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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053777/movement-disorders-with-neuronal-antibodies-syndromic-approach-genetic-parallels-and-pathophysiology
#1
Bettina Balint, Angela Vincent, Hans-Michael Meinck, Sarosh R Irani, Kailash P Bhatia
Movement disorders are a prominent and common feature in many autoantibody-associated neurological diseases, a group of potentially treatable conditions that can mimic infectious, metabolic or neurodegenerative disease. Certain movement disorders are likely to associate with certain autoantibodies; for example, the characteristic dyskinesias, chorea and dystonia associated with NMDAR antibodies, stiff person spectrum disorders with GAD, glycine receptor, amphiphysin or DPPX antibodies, specific paroxysmal dystonias with LGI1 antibodies, and cerebellar ataxia with various anti-neuronal antibodies...
September 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053611/glucosylsphingosine-causes-hematological-and-visceral-changes-in-mice-evidence-for-a-pathophysiological-role-in-gaucher-disease
#2
Jan Lukas, Claudia Cozma, Fan Yang, Guido Kramp, Anja Meyer, Anna-Maria Neßlauer, Sabrina Eichler, Tobias Böttcher, Martin Witt, Anja U Bräuer, Peter Kropp, Arndt Rolfs
Glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine are the two major storage products in Gaucher disease (GD), an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. The build-up of glucosylceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum and prominent accumulation in cell lysosomes of tissue macrophages results in decreased blood cell and platelet counts, and skeletal abnormalities. The pathological role of the deacylated form of glucosylceramide, glucosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb1), a recently identified sensitive and specific biomarker for GD, is not well investigated...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053604/nutritional-and-acquired-deficiencies-in-inositol-bioavailability-correlations-with-metabolic-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Simona Dinicola, Mirko Minini, Vittorio Unfer, Roberto Verna, Alessandra Cucina, Mariano Bizzarri
Communities eating a western-like diet, rich in fat, sugar and significantly deprived of fibers, share a relevant increased risk of both metabolic and cancerous diseases. Even more remarkable is that a low-fiber diet lacks some key components-as phytates and inositols-for which a mechanistic link has been clearly established in the pathogenesis of both cancer and metabolic illness. Reduced bioavailability of inositol in living organisms could arise from reduced food supply or from metabolism deregulation. Inositol deregulation has been found in a number of conditions mechanistically and epidemiologically associated to high-glucose diets or altered glucose metabolism...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053271/discovery-of-7-18-f-fluorotryptophan-as-a-novel-pet-probe-for-the-visualization-of-tryptophan-metabolism-in-vivo
#4
Boris D Zlatopolskiy, Johannes Zischler, Dominique Schäfer, Elizaveta A Urusova, Mehrab Guliyev, Olesia Bannykh, Heike Endepols, Bernd Neumaier
Tryptophan and its metabolites are involved in different physiological and pathophysiological processes. Consequently, PET tracers addressing tryptophan metabolic pathways should allow the detection of different pathologies like neurological disorders and cancer. Herein we report an efficient method for the preparation of fluorotryptophans labeled in different positions with (18)F and their biological evaluation. 4-7-[(18)F]Fluorotryptophans ([(18)F]FTrps) were prepared according to a modified protocol of alcohol-enhanced Cu-mediated radiofluorination in 30-53% radiochemical yields...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052784/exercise-and-bone-health-across-the-lifespan
#5
Lívia Santos, Kirsty Jayne Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
With ageing, bone tissue undergoes significant compositional, architectural and metabolic alterations potentially leading to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disorder, which is characterised by progressive bone weakening and an increased risk of fragility fractures. Although this metabolic disease is conventionally associated with ageing and menopause, the predisposing factors are thought to be established during childhood and adolescence. In light of this, exercise interventions implemented during maturation are likely to be highly beneficial as part of a long-term strategy to maximise peak bone mass and hence delay the onset of age- or menopause-related osteoporosis...
October 20, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052278/carnosine-and-n-acetyl-cysteine-protect-against-sodium-nitrite-induced-oxidative-stress-in-rat-blood
#6
Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2 ) is widely used in the food industry as a preservative and colorant in meat and fish products. Industrialization and improper agricultural practices have greatly increased human exposure to high nitrite levels, mainly through contaminated drinking water, causing various health disorders. We have investigated the protective effect of carnosine (CAR) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on NaNO2 -induced toxicity in rat blood. CAR is a bioactive dipeptide found in mammalian muscle while NAC is a synthetic sulfhydryl amino acid and an important precursor of glutathione...
October 20, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052173/regulation-of-osteoblast-differentiation-and-iron-content-in-mc3t3-e1-cells-by-static-magnetic-field-with-different-intensities
#7
Jiancheng Yang, Jian Zhang, Chong Ding, Dandan Dong, Peng Shang
Many studies have indicated that static magnetic fields (SMFs) have positive effects on bone tissue, including bone formation and bone healing process. Evaluating the effects of SMFs on bone cell (especially osteoblast) function and exploring the mechanism, which is critical for understanding the possible risks or benefits from SMFs to the balance of bone remodeling. Iron and magnetic fields have the natural relationship, and iron is an essential element for normal bone metabolism. Iron overload or deficiency can cause severe bone disorders including osteoporosis...
