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infections in copd

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237706/patient-characteristics-resource-use-and-outcomes-associated-with-general-internal-medicine-hospital-care-the-general-medicine-inpatient-initiative-gemini-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Amol A Verma, Yishan Guo, Janice L Kwan, Lauren Lapointe-Shaw, Shail Rawal, Terence Tang, Adina Weinerman, Peter Cram, Irfan A Dhalla, Stephen W Hwang, Andreas Laupacis, Muhammad M Mamdani, Steven Shadowitz, Ross Upshur, Robert J Reid, Fahad Razak
BACKGROUND: The precise scope of hospital care delivered under general internal medicine services remains poorly quantified. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, medical conditions, health outcomes and resource use of patients admitted to general internal medicine at 7 hospital sites in the Greater Toronto Area. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving all patients who were admitted to or discharged from general internal medicine at the study sites between Apr...
December 11, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232525/a-modified-ficoll-paque-gradient-method-for-isolating-mononuclear-cells-from-the-peripheral-and-umbilical-cord-blood-of-humans-for-biobanks-and-clinical-laboratories
#2
Yanjuan Jia, Hui Xu, Yonghong Li, Chaojun Wei, Rui Guo, Fang Wang, Yu Wu, Jing Liu, Jing Jia, Junwen Yan, Xiaoming Qi, Yuanting Li, Xiaoling Gao
Although the Ficoll-Paque method is classically used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), modifications in this method are required for a more rapid and economic output for biobanks and clinical laboratories, particularly in developing countries. In this study, we addressed this issue by modifying the Ficoll-Paque method for the isolation of PBMCs or mononuclear cells from the peripheral and the umbilical cord blood of healthy and diseased (infected, anemic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) adult individuals...
December 12, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229095/primary-immune-deficiency-diseases-as-unrecognized-causes-of-chronic-respiratory-disease
#3
REVIEW
Melvin Berger, Bob Geng, D William Cameron, Ladonna M Murphy, Edward S Schulman
BACKGROUND: More than half of all primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDD) affect antibody production and are well known as causes of recurrent sinusitis and lung infections. Chronic and recurrent infections of the upper and/or lower airways can contribute to inflammatory and obstructive processes in the lower airways which are initially reversible and considered "asthma", but can eventually cause irreversible remodeling and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Conversely, several lines of evidence suggest that many patients who present with a diagnosis of asthma have an increased incidence of infection, suggesting underlying host-defense defects...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228436/the-effect-of-ventilator-mask-atomization-inhalation-of-ipratropium-bromide-and-budesonide-suspension-liquid-in-the-treatment-of-copd-in-acute-exacerbation-period-on-circulating-levels-of-inflammation-and-prognosis
#4
D-H Jiang, X Wang, L-S Liu, D-D Ji, N Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of ventilator mask atomization inhalation of ipratropium bromide and budesonide suspension liquid in the treatment of acute exacerbation COPD (AECOPD) on circulating levels of inflammatory factors and prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 86 cases of patients on ventilator support were randomly divided into control group and observation group with 43 cases each. The control group was administered routine treatment including basic disease treatment, anti-infection, maintenance of a stable internal environment, nutritional support, oxygen inhalation and so on...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224706/prophylactic-placement-of-permanent-synthetic-mesh-at-the-time-of-ostomy-closure-prevents-formation-of-incisional-hernias
#5
Jeremy A Warren, Lucas R Beffa, Alfredo M Carbonell, Jennifer Cull, Brent Sinopoli, Joseph A Ewing, Cedrek McFadden, Jay Crockett, William S Cobb
BACKGROUND: Reversal of an enterostomy results in a high rate of incisional hernia at the ostomy site. Prophylactic mesh reinforcement of the fascial defect is typically not considered due to the contaminated nature of the case. We present the outcomes of a series of prophylactic mesh reinforcements with retromuscular, large-pore polypropylene at the time of enterostomy reversal. METHODS: Retrospective review of all ostomy reversals was performed. All cases with placement of synthetic mesh reinforcement were identified from a prospectively maintained, hernia database...
December 7, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224640/return-to-the-workforce-following-infective-endocarditis-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#6
Jawad H Butt, Kristian Kragholm, Michael Dalager-Pedersen, Rasmus Rørth, Søren L Kristensen, Mavish S Chaudry, Nana Valeur, Lauge Østergaard, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar H Gislason, Lars Køber, Emil L Fosbøl
BACKGROUND: The ability to return to work after infective endocarditis (IE) holds important socioeconomic consequences for both patients and society, yet data on this issue are sparse. We examined return to the workforce and associated factors in IE patients of working age. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 1,065 patients aged 18-60 years with a first-time diagnosis of IE (1996-2013) who were part of the workforce prior to admission and alive at discharge...
