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inverse dynamics

Kulsoom Rahim, Ahsan Ullah, Muhammad Tahir, Kashif Sabeeh
We determine the optical response of ultrathin film topological insulators in the presence of a quantizing external magnetic field taking into account both hybridization between surface states, broken inversion symmetry and explicit time reversal symmetry breaking by the magnetic field. We find that breaking of inversion symmetry in the system, which can be due to interaction with a substrate or electrical gating, results in Landau level crossings and opening of additional optical transition channels that were previously forbidden...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jennifer Murphy, Richard Cook
Faces are notoriously hard to perceive when turned upside-down. It is often claimed that perceptual decrements reflect a qualitative switch from parallel whole-face processing, to a serial analysis of individual features. To test this view, we examined observers' ability to categorize faces presented in their entirety, or viewed through a dynamic aperture that moved incrementally across the facial image. Exposing faces region-by-region disrupts holistic processing, but permits serial analysis of local features...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
Sergey Khrapak, Boris Klumov, Lénaïc Couëdel
We study collective modes in a classical system of particles with repulsive inverse-power-law (IPL) interactions in the fluid phase, near the fluid-solid coexistence (IPL melts). The IPL exponent is varied from n = 10 to n = 100 to mimic the transition from moderately soft to hard-sphere-like interactions. We compare the longitudinal dispersion relations obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations with those calculated using the quasi-crystalline approximation (QCA) and find that this simple theoretical approach becomes grossly inaccurate for [Formula: see text]...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Koren E Roach, K Bo Foreman, Alexej Barg, Charles L Saltzman, Andrew E Anderson
BACKGROUND: Abnormal angular and translational (ie, kinematic) motion at the tibiotalar and subtalar joints is believed to cause osteoarthritis in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). METHODS: In this preliminary study the investigators quantified and compared in vivo tibiotalar and subtalar kinematics in 4 patients with CAI (3 women) and 10 control subjects (5 men) using dual fluoroscopy during a balanced, single-leg heel-rise and treadmill walking at 0...
August 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
Charumathi Baskaran, Franziska Plessow, Lisseth Silva, Elisa Asanza, Dean Marengi, Kamryn T Eddy, Patrick M Sluss, Michael L Johnson, Madhusmita Misra, Elizabeth A Lawson
The hypothalamic hormone oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in a range of physiological processes and social-emotional functioning in both sexes. In women, physiological stimuli, such as suckling and parturition, result in pulsatile release of OXT into the peripheral circulation via the posterior pituitary gland. However, data regarding OXT secretory patterns in men during a state of rest are limited. Further, the relationship between secretory dynamics of OXT and emotional measures has never been evaluated...
July 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lucas R B E Silva, Antonio R Zamunér, Paulo Gentil, Fagner M Alves, Acácia G F Leal, Viviane Soares, Maria S Silva, Marcus F Vieira, Karina Simões, Gustavo R Pedrino, Ana C S Rebelo
Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS) have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses. Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35-55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19) and a control group (CG, n = 17). R-R intervals (RRi) and heart rate variability (HRV) were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR) at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Marcos Pérez-Losada, Robert J Graham, Madeline Coquillette, Amenah Jafarey, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Manuel Aira, Robert J Freishtat, Jonathan M Mansbach
BACKGROUND: Airway microbiota dynamics during lower respiratory infection (LRI) are still poorly understood due, in part, to insufficient longitudinal studies and lack of uncontaminated lower airways samples. Furthermore, the similarity between upper and lower airway microbiomes is still under debate. Here we compare the diversity and temporal dynamics of microbiotas directly sampled from the trachea via tracheostomy in patients with (YLRI) and without (NLRI) lower respiratory infections...
2017: PloS One
Byoung S Ham
A quantum memory protocol of controlled ac Stark echoes (CASE) based on a double rephasing photon echo scheme via controlled Rabi flopping is proposed. The double rephasing scheme of photon echoes inherently satisfies the no-population inversion requirement for quantum memories, but the resultant absorptive echo remains a fundamental problem. Herein, it is reported that the first echo in the double rephasing scheme can be dynamically controlled so that it does not affect the second echo, which is accomplished by using unbalanced ac Stark shifts...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bas H M van der Velden, Sjoerd G Elias, Tycho Bismeijer, Claudette E Loo, Max A Viergever, Lodewyk F A Wessels, Kenneth G A Gilhuijs
Purpose: To determine whether markers of healthy breast stroma are able to select a subgroup of patients at low risk of death or metastasis from patients considered at high risk according to routine markers of the tumor. <p>Experimental Design: Patients with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer were consecutively included for retrospective analysis. The contralateral parenchyma was segmented automatically on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), whereupon the average of the top-10% late enhancement was calculated...
August 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Ariana B Jones, Guy C Lloyd-Jones, Dusan Uhrin
We report a new 'pure-shift' method, termed 'SHARPER' (Sensitive, Homogeneous And Resolved PEaks in Real time) de-signed for the analysis of reactions and equilibria by NMR. By focusing on a single selected signal, SHARPER removes all heteronuclear couplings of a selected nucleus without the need to pulse on X channels, thus overcoming hardware limitations of conventional spectrometers. A more versatile decoupling scheme, termed 'sel-SHARPER', removes all heteronuclear and homonuclear couplings of the selected signal...
August 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Huanhuan Li, Jingxian Liu, Ryan Wen Liu, Naixue Xiong, Kefeng Wu, Tai-Hoon Kim
The Shipboard Automatic Identification System (AIS) is crucial for navigation safety and maritime surveillance, data mining and pattern analysis of AIS information have attracted considerable attention in terms of both basic research and practical applications. Clustering of spatio-temporal AIS trajectories can be used to identify abnormal patterns and mine customary route data for transportation safety. Thus, the capacities of navigation safety and maritime traffic monitoring could be enhanced correspondingly...
