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Prilocaine hyperbar

Alberto Manassero, Andrea Fanelli
Prilocaine is a local anesthetic characterized by intermediate potency and duration and fast onset of action. As hyperbaric formulation of 5% solution, it was introduced and has been successfully used for spinal anesthesia since 1960. A new formulation of 2% plain and hyperbaric solution is currently available in Europe. Because of its lower incidence of transient neurological symptoms, prilocaine is suggested as substitute to lidocaine and mepivacaine in spinal anesthesia for ambulatory surgery, as well as a suitable alternative to low doses of long-acting local anesthetics...
2017: Local and Regional Anesthesia
Jan Boublik, Ruchir Gupta, Supurna Bhar, Arthur Atchabahian
Transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) led to the abandonment of intrathecal lidocaine. We reviewed the published literature for information about the duration of action and side effects of intrathecal prilocaine, which has been recently reintroduced in Europe. Medline and EMBASE databases were searched for the time period from 1966 to 2015. Fourteen prospective and one retrospective study were retrieved. The duration of the surgical block can be adjusted using doses between 40 and 80mg. Hyperbaric prilocaine in doses as low as 10mg can be used for perianal procedures...
December 2016: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
A L Ambrosoli, M Chiaranda, L L Fedele, M Gemma, V Cedrati, G Cappelleri
We allocated 100 patients scheduled for day-case knee arthroscopy to unilateral spinal anaesthesia with 40 mg intrathecal hyperbaric prilocaine or to ultrasound-guided femoral-sciatic nerve blockade with 25 ml mepivacaine 2%, 50 participants each. The median (IQR [range]) time to walk was 285 (240-330 [160-515]) min after intrathecal anaesthesia vs 328 (280-362 [150-435]) min after peripheral nerve blockade, p = 0.007. The median (IQR [range]) time to home discharge was 310 (260-350 [160-520]) min after intrathecal anaesthesia vs 335 (290-395 [190-440]) min after peripheral nerve blockade, p = 0...
March 2016: Anaesthesia
José Aguirre, Alain Borgeat, Philipp Bühler, Jelena Mrdjen, Beat Hardmeier, John M Bonvini
BACKGROUND: Short-duration spinal anesthesia is a good option for ambulatory knee surgery. Hyperbaric 2% prilocaine has short onset and rapid recovery times and, therefore, may be well suited in this setting. The aim of this study was to compare the times to reach motor block, motor block resolution, and discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) between hyperbaric 2% prilocaine and 0.4% plain ropivacaine. METHODS: In this prospective randomized double-blind study, 140 patients (ages 18-80 yr and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II) scheduled for elective unilateral arthroscopic knee surgery lasting < 45 min were allocated to either 3 mL of 2% prilocaine (60 mg) or 3 mL of 0...
October 2015: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Marc D Schmittner, Volker Gebhardt
More and more operative procedures are performed in an ambulatory setting. Many patients are denied spinal anaesthesia, although it provides several advantages. Innovative pharmaceutical formulations of well-tried local anaesthetics have created "new" substances that are ideal for ambulatory surgery due to their fast onset, short duration of action, and very low incidence of complications such as transient neurological symptoms (TNS). Both hyperbaric prilocaine 2% and preservative-free chloroprocaine 1% were recently approved for spinal application in Germany...
March 2015: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Ozden Gorgoz Kaban, Dilek Yazicioglu, Taylan Akkaya, M Murat Sayin, Duray Seker, Haluk Gumus
BACKGROUND: The local anaesthetics used in day-case spinal anaesthesia should provide short recovery times. We aimed to compare hyperbaric prilocaine and bupivacaine in terms of sensory block resolution and time to home readiness in day-case spinal anaesthesia. MeTHODS: Fifty patients undergoing perianal surgery were randomized into two groups. The bupivacaine-fentanyl group (Group B) received 7.5 mg, 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine + 20 μg fentanyl in total 1.9 mL. The prilocaine-fentanyl group (Group P) received 30 mg, 0...