October 19, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051963/applications-of-particulate-oxygen-generating-substances-pogs-in-the-bioartificial-pancreas
#8
John P McQuilling, Sivanandane Sittadjody, Samuel Pendergraft, Alan C Farney, Emmanuel C Opara
Type-1 Diabetes (T1D) is a devastating autoimmune disorder which results in the destruction of beta cells within the pancreas. A promising treatment strategy for T1D is the replacement of the lost beta cell mass through implantation of immune-isolated microencapsulated islets referred to as the bioartificial pancreas. The goal of this approach is to restore blood glucose regulation and prevent the long-term comorbidities of T1D without the need for immunosuppressants. A major requirement in the quest to achieve this goal is to address the oxygen needs of islet cells...
October 20, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051736/novel-peripherally-restricted-cannabinoid-1-receptor-selective-antagonist-txx-522-with-prominent-weight-loss-efficacy-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#9
Wei Chen, Fengchun Shui, Cheng Liu, Xinbo Zhou, Wei Li, Zhibing Zheng, Wei Fu, Lili Wang
The clinical development of the first generation of globally active cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists was suspended because of their adverse neuropsychiatric effects. Selective blockade of peripheral CB1Rs has the potential to provide a viable strategy for the treatment of severe obesity while avoiding these central nervous system side effects. In the current study, a novel compound (TXX-522) was rationally designed based on the parent nucleus of a classical CB1R-selective antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant (SR141716A)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051304/consequences-of-advanced-aging-on-renal-function-in-chronic-hyperandrogenemic-female-rat-model-implications-for-aging-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#10
Chetan N Patil, Lorraine C Racusen, Jane F Reckelhoff
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and reproductive disorder in premenopausal women, characterized by hyperandrogenemia, metabolic syndrome, and inflammation. Women who had PCOS during their reproductive years remain hyperandrogenemic after menopause. The consequence of chronic hyperandrogenemia with advanced aging has not been studied to our knowledge. We have characterized a model of hyperandrogenemia in female rats and have aged them to 22-25 months to mimic advanced aging in hyperandrogenemic women, and tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to hyperandrogenemia with aging has a deleterious effect on renal function...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051084/high-fat-diet-reduces-the-hippocampal-content-level-of-lactate-which-is-correlated-with-the-expression-of-glial-glutamate-transporters
#11
Sheng-Feng Tsai, Yun-Wen Chen, Yu-Min Kuo
Metabolic disorders hamper the brain metabolism and functions. The astrocytic glucose-derived lactate is known to fill the increased energy needs of neurons during synaptic transmission. However, whether systemic metabolism dysregulation affects the astrocytic lactate metabolism in the brain remain unexamined. To address this question, we adopt a 12-week high-fat diet to induce metabolic disorders in adult mice, and the effects of high-fat diet on the lactate metabolism in the hippocampus were examined. Results showed that a 12-week high-fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050704/patterns-of-food-avoidance-and-eating-behavior-in-women-with-fibromyalgia
#12
María Mar López-Rodríguez, José Granero Molina, Isabel María Fernández Medina, Cayetano Fernández Sola, Alicia Ruiz Muelle
INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a form of non-articular rheumatic disorder of unknown origin. It is characterized by widespread, chronic musculoskeletal pain. Patients with fibromyalgia suffer more frequently eating disorders, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Studies have pointed out to nutrition as a relevant factor in these patients. Some of them think that diet has an influence on fibromyalgia symptoms, and tend to adopt certain dietary patterns. This, combined with access to non-scientific information about diets and supplements, makes analysis of dietary behavior, avoidance, and restrictions particularly important...
November 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050651/-movement-disorders-an-update
#13
M Béreau, C Tranchant
Movement disorders (tremor, chorea, dystonia, tics, and myoclonus) are related to basal ganglia and/or interconnected brain areas dysfunction. Clinical examination is a key point in order to characterize the abnormal movement and identify associated signs that can guide etiological approach. Iatrogenic diseases will be systematically ruled out before conducting additional investigations (brain MRI, electrophysiological studies). Wilson disease, but also other treatable metabolic and/or genetic diseases, and auto-immune diseases will be systematically considered...