January 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223347/-a-predictive-bacterial-infection-score-according-to-eosinophil-level-an-observational-study
#7
B Bouldoires, H Gil, T Soumagne, S Humbert, N Meaux Ruault, N Magy Bertrand
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that eosinopenia less than 0.04g/L is a marker of bacterial infection in the presence of unexplained inflammatory syndrome. The aim of our study was to test this hypothesis and to propose a predictive score for bacterial infection (score CIBLE, C reactive protein, bacterial infections, levels of leucocytes and eosinophils). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a single-center observational study of patients admitted to an internal medicine department in the year 2015 and presenting with an inflammatory biological syndrome...
December 6, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221480/prevalence-and-etiologies-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Jean Joel Bigna, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent increasing worldwide attention towards pulmonary hypertension (PH), its epidemiology remains poorly described in Africa. Accordingly, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of PH prevalence, incidence and etiologies in Africa. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, African Journals Online, and Africa Index Medicus. Published observational studies until September 20, 2017, including adult participants residing in Africa were considered...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203544/mapping-protective-regions-on-a-three-dimensional-model-of-the-moraxella-catarrhalis-vaccine-antigen-oligopeptide-permease-a
#9
Antonia C Perez, Antoinette Johnson, Ziqiang Chen, Gregory E Wilding, Michael G Malkowski, Timothy F Murphy
A vaccine against Moraxella catarrhalis will reduce tremendous morbidity, mortality, and financial burden by preventing otitis media in children and exacerbations of COPD in adults. Oligopeptide permease A (OppA) is a candidate vaccine antigen that is 1) a nutritional virulence factor expressed on the bacterial cell surface during infection, 2) widely conserved among strains, 3) highly immunogenic, and 4) a protective antigen based on its capacity to induce protective responses in immunized animals. In the present study, we show that the antibodies to OppA following vaccination mediate accelerated clearance in animals following pulmonary challenge...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199880/exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-extract-and-lipopolysaccharide-modifies-cytoskeleton-organization-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#10
Claudia D'Anna, Diego Cigna, Caterina Di Sano, Serena Di Vincenzo, Paola Dino, Maria Ferraro, Luca Bini, Laura Bianchi, Francesca Di Gaudio, Mark Gjomarkaj, Elisabetta Pace
The integrity of the respiratory epithelium is crucial for airway homeostasis. Tobacco smoke exposure and recurrent infections of the airways play a crucial role in the progression and in the decline of the respiratory function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to detect differentially expressed proteins in a bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE) stimulated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a constituent of gram-negative bacteria, alone and/or in combination, by using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) analysis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
December 4, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198203/blastoschizomyces-capitatus-pulmonary-infections-in-immunocompetent-patients-case-report-case-series-and-literature-review
#11
M B Tanabe, S A Patel
Blastoschizomyces capitatus is an uncommon opportunistic yeast associated with infections in neutropaenic patients secondary to haematological malignancies, with a special predilection for the lungs. Globalisation and population migration impact on the epidemiology of infection with this organism but its effect on the immunocompetent population has rarely been described. We present here a case report, an overview of 11 other cases published between 2000 and 2016, and a comprehensive literature review of Blastoschizomyces pneumonia in the non-immunocompromised...
December 4, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192094/over-production-of-growth-differentiation-factor-15-gdf15-promotes-human-rhinovirus-infection-and-virus-induced-inflammation-in-the-lung
#12
Qun Wu, Di Jiang, Niccolette R Schaefer, Laura Harmacek, Brian P O'Connor, Thomas Eling, Oliver Eickelberg, Hong Wei Chu
Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the most common virus contributing to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) nearly year-round, but the mechanisms have not been well elucidated. Recent clinical studies suggest that high levels of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) protein in the blood are associated with an increased yearly rate of all-cause COPD exacerbations. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated whether GDF15 promotes HRV infection and virus-induced lung inflammation...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182620/broncho-vaxom-om-85-modulates-rhinovirus-docking-proteins-on-human-airway-epithelial-cells-via-erk1-2-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-camp
#13
Michael Roth, Christian Pasquali, Daiana Stolz, Michael Tamm
BACKGROUND: Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are primary target for Rhinovirus infection through attaching to cell membrane proteins. OM-85, a bacterial extract, improves recovery of asthma and COPD patients after viral infections, but only part of the mechanism was addressed, by focusing on defined immune cells. OBJECTIVE: We therefore determined the effect of OM-85 on isolated primary human BEC of controls (n = 8), asthma patients (n = 10) and COPD patients (n = 9)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180527/azithromycin-pharmacodynamics-against-persistent-haemophilus-influenza-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Brian T Tsuji, James Fisher, Raheal Boadi-Yeboah, Patricia N Holden, Sanjay Sethi, Melinda M Pettigrew, Timothy F Murphy
The pharmacodynamic profile of azithromycin against persistent strains of non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) from COPD patients was characterized. Azithromycin displayed differential concentration-dependent activity (R2 >0.98): pharmacodynamic response was attenuated comparing the 'first' vs. 'last' strain of NTHi which persisted in the airway of the same patient for 819 days (EC50 increased >50 times: 0.0821 mg/L vs. 4.23). In the Hollow Fiber Infection Model NTHi viability was maintained throughout simulated Zithromax Z-pak regimens over 10 days...
