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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497946/nanopillar-surface-topology-promotes-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-through-cofilin-mediated-cytoskeleton-rearrangement
#1
Ha-Rim Seo, Hyung Joon Joo, Dae Hwan Kim, Long-Hui Cui, Seung-Cheol Choi, Jong-Ho Kim, Sung Woo Cho, Kyu Back Lee, Do-Sun Lim
Nanoscaled surface patterning is an emerging potential method of directing the fate of stem cells. We adopted nanoscaled pillar gradient patterned cell culture plates with three diameter gradients [280-360 (GP 280/360), 200-280 (GP 200/280), and 120-200 nm (GP 120/200)] and investigated their cell fate-modifying effect on multipotent fetal liver kinase 1-positive mesodermal precursor cells (Flk1(+) MPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. We observed increased cell proliferation and colony formation of the Flk1(+) MPCs on the nanopattern plates...
May 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426026/generation-of-multipotent-induced-cardiac-progenitor-cells-from-mouse-fibroblasts-and-potency-testing-in-ex-vivo-mouse-embryos
#2
Pratik A Lalit, Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs, Timothy J Kamp
Here we describe a protocol to generate expandable and multipotent induced cardiac progenitor cells (iCPCs) from mouse adult fibroblasts using forced expression of Mesp1, Tbx5, Gata4, Nkx2.5 and Baf60c (MTGNB) along with activation of Wnt and JAK/STAT signaling. This method does not use iPS cell factors and thus differs from cell activation and signaling-directed (CASD) reprogramming to cardiac progenitors. Our method is specific to direct CPC reprogramming, whereas CASD reprogramming can generate various cell types depending on culture conditions and raises the possibility of transitioning through a pluripotent cell state...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114972/optimizing-mesoderm-progenitor-selection-and-three-dimensional-microniche-culture-allows-highly-efficient-endothelial-differentiation-and-ischemic-tissue-repair-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Fengzhi Zhang, Lin Wang, Yaqian Li, Wei Liu, Fuyu Duan, Rujin Huang, Xi Chen, Sophia Chia-Ning Chang, Yanan Du, Jie Na
BACKGROUND: Generation of large quantities of endothelial cells is highly desirable for vascular research, for the treatment of ischemia diseases, and for tissue regeneration. To achieve this goal, we developed a simple, chemically defined culture system to efficiently and rapidly differentiate endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells by going through an MESP1 mesoderm progenitor stage. METHODS: Mesp1 is a key transcription factor that regulates the development of early cardiovascular tissue...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095922/long-noncoding-rna-braveheart-promotes-cardiogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#4
Jingying Hou, Huibao Long, Changqing Zhou, Shaoxin Zheng, Hao Wu, Tianzhu Guo, Quanhua Wu, Tingting Zhong, Tong Wang
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have limited potential of cardiogenic differentiation. In this study, we investigated the influence of long noncoding RNA Braveheart (lncRNA-Bvht) on cardiogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. METHODS: MSCs were obtained from C57BL/6 mice and cultured in vitro. Cells were divided into three groups: blank control, null vector control, and lncRNA-Bvht. All three groups experienced exposure to hypoxia (1% O2) and serum deprivation for 24 h, and 24 h of reoxygenation (20% O2)...
January 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050627/earlier-and-broader-roles-of-mesp1-in-cardiovascular-development
#5
REVIEW
Yu Liu
Mesoderm posterior 1 is one of earliest markers of the nascent mesoderm. Its best-known function is driving the onset of the cardiovascular system. In the past decade, new evidence supports that Mesp1 acts earlier with greater breadth in cell fate decisions, and through cell-autonomous and cell non-autonomous mechanisms. This review summarizes these new aspects, with an emphasis on the upstream and downstream regulation around Mesp1 and how they may guide cell fate reprogramming.
