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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631658/a-case-of-aspergillus-tracheobronchitis-in-a-patient-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Ming-Li Yuan, Gang Yang, Hong-Ling Hu, Wen Yin, Wei-Jun Tan, Su Zhao
Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (AT) is a unique form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which is commonly found in patients with impaired immunity. Early-stage AT presents in a nonspecific way, both clinically and radiographically, thereby delaying diagnosis and resulting in a high mortality. Owing to impaired mucociliary clearance, previous nonfungal infections, and administration of corticosteroids, among other aspects, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are predisposed to AT, although they are mostly immunocompetent...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626172/pulmonary-nocardiosis-a-clinical-analysis-of-30-cases
#3
Yasuo Takiguchi, Shunsuke Ishizaki, Takayuki Kobayashi, Shun Sato, Yaeko Hashimoto, Yosuke Suruga, Yoko Akiba
Objective Pulmonary nocardiosis frequently develops as an opportunistic infection in patients with malignant tumor and is treated with steroids. This study was performed to clarify the clinical features of pulmonary nocardiosis in Japan. Methods The patients definitively diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis at our hospital between January 1995 and December 2015 were retrospectively investigated. Results Nineteen men and 11 women (30 in total) were diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis. Almost all patients were complicated by a non-pulmonary underlying disease, such as malignant tumor or collagen vascular disease, or pulmonary disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial pneumonia, and 13 patients (43...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625669/role-of-language-discordance-in-complication-and-readmission-rate-after-infrainguinal-bypass
#4
Elica Inagaki, Alik Farber, Jeffrey Kalish, Jeffrey J Siracuse, Clara Zhu, Denis V Rybin, Gheorghe Doros, Mohammad H Eslami
OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that language discordance between treatment teams and patients leads to worse patient outcomes, including longer hospital stays, higher rates of readmission, impaired comprehension of discharge instructions, and lower treatment adherence. Yet, there is a paucity of data evaluating the effects of language discordance on postoperative outcomes among vascular surgery patients. This study compared 30-day postoperative complications and readmissions after nonemergent infrainguinal bypass between non-English-speaking (NES) and English-speaking (ES) patients...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620467/recent-advances-in-understanding-lung-function-development
#5
REVIEW
Erik Melén, Stefano Guerra
Recent years have witnessed critical contributions to our understanding of the determinants and long-term implications of lung function development. In this article, we review studies that have contributed to advances in understanding lung function development and its critical importance for lung health into adult life. In particular, we have focused on early life determinants that include genetic factors, perinatal events, environmental exposures, lifestyle, infancy lower respiratory tract infections, and persistent asthma phenotypes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610564/using-genotyping-to-delineate-tuberculosis-transmission-in-long-term-care-facilities-single-facility-4-year-experience
#6
Wen-Cheng Chao, Pei-Chun Chuang, Don-Han Wu, Chieh-Liang Wu, Po-Yu Liu, Chi-Chang Shieh, Ruwen Jou
BACKGROUND: Residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are vulnerable to tuberculosis (TB) transmission; however, to delineate possible routes of TB transmission in LTCFs is difficult. This study aimed to address the use of regular genotyping surveillance to delineate TB transmission in LTCFs. METHODS: All of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in the reported 620-bed LTCF between July 2011 and August 2015 were genotyped, and we retrospectively compared epidemiological data and genotyping results...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608758/a-systematic-narrative-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-behavioural-smoking-cessation-interventions-in-selected-disadvantaged-groups-2010-2017
#7
Amanda Wilson, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Johnson George, Alexandra Denham, Billie Bonevski
Tobacco remains the key modifiable risk factor for the development of a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis and cancer. Among priority populations, smoking prevalence remains high, smokers tend to relapse more often and earlier and fewer are able to sustain quit attempts. This systematic review provides an update on the literature. Areas covered: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials published from 2010-2017, in English language, were identified after searching on Medline, Ovid, Embase and PsycINFO databases...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598060/spontaneous-pneumothorax-in-h1n1-infection
#8
Ashutosh Chaturvedi, Arun Kumar
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a very rare entity in H1N1 infection unless it is co-existent with other respiratory conditions especially COPD. The other factors are old age, children below 5 years and patients with ILD. The mortality rate goes high with pulmonary illness complicated by H1N1 infection in smokers and in pregnant women. This is the first reported case of H1N1 infection with Spontaneous Pneumothorax in India.
