse preparation to record IPSCs mediated by mutant-containing GABAARs in isolation from other GABAAR isoforms...
September 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868795/ultra-low-doses-of-naltrexone-enhance-the-antiallodynic-effect-of-pregabalin-or-gabapentin-in-neuropathic-rats
#18
Jorge B Pineda-Farias, Nadia L Caram-Salas, Ana B Salinas-Abarca, Jorge Ocampo, Vinicio Granados-Soto
Preclinical Research Treatment of neuropathic pain is an area of largely unmet medical need. Pregabalin and gabapentin are anticonvulsants widely used for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Unfortunately, these drugs are only effective in 50-60% of the treated patients. In addition, both drugs have substantial side effects. Several studies have reported that ultralow doses of opioid receptor antagonists can induce analgesia and enhance the analgesic effect of opioids in rodents and humans. The objective of the present study was to assess the antiallodynic synergistic interaction between gabapentinoids and naltrexone in rats...
September 3, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868093/on-the-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-drug-induced-gingival-overgrowth
#19
Albert Ramírez-Rámiz, Lluís Brunet-LLobet, Eduard Lahor-Soler, Jaume Miranda-Rius
INTRODUCTION: Gingival overgrowth has been linked to multiple factors such as adverse drug effects, inflammation, neoplastic processes, and hereditary gingival fibromatosis. Drug-induced gingival overgrowth is a well-established adverse event. In early stages, this gingival enlargement is usually located in the area of the interdental papilla. Histologically, there is an increase in the different components of the extracellular matrix. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to describe and analyze the different cellular and molecular agents involved in the pathogenesis of Drug-induced gingival overgrowth...
2017: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867037/-place-of-eeg-in-the-management-of-arterial-ischemic-stroke-newborn
#20
S Nguyen The Tich
The EEG has a key role in the management of neonatal seizures, which are the typical mode of revelation of neonatal ischemic stroke. The EEG should be started as soon as possible in case of suspected seizure. Some EEG features are evocative of neonatal stroke, typically asymmetry of background activity with the presence of focal spikes and focal seizures. The EEG should be prolonged and always associated with a video as pauci-symptomatic or subclinical seizures are frequent, including some status epilepticus...
September 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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