June 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894818/supt20-is-required-for-development-of-the-axial-skeleton
#6
Sunita Warrier, Samer Nuwayhid, Julia A Sabatino, Kelsey F Sugrue, Irene E Zohn
Somitogenesis and subsequent axial skeletal development is regulated by the interaction of pathways that determine the periodicity of somite formation, rostrocaudal somite polarity and segment identity. Here we use a hypomorphic mutant mouse line to demonstrate that Supt20 (Suppressor of Ty20) is required for development of the axial skeleton. Supt20 hypomorphs display fusions of the ribs and vertebrae at lower thoracic levels along with anterior homeotic transformation of L1 to T14. These defects are preceded by reduction of the rostral somite and posterior shifts in Hox gene expression...
January 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659197/cibz-regulates-mesodermal-and-cardiac-differentiation-of-by-suppressing-t-and-mesp1-expression-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#7
Tomomi Kotoku, Koji Kosaka, Miki Nishio, Yasumasa Ishida, Masashi Kawaichi, Eishou Matsuda
The molecular mechanisms underlying mesodermal and cardiac specification from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are not fully understood. Here, we showed that the BTB domain-containing zinc finger protein CIBZ is expressed in mouse ESCs but is dramatically downregulated during ESC differentiation. CIBZ deletion in ESCs induced specification toward mesoderm phenotypes and their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, whereas overexpression of CIBZ delayed these processes. During ESC differentiation, CIBZ loss-and-gain-of-function data indicate that CIBZ negatively regulates the expressions of Brachyury (T) and Mesp1, the key transcriptional factors responsible for the specification of mammalian mesoderm and cardiac progenitors, respectively...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641648/distinctive-roles-of-canonical-and-noncanonical-wnt-signaling-in-human-embryonic-cardiomyocyte-development
#8
Silvia Mazzotta, Carlos Neves, Rory J Bonner, Andreia S Bernardo, Kevin Docherty, Stefan Hoppler
Wnt signaling is a key regulator of vertebrate heart development; however, specific roles for human cardiomyocyte development remain uncertain. Here we use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to analyze systematically in human cardiomyocyte development the expression of endogenous Wnt signaling components, monitor pathway activity, and dissect stage-specific requirements for canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling mechanisms using small-molecule inhibitors. Our analysis suggests that WNT3 and WNT8A, via FZD7 and canonical signaling, regulate BRACHYURY expression and mesoderm induction; that WNT5A/5B, via ROR2 and noncanonical signaling, regulate MESP1 expression and cardiovascular development; and that later in development WNT2, WNT5A/5B, and WNT11, via FZD4 and FZD6, regulate functional cardiomyocyte differentiation via noncanonical Wnt signaling...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538477/mesp1-marked-cardiac-progenitor-cells-repair-infarcted-mouse-hearts
#9
Yu Liu, Li Chen, Andrea Diaz Diaz, Ashley Benham, Xueping Xu, Cori S Wijaya, Faisal Fa'ak, Weijia Luo, Benjamin Soibam, Alon Azares, Wei Yu, Qiongying Lyu, M David Stewart, Preethi Gunaratne, Austin Cooney, Bradley K McConnell, Robert J Schwartz
Mesp1 directs multipotential cardiovascular cell fates, even though it's transiently induced prior to the appearance of the cardiac progenitor program. Tracing Mesp1-expressing cells and their progeny allows isolation and characterization of the earliest cardiovascular progenitor cells. Studying the biology of Mesp1-CPCs in cell culture and ischemic disease models is an important initial step toward using them for heart disease treatment. Because of Mesp1's transitory nature, Mesp1-CPC lineages were traced by following EYFP expression in murine Mesp1(Cre/+); Rosa26(EYFP/+) ES cells...