May 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586614/frequency-indications-and-complications-of-pulmonary-artery-catheter-insertion-in-adult-open-heart-surgery-patients-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#9
Syed Shabbir Ahmed, Mohammad Irfan Akhtar, Rehana Kamal
OBJECTIVE: Patients presenting for cardiac surgery have unstable cardiovascular disease and haemodynamics with multiple coexisting diseases. Optimal monitoring in the perioperative period is very important for best perioperative outcome. The introduction of the flow-directed pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) into clinical practice is one of the most important and popular advances in the field of cardiac anaesthesia. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency, indications and complications of pulmonary artery catheter insertion in adult open-heart surgery patients...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586150/analysis-of-viral-infection-and-biomarkers-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Tiping Yin, Zhaoqin Zhu, Zhoufang Mei, Jingjing Feng, Wanju Zhang, Yanchao He, Jindong Shi, Ling Qian, Yi Liu, Qihui Huang, Yunwen Hu, Zhijun Jie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate viral infection in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in Shanghai, and to analyze the clinical characteristics and biomarkers in viral infection. METHODS: This study included all consecutive patients who were admitted for a diagnosis of AECOPD during June 2013 to May 2015. 31 stable COPD patients and 31 healthy controls were also recruited. Oropharyngeal samples were assessed, PCR for respiratory viruses were performed...
June 6, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573366/-antibiotic-stewardship%C3%A2-2-0-individualization-of-therapy
#11
REVIEW
M W Pletz, E Tacconelli, T Welte
Antibiotic resistance is a part of bacterial evolution and therefore unavoidable. In the context of missing novel treatment options, the restrictive use of available antibiotics in order to decelerate the spread of resistance is of high importance. This is the aim of Antibiotic Stewardship (ABS). ABS consists of two sides: a structural one and an individual one. The former deals with the formation of ABS teams, the analysis of antibiotic usage and resistance development, and the implementation of certain measures to improve antibiotic use; the latter is reflected by concrete bedside decisions: How can (broad) spectrum antibiotics be spared without harming the patient? This can be achieved, for example, by de-escalation, limiting duration of treatment, and avoiding nonindicated use...
June 1, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572013/comparison-of-in-vitro-toxicological-effects-of-biomass-smoke-from-different-sources-of-animal-dung
#12
Claire E McCarthy, Parker F Duffney, Jeffrey D Wyatt, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Worldwide, over 4 million premature deaths each year are attributed to the burning of biomass fuels for cooking and heating. Epidemiological studies associate household air pollution with lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infections. Animal dung, a biomass fuel used by economically vulnerable populations, generates more toxic compounds per mass burned than other biomass fuels. The type of animal dung used varies widely depending on local agro-geography...
May 30, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566116/adherence-to-local-antimicrobial-guidelines-for-initial-treatment-of-community-acquired-infections
#13
Trine Langfeldt Hagen, Mathias Amdi Hertz, Gábor Balázs Uhrin, Michael Dalager-Pedersen, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Henrik Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Adherence to antimicrobial guidelines is key to ensuring a correct treatment of severe infections and to lessening misuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study at the Emergency Department of Aalborg University Hospital, North Denmark Region. Our aim was to examine adherence to local antimicrobial guidelines in the empirical treatment of community-acquired infections and to identity any predictors of guideline non-adherence. METHODS: We identified 1,555 patients who had blood cultures performed and were admitted to the medical emergency department in 2016...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558695/azithromycin-and-risk-of-copd-exacerbations-in-patients-with-and-without-helicobacter-pylori
#14
Seung Won Ra, Marc A Sze, Eun Chong Lee, Sheena Tam, Yeni Oh, Nick Fishbane, Gerard J Criner, Prescott G Woodruff, Stephen C Lazarus, Richard Albert, John E Connett, Meilan K Han, Fernando J Martinez, Shawn D Aaron, Robert M Reed, S F Paul Man, Don D Sin
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is associated with reduced lung function and systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Azithromycin (AZ) is active against HP and reduces the risk of COPD exacerbation. We determined whether HP infection status modifies the effects of AZ in COPD patients. METHODS: Plasma samples from 1018 subjects with COPD who participated in the Macrolide Azithromycin (MACRO) in COPD Study were used to determine the HP infection status at baseline and 12 months of follow-up using a serologic assay...