2014: TheScientificWorldJournal
Emmanuel Guntz, Bausard Latrech, Constantin Tsiberidis, Jonathan Gouwy, Yota Kapessidou
PURPOSE: Hyperbaric 2% prilocaine (HP) is increasingly used for spinal anesthesia in day-case surgery. The aim of this prospective double-blind study was to determine the effective dose (ED)50 and the ED90 of HP for patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. METHODS: Doses of HP were determined using an up-and-down sequential allocation technique. Sequences were analyzed by isotonic regression analysis. A subsequent observational study was performed with the calculated ED90 in 50 patients to confirm the initial result and to describe the induced blockade effects and side effects...
September 2014: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
A Manassero, M Bossolasco, S Ugues, C Bailo, C Liarou, G Coletta
BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric 2% prilocaine produces a faster onset and shorter duration of spinal anesthesia than a plain solution. The anesthetic profile could be improved by restricting the block to the operative side. We compared unilateral versus conventional bilateral spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric 2% prilocaine in day-case patients undergoing unilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy. METHODS: Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive either conventional bilateral (N...
June 2014: Minerva Anestesiologica
Ilana Krings-Ernst, Sven Ulrich, Mazda Adli
Monoamine oxidase-(MAO)-inhibitors are a treatment of last resort in treatment resistant depression, which is regarded as a condition of increased psychiatric risk. General and regional anesthesia for elective surgery during use of long-term MAO-inhibitors remains a matter of debate because of an increased risk of drug interactions and decreased sympathetic stability. A series of case reports and new comparative studies reveal the safety of anesthesia/analgesia in non-cardiac surgery without discontinuation of the MAO-inhibitor if best effort is made for maintenance of sympathetic homeostasis and if known drug interactions are avoided...
October 2013: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
D A Vagts, C H Bley, C W Mutz
BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric prilocaine 2 % has been available for spinal anesthesia in Germany for 2 years and is characterized by a short duration of action, a lack of postspinal urine retention and a reduction of transient neurological syndromes. However, desirable pharmacological properties are contrasted by higher pharmacological costs compared to hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5 %. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper deals with a sensitivity analysis for the use of hyperbaric prilocaine 2 % versus hyperbaric bupivacaine 0...
April 2013: Der Anaesthesist
V Gebhardt, A Herold, C Weiss, A Samakas, M D Schmittner
BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric prilocaine 20 mg/ml may be preferable for perianal outpatient surgery. The aim of this prospective, single-centre, randomised, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial was to determine the optimal dosage of hyperbaric prilocaine 20 mg/ml for a spinal anaesthesia (SPA) in patients undergoing perianal outpatient surgery. METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients (18-80 years/American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I-III) were enrolled in this study...
February 2013: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
F E Brölmann, D T Ubbink, E A Nelson, K Munte, C M A M van der Horst, H Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Decisions on local and systemic wound treatment vary among surgeons and are frequently based on expert opinion. The aim of this meta-review was to compile best available evidence from systematic reviews in order to formulate conclusions to support evidence-based decisions in clinical practice. METHODS: All Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs), published by the Cochrane Wounds and Peripheral Vascular Diseases Groups, and that investigated therapeutic and preventive interventions, were searched in the Cochrane Database up to June 2011...
September 2012: British Journal of Surgery
M Takasu, M Okita, T Araki, N Tanitame, A Tamura, N Suwaki, K Ito
The occurrence of neurological symptoms after spinal anaesthesia has been reported with several local anaesthetics including lidocaine, prilocaine, mepivacaine, tetracaine and bupivacaine. Although hyperbaric bupivacaine is known to induce neurological symptoms less frequently than lidocaine, a few cases of cauda equina syndrome (CES) following the intraspinal injection of bupivacaine have been reported in the English literature. We describe lumbar MRI findings for a 29-year-old woman presenting with CES after caesarean section...