August 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512039/mir-322-503-cluster-is-expressed-in-the-earliest-cardiac-progenitor-cells-and-drives-cardiomyocyte-specification
#10
Xiaopeng Shen, Benjamin Soibam, Ashley Benham, Xueping Xu, Mani Chopra, Xiaoping Peng, Wei Yu, Wenjing Bao, Rui Liang, Alon Azares, Peijun Liu, Preethi H Gunaratne, Mark Mercola, Austin J Cooney, Robert J Schwartz, Yu Liu
Understanding the mechanisms of early cardiac fate determination may lead to better approaches in promoting heart regeneration. We used a mesoderm posterior 1 (Mesp1)-Cre/Rosa26-EYFP reporter system to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) enriched in early cardiac progenitor cells. Most of these miRNA genes bear MESP1-binding sites and active histone signatures. In a calcium transient-based screening assay, we identified miRNAs that may promote the cardiomyocyte program. An X-chromosome miRNA cluster, miR-322/-503, is the most enriched in the Mesp1 lineage and is the most potent in the screening assay...
August 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435625/msx1-and-msx2-function-together-in-the-regulation-of-primordial-germ-cell-migration-in-the-mouse
#11
Jingjing Sun, Man-Chun Ting, Mamoru Ishii, Robert Maxson
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are a highly migratory cell population that gives rise to eggs and sperm. Much is known about PGC specification, but less about the processes that control PGC migration. In this study, we document a deficiency in PGC development in embryos carrying global homozygous null mutations in Msx1 and Msx2, both immediate downstream effectors of Bmp signaling pathway. We show that Msx1(-/-);Msx2(-/-) mutant embryos have defects in PGC migration as well as a reduced number of PGCs. These phenotypes are also evident in a Mesp1-Cre-mediated mesoderm-specific mutant line of Msx1 and Msx2...
September 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333945/generation-of-induced-cardiospheres-via-reprogramming-of-skin-fibroblasts-for-myocardial-regeneration
#12
Jian-Yong Xu, Yee-Ki Lee, Xinru Ran, Song-Yan Liao, Jiayin Yang, Ka-Wing Au, Wing-Hon Lai, Miguel A Esteban, Hung-Fat Tse
Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have suggested that endogenous cardiospheres (eCS) are potentially safe and effective for cardiac regeneration following myocardial infarction (MI). Nevertheless the preparation of autologous eCS requires invasive myocardial biopsy with limited yield. We describe a novel approach to generate induced cardiospheres (iCS) from adult skin fibroblasts via somatic reprogramming. After infection with Sox2, Klf4, and Oct4, iCS were generated from mouse adult skin fibroblasts treated with Gsk3β inhibitor-(2'Z,3'E)- 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and Oncostatin M...
November 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296220/multipotency-and-cardiomyogenic-potential-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-from-epicardium-pericardium-and-omentum
#13
Wojciech Wystrychowski, Bhagat Patlolla, Yan Zhuge, Evgenios Neofytou, Robert C Robbins, Ramin E Beygui
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to an irreversible loss of proper cardiac function. Application of stem cell therapy is an attractive option for MI treatment. Adipose tissue has proven to serve as a rich source of stem cells (ADSCs). Taking into account the different morphogenesis, anatomy, and physiology of adipose tissue, we hypothesized that ADSCs from different adipose tissue depots may exert a diverse multipotency and cardiogenic potential. METHODS: The omental, pericardial, and epicardial adipose tissue samples were obtained from organ donors and patients undergoing heart transplantation at our institution...
June 13, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185833/mesp1-controls-the-speed-polarity-and-directionality-of-cardiovascular-progenitor-migration
#14
Giuseppe Chiapparo, Xionghui Lin, Fabienne Lescroart, Samira Chabab, Catherine Paulissen, Lorenzo Pitisci, Antoine Bondue, Cédric Blanpain
During embryonic development, Mesp1 marks the earliest cardiovascular progenitors (CPs) and promotes their specification, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cardiovascular differentiation. However, Mesp1 deletion in mice does not impair initial CP specification and early cardiac differentiation but induces cardiac malformations thought to arise from a defect of CP migration. Using inducible gain-of-function experiments during embryonic stem cell differentiation, we found that Mesp2, its closest homolog, was as efficient as Mesp1 at promoting CP specification, EMT, and cardiovascular differentiation...
