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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454222/obesity-dyslipidemia-and-brain-age-in-first-episode-psychosis
#1
Marian Kolenic, Katja Franke, Jaroslav Hlinka, Martin Matejka, Jana Capkova, Zdenka Pausova, Rudolf Uher, Martin Alda, Filip Spaniel, Tomas Hajek
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and dyslipidemia may negatively affect brain health and are frequent medical comorbidities of schizophrenia and related disorders. Despite the high burden of metabolic disorders, little is known about their effects on brain structure in psychosis. We investigated, whether obesity or dyslipidemia contributed to brain alterations in first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: 120 participants with FEP, who were undergoing their first psychiatric hospitalization, had <24 months of untreated psychosis and were 18-35 years old and 114 controls within the same age range participated in the study...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454221/-13-c-phenylalanine-breath-test-and-serum-biopterin-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Toshiya Teraishi, Masahiro Kajiwara, Hiroaki Hori, Daimei Sasayama, Shinsuke Hidese, Junko Matsuo, Ikki Ishida, Yasuhiro Kajiwara, Yuji Ozeki, Miho Ota, Kotaro Hattori, Teruhiko Higuchi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Phenylalanine is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. The rate-limiting step for phenylalanine metabolism is catalyzed by phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. We aimed to detect altered phenylalanine metabolism in major psychiatric disorders using the l-[1- 13 C]phenylalanine breath test ( 13 C-PBT) and serum biopterin levels. We also investigated association of PAH mutations with schizophrenia and phenylalanine metabolism...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454073/the-accumulation-of-assembly-intermediates-of-the-mitochondrial-complex-i-matrix-arm-is-reduced-by-limiting-glucose-uptake-in-a-neuronal-like-model-of-melas-syndrome
#3
Guillaume Geffroy, Rayane Benyahia, Samuel Frey, Valerie Desquiret-Dumas, Naig Gueguen, Celine Bris, Sophie Belal, Aurore Inisan, Aurelie Renaud, Arnaud Chevrollier, Daniel Henrion, Dominique Bonneau, Franck Letournel, Guy Lenaers, Pascal Reynier, Vincent Procaccio
Ketogenic diet (KD) which combined carbohydrate restriction and the addition of ketone bodies has emerged as an alternative metabolic intervention used as an anticonvulsant therapy or to treat different types of neurological or mitochondrial disorders including MELAS syndrome. MELAS syndrome is a severe mitochondrial disease mainly due to the m.3243A > G mitochondrial DNA mutation. The broad success of KD is due to multiple beneficial mechanisms with distinct effects of very low carbohydrates and ketones...
February 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454065/impact-of-food-additives-on-the-gut-brain-axis
#4
Mary K Holder, Benoit Chassaing
The mammalian intestinal tract is heavily colonized with a complex community of micro-organisms, present at a very high density, and containing an estimated amount of 10 14 bacteria. The microbiota generally benefits the host, as it plays a central role in maturing the immune system, protecting against infection by entero-pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, and favoring nutrient digestion/energy extraction in our intestine. An altered microbiota, however, can become detrimental and lead to inflammation, metabolic disorders, and even altered behavior/neuroinflammation...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454001/brain-bioenergetics-in-rats-with-acute-hyperphenylalaninemia
#5
Nádia Weber Dimer, Bruna Klippel Ferreira, Jotele Fontana Agostini, Maria Luiza Gomes, Luiza Wilges Kist, Fernanda Malgarin, Milena Carvalho-Silva, Lara Mezari Gomes, Joyce Rebelo, Marisa Jádna Silva Frederico, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva, Eduardo Pacheco Rico, Mauricio Reis Bogo, Emilio Luiz Streck, Gustavo Costa Ferreira, Patrícia Fernanda Schuck
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder of phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism caused by deficient phenylalanine hydroxylase activity. The deficiency results in increased levels of Phe and its metabolites in fluids and tissues of patients. PKU patients present neurological signals and symptoms including hypomyelination and intellectual deficit. This study assessed brain bioenergetics at 1 h after acute Phe administration to induce hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) in rats. Wistar rats were randomized in two groups: HPA animals received a single subcutaneous administration of Phe (5...