May 30, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558660/pneumonia-caused-by-extensive-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-among-hospitalized-patients-genetic-relationships-risk-factors-and-mortality
#15
Yu Jun Li, Chu Zhi Pan, Chang Quan Fang, Zhu Xiang Zhao, Hui Ling Chen, Peng Hao Guo, Zi Wen Zhao
BACKGROUND: The clonal spread of multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging problem in China. We analysed the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumanni isolates at three teaching hospitals and investigated the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) infection in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: Fifty-two A. baumannii isolates were collected...
May 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557543/impaired-mitochondrial-microbicidal-responses-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-macrophages
#16
Martin A Bewley, Julie A Preston, Mohammed Mohasin, Helen M Marriott, Richard C Budd, Julie Swales, Paul Collini, David R Greaves, Ruth W Craig, Christopher E Brightling, Louise E Donnelly, Peter J Barnes, Dave Singh, Steven D Shapiro, Moira K B Whyte, David H Dockrell
RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by impaired clearance of pulmonary bacteria. OBJECTIVES: The effect of COPD on alveolar macrophage (AM) microbicidal responses was investigated. METHODS: Alveolar macrophages (AMs) were obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy donors or COPD patients and challenged with opsonized serotype 14 Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cells were assessed for apoptosis, bactericidal activity and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) production...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547823/asthma-other-atopic-conditions-and-risk-of-infections-in-105-519-general-population-never-and-ever-smokers
#17
Jens Helby, Børge Grønne Nordestgaard, Thomas Benfield, Stig Egil Bojesen
BACKGROUND: Individuals with atopic conditions may have increased susceptibility to infections outside the organs directly affected by their atopic condition. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that atopic conditions overall, and stratified by smoking history, are associated with increased risk of hospitalization for infections. METHODS: We collected information on smoking history and self-reported atopic conditions from 105,519 individuals from the general population and followed them for up to 23 years for infectious disease hospitalizations and deaths...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546748/bronchiectasis-in-copd-patients-more-than-a-comorbidity
#18
Miguel Angel Martinez-Garcia, Marc Miravitlles
Computed tomography scan images have been used to identify different radiological COPD phenotypes based on the presence and severity of emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is defined as an abnormal dilation of the bronchi, usually as a result of chronic airway inflammation and/or infection. The prevalence of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD is high, especially in advanced stages. The identification of bronchiectasis in COPD has been defined as a different clinical COPD phenotype with greater symptomatic severity, more frequent chronic bronchial infection and exacerbations, and poor prognosis...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542337/changes-in-hospitalizations-for-chronic-respiratory-diseases-after-two-successive-smoking-bans-in-spain
#19
Iñaki Galán, Lorena Simón, Elena Boldo, Cristina Ortiz, Rafael Fernández-Cuenca, Cristina Linares, María José Medrano, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence on the effects of smoke-free policies on respiratory diseases is scarce and inconclusive. Spain enacted two consecutive smoke-free regulations: a partial ban in 2006 and a comprehensive ban in 2011. We estimated their impact on hospital admissions via emergency departments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. METHODS: Data for COPD (ICD-9 490-492, 494-496) came from 2003-2012 hospital admission records from the fourteen largest provinces of Spain and from five provinces for asthma (ICD-9 493)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542209/cigarette-smoke-inhibits-lps-induced-fabp5-expression-by-preventing-c-jun-binding-to-the-fabp5-promoter
#20
Deviyani Rao, Anne-Laure Perraud, Carsten Schmitz, Fabienne Gally
Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with repeated and sustained infections linked to disease pathogenesis and exacerbations. The airway epithelium constitutes the first line of host defense against infection and is known to be impaired in COPD. We have previously identified Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5) as an important anti-inflammatory player during respiratory infections and showed that overexpression of FABP5 in primary airway epithelial cells protects against bacterial infection and inflammation...
2017: PloS One
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