May 23, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185831/how-mesp1-makes-a-move
#15
Robert G Kelly
The transcription factors Mesp1 and Mesp2 have essential roles in the migration and specification of multipotent progenitor cells at the onset of cardiogenesis. Chiapparo et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201505082) identify common Mesp functions in fate specification and Mesp1-specific targets controlling the speed and direction of progenitor cell migration.
May 23, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131741/heterogeneity-of-mesp1-mesoderm-revealed-by-single-cell-rna-seq
#16
Sunny Sun-Kin Chan, Howe H W Chan, Michael Kyba
Mesp1 is a transcription factor that promotes differentiation of pluripotent cells into different mesoderm lineages including hematopoietic, cardiac and skeletal myogenic. This occurs via at least two transient cell populations: a common hematopoietic/cardiac progenitor population and a common cardiac/skeletal myogenic progenitor population. It is not established whether Mesp1-induced mesoderm cells are intrinsically heterogeneous, or are simply capable of multiple lineage decisions. In the current study, we applied single-cell RNA-seq to analyze Mesp1+ mesoderm...
June 3, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787000/apelin-an-endogenous-peptide-essential-for-cardiomyogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-activating-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-and-5
#17
Li Wang, Zhi-Ming Zhu, Ning-Kun Zhang, Zhi-Rong Fang, Xiao-Hong Xu, Nan Zheng, Lian-Ru Gao
Growing evidence has shown that apelin/APJ system functions as a critical mediator of cardiac development as well as cardiovascular function. Here, we investigated the role of apelin in the cardiomyogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord in vitro. In this research, we used RNA interference methodology and gene transfection technique to regulate the expression of apelin in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells and induced cells with a effective cardiac differentiation protocol including 5-azacytidine and bFGF...
May 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26783251/a-comprehensive-gene-expression-analysis-at-sequential-stages-of-in-vitro-cardiac-differentiation-from-isolated-mesp1-expressing-mesoderm-progenitors
#18
Sabine C den Hartogh, Katherine Wolstencroft, Christine L Mummery, Robert Passier
In vitro cardiac differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) closely recapitulates in vivo embryonic heart development, and therefore, provides an excellent model to study human cardiac development. We recently generated the dual cardiac fluorescent reporter MESP1(mCherry/w)NKX2-5(eGFP/w) line in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), allowing the visualization of pre-cardiac MESP1+ mesoderm and their further commitment towards the cardiac lineage, marked by activation of the cardiac transcription factor NKX2-5...
January 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26771351/development-of-bipotent-cardiac-skeletal-myogenic-progenitors-from-mesp1-mesoderm
#19
Sunny Sun-Kin Chan, Hannah R Hagen, Scott A Swanson, Ron Stewart, Karly A Boll, Joy Aho, James A Thomson, Michael Kyba
The branchiomeric skeletal muscles co-evolved with new chambers of the heart to enable predatory feeding in chordates. These co-evolved tissues develop from a common population in anterior splanchnic mesoderm, referred to as cardiopharyngeal mesoderm (CPM). The regulation and development of CPM are poorly understood. We describe an embryonic stem cell-based system in which MESP1 drives a PDGFRA+ population with dual cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation potential, and gene expression resembling CPM. Using this system, we investigate the regulation of these bipotent progenitors, and find that cardiac specification is governed by an antagonistic TGFβ-BMP axis, while skeletal muscle specification is enhanced by Rho kinase inhibition...
January 12, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26725109/uncovering-the-number-and-clonal-dynamics-of-mesp1-progenitors-during-heart-morphogenesis
#20
Samira Chabab, Fabienne Lescroart, Steffen Rulands, Navrita Mathiah, Benjamin D Simons, Cédric Blanpain
The heart arises from distinct sources of cardiac progenitors that independently express Mesp1 during gastrulation. The precise number of Mesp1 progenitors that are specified during the early stage of gastrulation, and their clonal behavior during heart morphogenesis, is currently unknown. Here, we used clonal and mosaic tracing of Mesp1-expressing cells combined with quantitative biophysical analysis of the clonal data to define the number of cardiac progenitors and their mode of growth during heart development...
January 5, 2016: Cell Reports
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