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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678160/the-increasing-burden-and-complexity-of-multi-morbidity-and-polypharmacy-in-geriatric-hiv-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-of-people-aged-65-74-years-and-more-than-75-years
#1
G Guaraldi, A Malagoli, A Calcagno, C Mussi, B M Celesia, F Carli, S Piconi, G V De Socio, A M Cattelan, G Orofino, A Riva, E Focà, S Nozza, G Di Perri
BACKGROUND: Geriatric Patients Living with HIV/AIDS (GEPPO) is a new prospective observational multicentre cohort consisting of all the HIV-positive geriatric patients being treated at 10 clinics in Italy, and HIV-negative controls attending a single geriatric clinic. The aim of this analysis of the GEPPO cohort was to compare prevalence and risk factors of individual non-communicable diseases (NCD), multi-morbidity (MM) and polypharmacy (PP) amongst HIV positive and HIV negative controls at enrolment into the GEPPO cohort...
April 20, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676635/effects-of-household-air-pollution-in-malawi-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-status-on-respiratory-symptoms-and-inflammation-injury-and-repair-markers
#2
Charles Kim, Hannah Jary, Kevin Mortimer, Kelly S Schweitzer, Doug Curran-Everett, Stephen Gordon, Irina Petrache
RATIONALE: Household air pollution (HAP) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are associated with increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both HAP and HIV are widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Malawi, where HIV has 10.6% prevalence in patients 15-49 years old. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that HIV infection (HIV+ ) and habitual exposure to HAP (HAP+ ) synergize to cause systemic inflammation and vascular injury, which may herald early onset of chronic respiratory diseases...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676630/international-approach-to-environmental-and-lung-health-a-perspective-from-the-fogarty-international-center
#3
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676014/autoinflammatory-disease-in-the-lung
#4
REVIEW
Thomas Scambler, Jonathan Holbrook, Sinisa Savic, Michael F McDermott, Daniel Peckham
Ascertaining the dominant cell type driving an immunological disease is essential to understanding the causal pathology and, therefore, selecting or developing an effective treatment. Classifying immunological diseases in this way has led to successful treatment regimens for many monogenic diseases; however, when the dominant cell type is unclear and there is no obvious causal genetic mutation, then identifying the correct disease classification and appropriate therapy can be challenging. In this review we focus on pulmonary immunological diseases where an innate immune signature has been identified as a predominant aspect of the immunopathology...
April 19, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673386/risk-factors-and-short-term-outcomes-of-postoperative-pulmonary-complications-after-vats-lobectomy
#5
Paula J Agostini, Sebastian T Lugg, Kerry Adams, Tom Smith, Maninder S Kalkat, Pala B Rajesh, Richard S Steyn, Babu Naidu, Alison Rushton, Ehab Bishay
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are associated with poor outcomes following thoracotomy and lung resection. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for lobectomy is now frequently utilised as an alternative to thoracotomy, however patients remain at risk for development of PPC. There is little known of the short-term outcome associated with PPC following VATS lobectomy and if there are any potential risk factors that could be modified to prevent PPC development; our study aimed to investigate this...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669774/transient-immune-mediated-agranulocytosis-following-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#6
Luani Barge, Gail Pahn, Nicholas Weber
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen which may cause haematological manifestations including haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopaenia. Severe neutropaenia is rare with very few cases reported in the literature. An 85-year-old man was transferred to our facility with agranulocytosis in the context of an infective exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with positive serological testing for M. pneumoniae. No alternative infective, autoimmune or lymphoproliferative cause of the neutropaenia was identified...
April 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663180/impact-of-powered-and-tissue-specific-endoscopic-stapling-technology-on-clinical-and-economic-outcomes-of-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-lobectomy-procedures-a-retrospective-observational-study
#7
Daniel L Miller, Sanjoy Roy, Edmund S Kassis, Sashi Yadalam, Sushama Ramisetti, Stephen S Johnston
INTRODUCTION: Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lung resections are complex procedures with a critical role played by endoscopic staplers in the transection of vessels, bronchi, and lung tissue. This retrospective, observational study compared hospital resource use, costs, and complications of VATS lobectomy procedures for whom powered versus manual endoscopic surgical staplers were used. METHODS: Patients ≥ 18 years of age undergoing elective VATS lobectomy during an inpatient admission from January 1, 2012 to September 30, 2016 were identified from the Premier Healthcare Database (first admission = index admission)...