August 4, 2017: Sensors
Lars Kasper, Maria Engel, Christoph Barmet, Maximilian Haeberlin, Bertram J Wilm, Benjamin E Dietrich, Thomas Schmid, Simon Gross, David O Brunner, Klaas E Stephan, Klaas P Pruessmann
We report the deployment of spiral acquisition for high-resolution structural imaging at 7T. Long spiral readouts are rendered manageable by an expanded signal model including static off-resonance and B0 dynamics along with k-space trajectories and coil sensitivity maps. Image reconstruction is accomplished by inversion of the signal model using an extension of the iterative non-Cartesian SENSE algorithm. Spiral readouts up to 25 ms are shown to permit whole-brain 2D imaging at 0.5 mm in-plane resolution in less than a minute...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
Kenneth B Smale, Brigitte M Potvin, Mohammad S Shourijeh, Daniel L Benoit
The recent development of a soft tissue artifact (STA) suppression method allows us to re-evaluate the tibiofemoral kinematics currently linked to non-contact knee injuries. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate knee joint kinematics and kinetics in six degrees of freedom (DoF) during the loading phases of a jump lunge and side cut using this in silico method. Thirty-five healthy adults completed these movements and their surface marker trajectories were then scaled and processed with OpenSim's inverse kinematics (IK) and inverse dynamics tools...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Marco Battiato, Irene Aguilera, Jaime Sánchez-Barriga
Quantum-phase transitions between trivial insulators and topological insulators differ from ordinary metal-insulator transitions in that they arise from the inversion of the bulk band structure due to strong spin-orbit coupling. Such topological phase transitions are unique in nature as they lead to the emergence of topological surface states which are characterized by a peculiar spin texture that is believed to play a central role in the generation and manipulation of dissipationless surface spin currents on ultrafast timescales...
July 17, 2017: Materials
B Godó, Á Nagy
The link between the Fisher information and Rényi entropies is explored. The relationship is based on a thermodynamical formalism based on Fisher information with a parameter, β, which is interpreted as the inverse temperature. The Fisher heat capacity is defined and found to be sensitive to changes of higher order than the analogous quantity in the conventional formulation.
July 2017: Chaos
Kathleen M McCreary, Marc Currie, Aubrey T Hanbicki, Hsun-Jen Chuang, Berend T Jonker
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are promising materials for valleytronic operations. They exhibit two inequivalent valleys in the Brillouin zone, and the valley populations can be directly controlled and determined using circularly polarized optical excitation and emission. The photoluminescence polarization reflects the ratio of the two valley populations. A wide range of values for the degree of circularly polarized emission, Pcirc, has been reported for monolayer WS2, although the reasons for the disparity are unclear...
August 1, 2017: ACS Nano
Stéphane Isabettini, Sarah Massabni, Joachim Kohlbrecher, Lukas D Schuler, Peter Walde, Marina Sturm, Erich Josef Windhab, Peter Fischer, Simon Kuster
Cholesterol (Chol-OH) and its conjugates are powerful molecules for engineering the physico-chemical and magnetic properties of phospholipid bilayers in bicelles. Introduction of aminocholesterol (3β-amino-5-cholestene, Chol-NH2) in bicelles composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and the thulium-ion chelating phospholipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylene triaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA/Tm(3+)) results in unprecedented high magnetic alignments by selectively tuning the magnetic susceptibility Δχ of the bilayer...
July 31, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lida Lalu, Vishakha Tambe, Deepak Pradhan, Kritika Nayak, Suchandra Bagchi, Rahul Maheshwari, Kiran Kalia, Rakesh Kumar Tekade
Ocular discomforts involve anterior/posterior-segment diseases, symptomatic distress and associated inflammations and severe retinal disorders. Conventionally, the formulations such as eye drops, eye solutions, eye ointments and lotions, etc. were used as modalities to attain relief from such ocular discomforts. However, eye allows limited access to these traditional formulations due to its unique anatomical structure and dynamic ocular environment and therefore calls for improvement in disease intervention...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Kazuhiro Takemura, Kyoko Hanawa-Suetsugu, Shiro Suetsugu, Akio Kitao
The BAR domain superfamily proteins sense or induce curvature in membranes. The inverse-BAR domain (I-BAR) is a BAR domain that forms a straight "zeppelin-shaped" dimer. The mechanisms by which IRSp53 I-BAR binds to and deforms a lipid membrane are investigated here by all-atom molecular dynamics simulation (MD), binding energy analysis, and the effects of mutation experiments on filopodia on HeLa cells. I-BAR adopts a curved structure when crystallized, but adopts a flatter shape in MD. The binding of I-BAR to membrane was stabilized by ~30 salt bridges, consistent with experiments showing that point mutations of the interface residues have little effect on the binding affinity whereas multiple mutations have considerable effect...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Linqi Ye, Qun Zong, Bailing Tian, Xiuyun Zhang, Fang Wang
In this paper, the nonminimum phase problem of a flexible hypersonic vehicle is investigated. The main challenge of nonminimum phase is the prevention of dynamic inversion methods to nonlinear control design. To solve this problem, we make research on the relationship between nonminimum phase and backstepping control, finding that a stable nonlinear controller can be obtained by changing the control loop on the basis of backstepping control. By extending the control loop to cover the internal dynamics in it, the internal states are directly controlled by the inputs and simultaneously serve as virtual control for the external states, making it possible to guarantee output tracking as well as internal stability...
July 25, 2017: ISA Transactions
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