October 16, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050439/pathogenicity-and-immunosuppressive-potential-of-fowl-adenovirus-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#14
Yujuan Niu, Qinqin Sun, Guihua Zhang, Wei Sun, Xingpo Liu, Yihong Xiao, Yingli Shang, Sidang Liu
To elucidate the effect of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-C in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, we investigated the pathogenicity, body weights, enzymatic systems, and immune organs of chickens in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were divided randomly into four groups, which included injection groups (FAdV-C, vaccination, and FAdV-C plus vaccination) and a negative control group. The results indicated that FAdV-C was highly pathogenic in SPF chickens and led to a 40% mortality rate and growth retardation, compared with the control birds...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050386/brain-monoamine-oxidase-b-and-a-in-human-parkinsonian-dopamine-deficiency-disorders
#15
Junchao Tong, Gausiha Rathitharan, Jeffrey H Meyer, Yoshiaki Furukawa, Lee-Cyn Ang, Isabelle Boileau, Mark Guttman, Oleh Hornykiewicz, Stephen J Kish
See Jellinger (doi:10.1093/awx190) for a scientific commentary on this article. The enzyme monoamine oxidases (B and A subtypes, encoded by MAOB and MAOA, respectively) are drug targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Inhibitors of MAOB are used clinically in Parkinson's disease for symptomatic purposes whereas the potential disease-modifying effect of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is debated. As astroglial cells express high levels of MAOB, the enzyme has been proposed as a brain imaging marker of astrogliosis, a cellular process possibly involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis as elevation of MAOB in astrocytes might be harmful...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050364/lncrnas-key-players-and-novel-insights-into-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Xiaoyun He, Chunlin Ou, Yanhua Xiao, Qing Han, Hao Li, Suxian Zhou
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are a class of endogenous RNA molecules, which have a transcribing length of over 200 nt, lack a complete functional open reading frame (ORF), and rarely encode a functional short peptide. Recent studies have revealed that disruption of LncRNAs levels correlates with several human diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM), a complex multifactorial metabolic disorder affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. LncRNAs are emerging as pivotal regulators in various biological processes, in the progression of DM and its associated complications, involving pancreatic β-cell disorder, insulin resistance, and epigenetic regulation, etc...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050301/mir-377-promotes-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-decreases-insulin-sensitivity-in-obesity-via-suppression-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#17
Jie Peng, Yinghui Wu, Zhao Deng, Yuanfei Zhou, Tongxing Song, Yang Yang, Xiaming Zhang, Tao Xu, Mao Xia, Anle Cai, Zuhong Liu, Jian Peng
Obesity is associated with a wide range of metabolic disorders including inflammation and insulin-resistance. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is an important regulator of metabolic homeostasis and stress response pathways in white adipose tissue. However, involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating SIRT1 during obesity-induced inflammation and insulin-resistance remains unclear. Here, we found that miR-377 was upregulated in adipose tissue and showed a negative correlation with SIRT1 in chronic high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050221/pdgfra-hsd17b4-and-hmgb2-are-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-and-breast-cancer
#18
Huiyu Xu, Yong Han, Jiaying Lou, Hongxian Zhang, Yue Zhao, Balázs Győrffy, Rong Li
To explore the key genes associated with both PCOS and breast cancer, we overlapped the synchronously differently expressed genes in two obese insulin-resistant GEO datasets in muscle tissue and genes exert essential roles in breast cancer prognosis together base on the following reasons: (1) Androgens excess is believed to contribute to the onset of both PCOS and breast cancer. (2) PCOS is usually complicated with metabolic symptoms, such as obesity and insulin-resistance. (3) Muscle is the main place where energy metabolism and material metabolism take place...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049401/risk-factors-for-intrahepatic-and-extrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-in-the-united-states-a-population-based-study-in-seer-medicare
#19
Jessica L Petrick, Baiyu Yang, Sean F Altekruse, Alison L Van Dyke, Jill Koshiol, Barry I Graubard, Katherine A McGlynn
OBJECTIVES: Intrahepatic (ICC) and extrahepatic (ECC) cholangiocarcinomas are rare tumors that arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts, and the etiology of both cancer types is poorly understood. Thus, we utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare resource to examine risk factors and novel preexisting medical conditions that may be associated with these cancer types. METHODS: Between 2000 and 2011, 2,092 ICC and 2,981 ECC cases and 323,615 controls were identified using the SEER-Medicare database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049355/aberrant-hepatic-lipid-storage-and-metabolism-in-canine-portosystemic-shunts
#20
Lindsay Van den Bossche, Vivien A C Schoonenberg, Iwan A Burgener, Louis C Penning, Ingrid M Schrall, Hedwig S Kruitwagen, Monique E van Wolferen, Guy C M Grinwis, Anne Kummeling, Jan Rothuizen, Jeroen F van Velzen, Nikolas Stathonikos, Martijn R Molenaar, Bernd J Helms, Jos F H M Brouwers, Bart Spee, Frank G van Steenbeek
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a poorly understood multifactorial pandemic disorder. One of the hallmarks of NAFLD, hepatic steatosis, is a common feature in canine congenital portosystemic shunts. The aim of this study was to gain detailed insight into the pathogenesis of steatosis in this large animal model. Hepatic lipid accumulation, gene-expression analysis and HPLC-MS of neutral lipids and phospholipids in extrahepatic (EHPSS) and intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IHPSS) was compared to healthy control dogs...
2017: PloS One
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