April 16, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658361/myd88-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#8
Franco Di Padova, Valerie F J Quesniaux, Bernhard Ryffel
Introduction Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein involved in Toll-like and IL-1 receptor family signaling controlling innate immune responses and inflammation. Genetic deletion of MyD88 function results in profound suppression of inflammation and reduced resistance of the host to pathogens indicating non-redundant roles of MyD88. The TIR domain is critical for MyD88 dimerization and signaling for TLR and IL-1R family receptor. Areas covered Emerging evidence suggests that chemical disruption of the TIR domain attenuates cell activation and inhibits in vivo MyD88-dependent inflammation...
April 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657714/non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-detection-in-the-lower-airways-of-patients-with-lung-cancer-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Krishna B Sriram, Amanda J Cox, Pathmanathan Sivakumaran, Maninder Singh, Annabelle M Watts, Nicholas P West, Allan W Cripps
Background: Chronic airway inflammation and hypersensitivity to bacterial infection may contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common colonizing bacteria in the lower airways of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of NTHi and immunoglobulin concentrations in patients with lung cancer, COPD and controls. Methods: Serum and bronchial wash samples were collected from patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649230/lower-serum-iga-is-associated-with-copd-exacerbation-risk-in-spiromics
#10
Nirupama Putcha, Gabriel G Paul, Antoine Azar, Robert A Wise, Wanda K O'Neal, Mark T Dransfield, Prescott G Woodruff, Jeffrey L Curtis, Alejandro P Comellas, M Bradley Drummond, Allison A Lambert, Laura M Paulin, Ashraf Fawzy, Richard E Kanner, Robert Paine, MeiLan K Han, Fernando J Martinez, Russell P Bowler, R Graham Barr, Nadia N Hansel
BACKGROUND: Decreased but measurable serum IgA levels (≤70 mg/dL) have been associated with risk for infections in some populations, but are unstudied in COPD. This study tested the hypothesis that subnormal serum IgA levels would be associated with exacerbation risk in COPD. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 1,049 COPD participants from the observational cohort study SPIROMICS (535 (51%) women; mean age 66.1 (SD 7.8), 338 (32%) current smokers) who had baseline serum IgA measured using the Myriad RBM biomarker discovery platform...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627483/effects-of-fluticasone-propionate-and-budesonide-on-the-expression-of-immune-defense-genes-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#11
M van den Berge, M R Jonker, A Miller-Larsson, D S Postma, I H Heijink
BACKGROUND: COPD patients have increased risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP), whereas this is generally not the case with budesonide (BUD) treatment. We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the expression of immune defense genes. METHODS: Human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and air-liquid interface (ALI)-cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) were pre-treated with clinically equipotent concentrations of BUD or FP (0...
April 5, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618675/prevalence-of-escherichia-coli-resistant-to-beta-lactam-antibiotics-among-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-urinary-tract-infection
#12
Emilija Nikolić, Tijana Brandmajer, Vesna Bokan, Maria Ulyashova, Maya Rubtsova
Urinary tract infection (UTI), which is typically caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), is an insufficiently recognized co-morbidity among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adequate treatment can be complicated by resistance of the causative pathogen to beta-lactam antibiotics, which often produce beta-lactamase enzymes that destroy the antibiotic. The beta-lactamase family of enzymes is extremely diverse, including different types of enzyme and mutant forms. In this study, we analyzed 580 patients with COPD (236 females and 344 males) and thus found 218 patients with co-morbid UTIs, including 58 patients with UTI caused by E...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617859/human-lung-epithelial-cells-support-human-metapneumovirus-persistence-by-overcoming-apoptosis
#13
Stefania Marsico, Francesca Caccuri, Pietro Mazzuca, Paola Apostoli, Sara Roversi, Giovanni Lorenzin, Alberto Zani, Simona Fiorentini, Cinzia Giagulli, Arnaldo Caruso
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been identified as a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. Epidemiological and molecular evidence has highlighted an association between severe childhood respiratory viral infection and chronic lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Currently, animal models have demonstrated the ability of hMPV to persist in vivo suggesting a role of the virus in asthma development in children. However, mechanisms involved in hMPV persistence in the respiratory tract are not yet understood...