February 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453905/sleep-apnea-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
Isao Muraki, Hiroo Wada, Takeshi Tanigawa
The aim of this review is to clarify the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes, and discuss the therapeutic role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in type 2 diabetes. OSA patients are more likely than non-OSA populations to develop type 2 diabetes while more than half of patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from OSA. Similarly to the Western countries, in the East Asian population, the association between these two disorders has also been reported. CPAP is the primary treatment for OSA, but the effect of CPAP on comorbid diabetes has not been established...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453877/significance-of-mitochondria-on-cardiometabolic-syndromes
#7
REVIEW
Nair Anupama, G Sindhu, K G Raghu
Metabolic syndromes (MS) are a cluster of disorders like obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS), a branch of MS, is a group of diseases affecting cardiovascular, renal, metabolic, prothrombotic and inflammatory abnormalities due to defects in energy metabolism. Since the emergence of molecular biology and the discovery of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA defect in the 1980s, research advances has revealed a number of common human disease involving mitochondrial dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453832/living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-mild-zellweger-spectrum-disorder-up-to-17-years-follow-up
#8
Tanguy Demaret, Sharat Varma, Xavier Stephenne, Françoise Smets, Isabelle Scheers, Ronald Wanders, Lionel Van Maldergem, Raymond Reding, Etienne Sokal
Mild Zellweger spectrum disorder, also described as Infantile Refsum disease, is attributable to mutations in PEX genes. Its clinical course is characterized by progressive hearing and vision loss, and neurodevelopmental regression. Supportive management is currently considered the standard of care, as no treatment has shown clinical benefits. LT was shown to correct levels of circulating toxic metabolites, partly responsible for chronic neurological impairment. Of three patients having undergone LT for mild ZSD, one died after LT, while the other two displayed significant neurodevelopmental improvement on both the long-term (17 years post-LT) and short-term (9 months post-LT) follow-up...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453696/interrelationship-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure-the-role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-in-left-ventricle-performance
#9
REVIEW
Evangelos Oikonomou, Konstantinos Mourouzis, Petros Fountoulakis, Georgios Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Alexis Antonopoulos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Manolis Vavuranakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disorder accompanied by insulin resistance but also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and HF. During the last years though emerging data set up, a bidirectional interrelationship between these two entities. In the case of DM impaired calcium homeostasis, free fatty acid metabolism, redox state, and advance glycation end products may accelerate cardiac dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453686/antipsychotic-prescribing-and-safety-monitoring-practices-in-children-and-youth-a-population-based-study-in-alberta-canada
#10
Wenxin Chen, Monica Cepoiu-Martin, Antonia Stang, Diane Duncan, Chris Symonds, Lara Cooke, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic medication use has steadily increased in Canada, with an expansion in the profile of users and the diagnoses for which they are used. The use of antipsychotics is associated with a number of adverse effects for which routine monitoring is recommended. The objectives of this study were to determine the most common diagnoses associated with antipsychotic use in children in Alberta, Canada and the proportion who receive recommended laboratory tests for adverse effects...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453534/nanoparticles-caused-oxidative-imbalance
#11
Mariusz Zuberek, Agnieszka Grzelak
Application of nanomaterials in nearly every single branch of industry results in their accumulation in both abiotic environment and tissues of living organisms. Despite the common use of nanomaterials, we are not able to precisely define their toxicity towards humans and surrounding biota. Although we were able to determine final effects of chronic exposure to nanoparticles which consist of many pathologies such as respiratory diseases, allergies, diseases of cardiovascular system, disorders in embryonic life differentiation and growth disorders, toxic effects on the immune system and cancers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452573/the-effect-of-metformin-treatment-in-obese-insulin-resistant-patients-with-euthyroid-goiter
#12
Nicoleta Răcătăianu, Sorana Daniela Bolboacă, Adela-Viviana Sitar-Tăut, Smaranda Mârza, Daniela Moga, Ana Valea, Cristina Ghervan
Objective The study's objective was to evaluate the thyroid parameters in obese insulin-resistant patients with euthyroid diffuse or nodular goiter, following Metformin treatment. Patients and methods The study was experimental, open, and prospective. Fifty-three patients aged 18-68 were enrolled for two years. Obese insulin-resistant patients (cut-off Homeostasis-Model-Assessment of Insulin Resistance-HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) with euthyroid nodular/diffuse goiter were included. Subjects with diabetes, hypo-/hyper-thyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, psychiatric disorders, liver or heart failure were excluded...
February 16, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452565/serum-vitamin-c-levels-modulate-the-lifespan-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-pathways-in-mice-synthesizing-a-nonfunctional-mutant-wrn-protein
#13
Lucie Aumailley, Marie Julie Dubois, Tracy A Brennan, Chantal Garand, Eric R Paquet, Robert J Pignolo, André Marette, Michel Lebel
Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase (WRN). Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN ortholog exhibit several phenotypic features of WS. In this study, we generated a Wrn mutant line that, like humans, relies entirely on dietary sources of vitamin C (ascorbate) to survive, by crossing them to mice that lack the gulonolactone oxidase enzyme required for ascorbate synthesis. In the presence of 0.01% ascorbate (w/v) in drinking water, double-mutant mice exhibited a severe reduction in lifespan, small size, sterility, osteopenia, and metabolic profiles different from wild-type (WT) mice...