September 2010: British Journal of Radiology
Claudio Camponovo, Andrea Fanelli, Daniela Ghisi, Daniela Cristina, Guido Fanelli
BACKGROUND: In this prospective, double-blind, randomized trial we compared 60 mg and 40 mg of 2% hyperbaric prilocaine with 60 mg of 2% plain prilocaine for spinal anesthesia in terms of sensory block onset in outpatients undergoing elective short-duration (<60 minutes) surgery under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled and randomly allocated to receive 1 of the 3 treatments. Times to sensory and motor block onsets, time to the maximum sensory block level, readiness for surgery, time to first urinary voiding, time to Bromage's score 0, and side effects were registered blindly...
August 2010: Anesthesia and Analgesia
J Kreutziger, B Frankenberger, T J Luger, S Richard, S Zbinden
BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric prilocaine 2% is a medium long-acting spinal anaesthetic. There are few data on time to recovery and rate of urinary retention after spinal administration of hyperbaric prilocaine 2%. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the time to spontaneous micturition, quantify the rate of necessary bladder catheterizations, and identify the risk factors for urinary retention after intrathecal prilocaine administration. METHODS: ASA I/II patients (16-80 yr) undergoing ambulatory lower limb surgery were enrolled and received spinal anaesthesia using hyperbaric prilocaine 2% (60 mg)...
May 2010: British Journal of Anaesthesia
G Rätsch, H Niebergall, L Hauenstein, A Reber
BACKGROUND: Since prilocaine is being increasingly used for day case surgery as a short acting local anaesthetic for spinal anaesthesia and because of its low risk for transient neurological symptoms, we compared it to bupivacaine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n=88) who were scheduled for lower limb surgery with spinal anaesthesia randomly received 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% or 60 mg hyperbaric prilocaine 2% (administered in a sitting position). Onset time, intensity, duration of the sensomotoric block, vital parameters and time of spontaneous miction were recorded and patients were questioned on satisfaction with the anaesthesia procedure and the occurrence of adverse side-effects after 24 h...
April 2007: Der Anaesthesist
Axel R Heller, Katrin Zimmermann, Kristin Seele, Thomas Rössel, Thea Koch, Rainer J Litz
BACKGROUND: Although local anesthetics (LAs) are hyperbaric at room temperature, density drops within minutes after administration into the subarachnoid space. LAs become hypobaric and therefore may cranially ascend during spinal anesthesia in an uncontrolled manner. The authors hypothesized that temperature and density of LA solutions have a nonlinear relation that may be described by a polynomial equation, and that conversion of this equation may provide the temperature at which individual LAs are isobaric...
August 2006: Anesthesiology
Hulya Sungurtekin, Ugur Sungurtekin, Ergun Erdem
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two anesthetic techniques, namely, local anesthesia with sedation, and spinal anesthesia, with respect to recovery times, postoperative side effects, pain scores, patient satisfaction, and hospital costs for ambulatory pilonidal disease surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: University Hospital of Pamukkale. PATIENTS: 60 consenting patients scheduled for pilonidal disease operation with Limberg flap technique...
May 2003: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
R R Gaiser
Hyperbaric 5% lidocaine has been available for intrathecal use since 1954. The initial studies concluded that it was a safe drug for short procedures. Recently, the use of this drug for spinal anesthesia has been questioned. There were cases of cauda equina syndrome following its use for continuous spinal anesthesia. Following these occurrences, it was felt that lidocaine should not be used for continuous spinal anesthesia, rather for single-shot spinal anesthesia only. Intense follow-up of patients receiving intrathecal lidocaine for single-shot spinal anesthesia revealed a higher incidence of back pain radiating to the thighs and legs as compared to other drugs or general anesthesia...
September 2000: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
A C Sime
A universal goal of anesthesia providers is to provide the safest, most effective anesthesia and analgesia for their patients. When reports emerge showing problems or complications with an agent or technique that previously was thought safe, recommendations often are adopted in anesthesia departments to avoid or abandon the agent or technique, or alternatives are sought. Hyperbaric 5% lidocaine has been an effective and safe spinal anesthetic agent for short procedures for years. During the past decade, controversy arose over its use because it was implicated as the cause of transient neurologic symptoms and cauda equina syndrome...
April 2000: AANA Journal
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