March 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617698/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-adaptation-to-innate-immune-clearance-mechanisms-in-the-lung
#14
Sebastian A Riquelme, Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Many different species of gram-negative bacteria are associated with infection in the lung, causing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), and ventilator-associated pneumonias. These airway pathogens must adapt to common host clearance mechanisms that include killing by antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis by leukocytes. Bacterial adaptation to the host is often evident phenotypically, with increased extracellular polysaccharide production characteristic of some biofilm-associated organisms...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617415/emergence-of-mycobacterium-simiae-a-retrospective-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-lebanon
#15
Amal Hamieh, Ralph Tayyar, Houssam Tabaja, Saeed E L Zein, Pierre Bou Khalil, Nathalie Kara, Zeina A Kanafani, Nadim Kanj, Imad Bou Akl, George Araj, Ghina Berjaoui, Souha S Kanj
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the clinical significance of Mycobacterium simiae at a major tertiary care center in Lebanon. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with positive cultures for M. simiae isolated between 2004 and 2016 at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. RESULTS: This study included 103 M. simiae isolates recovered from 51 patients. Their mean age was 62.7 years. The majority were males and smokers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607148/ventilator-associated-events-after-cardiac-surgery-evidence-from-1-709-patients
#16
Siyi He, Fan Wu, Xiaochen Wu, Mei Xin, Sheng Ding, Jian Wang, Hui Ouyang, Jinbao Zhang
Background: Ventilator-associated event (VAE) is a new surveillance for nosocomial infections in mechanically ventilated patients. To date, little is known about VAEs after cardiac surgeries. The present study firstly focused on patients who have undergone heart operations, intending to draw a comprehensive description of VAEs. Methods: Postoperative patients from September 2012 to December 2015 were monitored for VAEs. By reviewing electronic medical records and preserved files retrospectively, clinical data were further analyzed...
February 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601494/the-burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-cameroon
#17
Christine E Mandengue, David W Denning
Fungal infections are frequent in Cameroon, and invasive fungal infections are sometimes detected, usually in HIV-infected patients. For these reasons, we have estimated the burden of fungal infections. Using published literature and population estimates for the at-risk group, we used deterministic modelling to derive national incidence and prevalence estimates for the most serious fungal diseases. HIV infection is common and an estimated 120,000 have CD4 counts <200 × 10⁶/mL and commonly present with opportunistic infection...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600070/deep-sternal-wound-infection-after-cardiac-surgery-a-comparison-of-three-different-wound-infection-types-and-an-analysis-of-antibiotic-resistance
#18
Jia-Gui Ma, Jian-Xiong An
Background: Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a severe complication following cardiac surgery. We compared epidemiology, clinical features, and microbiology of three types of DSWI and examined the antibiotic resistance in DSWI patients. Methods: From 2011 to 2015, 170 adult post-cardiac surgery DSWI patients were recruited for this study and underwent the pectoralis major muscle flap transposition in our department. Results: Of 170 adult patients with DSWI (mean age of 54 years), the majority (99 patients, 58...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597247/home-hospitalization-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-opportunities-and-strategies-for-improved-health-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Konstantinos V Voudris, Marc A Silver
IMPORTANCE: Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization among patients over the age of 65 in the United States and developed countries, posing a significant economic burden to the health care systems. More than half of the patients with HF will be readmitted to the hospital within 6 months from discharge, leading not only to increased health care related expenses but also functional decline, iatrogenic injuries and in-hospital infections. With the increasing prevalence of HF, there is a substantial need for innovative delivery care models that can provide hospital level of care at a patient's home...
March 28, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587918/-individualized-comprehensive-therapy-for-the-lung-cancer-patients-with-hiv-infection
#20
Lin Wang, Yanzheng Song
BACKGROUND: To observe clinical features, clinical stagings, types ofpathology, treatment options and clinical effects of patients suffer from HIV infection combined with lung cancer, and also to provide guidance for individualized comprehensive treatment of HIV combined with lung cancer. METHODS: Through the retrospective analysis of 53 cases of HIV merger of lung cancer patients admitted in our department, 47 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 6 cases of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 24 cases accepted surgery combined chemotherapy, 22 patients with simple chemotherapy, 7 cases give up treatment; 28 cases are in stages I-III, 25 cases are in stage IV; 24 patients received combined chemotherapy in 28 patients with stages I-III, 2 cases gave up treatment, 2 cases with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could not tolerate chemotherapy plus surgery...
April 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
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