February 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452264/antagonists-to-trpv1-asics-and-p2x-have-a-potential-role-to-prevent-the-triggering-of-regional-bone-metabolic-disorder-and-pain-like-behavior-in-tail-suspended-mice
#14
Megumi Hanaka, Kousuke Iba, Takayuki Dohke, Kumiko Kanaya, Shunichiro Okazaki, Toshihiko Yamashita
Our recent studies demonstrated that regional bone loss in the unloaded hind limbs of tail-suspended mice triggered pain-like behaviors due to the acidic environment in the bone induced by osteoclast activation. The aims of the present study were to examine whether TRPV1, ASIC and P2X (known as nociceptors) are expressed in bone, and whether the antagonists to those receptors affect the expression of osteoblast and osteoclast regulators, and prevent the triggering of not only pain-like behaviors but also high bone turnover conditions in tail-suspension model mice...
February 14, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452095/the-role-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-4-ffa4-in-human-cancers-and-cancer-cell-lines
#15
REVIEW
Ilya S Senatorov, Nader H Moniri
A dietary influence on cancer progression has been evident for many decades, and dietary fatty acids, particularly long chain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to play significant roles in influencing growth of a variety of human cancers. The discovery of the family of cell-surface free-fatty acid receptors, which include the long-chain fatty acid receptors FFA1 and FFA4, suggest that many of the effects of dietary fats could be receptor-mediated. FFA4 is ubiquitously expressed and has recently been shown to modulate a variety of important anti-inflammatory and metabolic processes...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452073/the-role-of-adiponectin-and-adipolin-as-anti-inflammatory-adipokines-in-the-formation-of-macrophage-foam-cells-and-their-association-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Javad Sargolzaei, Elham Chamani, Tooba Kazemi, Soudabeh Fallah, Hosna Soori
Obesity is one of the major public health concerns that is closely associated with obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by excess cholesterol deposition in the arterial intima and the formation of foam cells. Adipocytokines or adipokines are secreted by the adipose tissue as endocrine glands; adiponectin and adipolin are among these adipokines that are associated with obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451352/chronic-exposure-of-mice-to-low-doses-of-imazalil-induces-hepatotoxicity-at-the-physiological-biochemical-and-transcriptomic-levels
#17
Cuiyuan Jin, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Imazalil (IMZ), which is a widely used fungicide, can accumulate in the body and threaten an animal's health. However, this fungicide has adverse effects on aquatic organisms and ultimately affects human health when it leaches into the environment. Our research tried to determine that if IMZ might cause liver damage and its potential to cause-related diseases. In this study, male adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg body weight IMZ in drinking water for 15 weeks. Then, we evaluated the liver damage at the physiological, biochemical, and transcriptome levels in mice after chronic IMZ exposure...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451141/associations-between-body-composition-indices-and-metabolic-disorders-in-chinese-adults-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#18
Rong Zhang, Sheng-Yong Dong, Fei Wang, Cong Ma, Xiao-Lan Zhao, Qiang Zeng, Ao Fei
Background: Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults...
February 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450896/circadian-mechanisms-in-alcohol-use-disorder-and-tissue-injury
#19
Booker T Davis, Robin M Voigt, Maliha Shaikh, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian
Heavy use of alcohol can lead to addictive behaviors and to eventual alcohol related tissue damage. While increased consumption of alcohol has been attributed to various factors including level of alcohol exposure and environmental factors such as stress, data from behavioral scientists and physiological researchers is revealing roles for the circadian rhythm in mediating the development of behaviors associated with alcohol use disorder as well as the tissue damage that drives physiological disease. In this work, we compile recent work on the complex mutually influential relationship that exists between the core circadian rhythm and the pharmacodynamics of alcohol...
February 16, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450819/familial-hypercholesterolemia-cascade-screening-in-children-and-relatives-of-the-affected
#20
Nitika Setia, Renu Saxena, J P S Sawhney, Ishwar C Verma
OBJECTIVE: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by very high low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol since birth, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Cascade screening of children and family members of proven FH individuals can identify more subjects who have high LDL cholesterol or the family mutation and appropriate intervention can reduce their risk of atherosclerosis and prevent its complications...
February 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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