November 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176633/epidemiology-and-predictors-of-ntm-pulmonary-infection-in-taiwan-a-retrospective-five-year-multicenter-study
#15
Hung-Ling Huang, Meng-Hsuan Cheng, Po-Liang Lu, Chin-Chung Shu, Jann-Yuan Wang, Jann-Tay Wang, Inn-Wen Chong, Li-Na Lee
Multicenter, longitudinal studies on nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary infection (PI) are lacking. This study provides a 5-year epidemiological overview of NTM-PI in Taiwan and investigated its predictors. The clinical relevance of each respiratory NTM isolate in six hospitals between 2008 and 2014 was determined according to current guidelines. Recurrent episodes were judged by serial bacteriological results. New episodes of NTM-PI and pulmonary colonization (PC) occurring since 2010 were analyzed...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169546/telehealth-electronic-monitoring-to-reduce-postdischarge-complications-and-surgical-site-infections-after-arterial-revascularization-with-groin-incision
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Albeir Y Mousa, Mike Broce, Elaine Davis, Barbara McKee, Michael Yacoub
It is intuitive that postdischarge surgical complications are associated with increased patient dissatisfaction, and are directly associated with an increase in medical expenditures. It is also easy to make the connection that many post-hospital discharge surgical complications, including surgical site infections (SSIs), could be influenced or exacerbated by patient comorbidities. The authors of a recent study reported that female gender, obesity, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, coronary artery disease, critical limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyspnea, and neurologic disease were significant predictors of SSIs after vascular reconstruction was performed...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156926/-oral-feeding-and-nutritional-improvement-in-hospitals-and-residential-care-homes-industry-innovations
#17
Rosa M Ortega, Ana Isabel Jiménez Ortega, José Miguel Perea Sánchez, Esther Cuadrado Soto, Rosa M Martínez García, Ana M López Sobaler
OBJECTIVES: Inpatient and institutionalized elderly patients are population groups vulnerable from the nutritional point of view because oftheir greater risk of deficiencies and because in them the effects of imbalances are more serious than in other groups. Analyzing the possible usefulness of industry innovations offering solutions in the oral feeding of these population groups constitutes the objective of the present work. METHODS: Bibliographic search related to the topic...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155116/the-effect-of-steroids-on-complications-readmission-and-reoperation-after-posterior-lumbar-fusion
#18
Michael B Cloney, Roxanna M Garcia, Zachary A Smith, Nader S Dahdaleh
BACKGROUND DATA: The effects of chronic corticosteroid therapy on complications, readmission, and reoperation after posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) remains under-investigated and was examined to determine differences in outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed patients from 2006 to 2013 using the National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database (NSQIP) undergoing PLF. Patients taking steroids for a chronic condition were compared to those not taking steroids. Multivariable regression identified factors independently associated with complications, readmission, and reoperation...
November 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150201/nations-within-a-nation-variations-in-epidemiological-transition-across-the-states-of-india-1990-2016-in-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: 18% of the world's population lives in India, and many states of India have populations similar to those of large countries. Action to effectively improve population health in India requires availability of reliable and comprehensive state-level estimates of disease burden and risk factors over time. Such comprehensive estimates have not been available so far for all major diseases and risk factors. Thus, we aimed to estimate the disease burden and risk factors in every state of India as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016...
November 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150178/-relationships-between-copd-and-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-pulmonary-infections
#20
REVIEW
C Balavoine, C Andréjak, S Marchand-Adam, F X Blanc
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary infections are increasingly frequent in pneumological practice. The diagnosis is based on an association of clinical, microbiological and radiological criteria. Some risk factors for NTM disease have been described, including chronic respiratory diseases, but without specific focus on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD patients have more risk to be infected by NTM than patients with the main other chronic respiratory diseases (except cystic fibrosis) (odds ratio [OR] at 15...
November 14, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
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