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Return on investment

Manabi Paul, Anindita Bhadra
Cooperative breeding is an excellent example of cooperation in social groups. Domestic dogs have evolved from cooperatively hunting and breeding ancestors but have adapted to a facultatively social scavenging lifestyle on streets, and solitary living in human homes. Pets typically breed and reproduce under human supervision, but free-ranging dogs can provide insights into the natural breeding ecology of dogs. We conducted a five year-long field based behavioural study on parental care of free-ranging dogs in India...
2018: PloS One
Brent J Sinicrope, Craig S Roberts, Lyle Sussman
Health care is a business. Health care providers must become familiar with terms such as opportunity costs, the potential loss or gain when one choice is made in lieu of another. The purpose of this study was to calculate the opportunity cost of two orthopaedic surgery society board meetings and discuss these in the context of behavioral economics and regret. A literature search was conducted to determine an orthopaedic surgeon's average yearly salary, hours worked per week, and weeks worked per year. The details of two orthopaedic surgery professional society meetings that one senior author (CSR) attended were used to calculate opportunity cost...
2018: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
V O Onsongo, I M Osuga, C K Gachuiri, A M Wachira, D M Miano, C M Tanga, S Ekesi, D Nakimbugwe, K K M Fiaboe
The ever-increasing animal feed costs are driving many vulnerable communities involved in animal husbandry out of business. The high cost is mainly driven by the protein source, which represents the most expensive component in animal feed. In conventional feed, protein is obtained mainly from soybean and fish meal (SFM). The present study explored potential of partially replacing this SFM with black soldier fly prepupae meal (BSFPM) in Cobb 500 broiler chicken diets. A SFM-based diet was compared to three experimental diets formulated by partially substituting SFM with BSFPM at 13...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Mark V Avdalovic, James P Marcin
As our population ages and the demand for high-level intensive care unit (ICU) services increase, the ICU physician supply continues to lag. In addition, hospitals, physician groups, and patients are demanding rapid access for the highest level of expertise in the care of critically ill patients. Telemedicine in the ICU combined with remote patient monitoring has been increasingly touted as a model of care to increase efficiencies and quality of care. Telemedicine in the ICU provides the potential to connect critically ill patients to sophisticated specialty care on a 24/7 basis, even for those hospitalized in rural locations where access to timely specialty consultations are uncommon...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Ralph Chapman, Michael Keall, Philippa Howden-Chapman, Mark Grams, Karen Witten, Edward Randal, Alistair Woodward
Active travel (walking and cycling) is beneficial for people’s health and has many co-benefits, such as reducing motor vehicle congestion and pollution in urban areas. There have been few robust evaluations of active travel, and very few studies have valued health and emissions outcomes. The ACTIVE before-and-after quasi-experimental study estimated the net benefits of health and other outcomes from New Zealand’s Model Communities Programme using an empirical analysis comparing two intervention cities with two control cities...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eduardo Cancino-Espinoza, Ian Vázquez-Rowe, Isabel Quispe
Quinoa is a plant that is cultivated in the Andean highlands across Peru and Bolivia. It is increasingly popular due to its high nutritive value and protein content. In particular, the cultivation of organic quinoa has grown substantially in recent years since it is the most demanded type of quinoa in the foreign market. Nevertheless, despite the interest that quinoa has generated in terms of its nutritional properties, little is known regarding the environmental profile of its production and processing. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze the environmental impacts that are linked to the production and distribution of organic quinoa to the main export destinations through the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carolina L Bellera, Maria L Sbaraglini, Alan Talevi
Neglected diseases comprise a number of infectious diseases historically endemic to low- and middle-income countries, though recently they have spread to high-income countries due to human migrations. In the past, pharmaceutical companies have shown hesitant to invest in these health conditions, due to the limited return on investment. As a result, the role of the academic sector and non-for-profit organizations in the discovery of new drugs for neglected diseases has been particularly relevant. <p> Here, we review recent applications of modern drug discovery technologies in the field of neglected diseases, including high-throughput screening, in silico screening and computer-aided drug design...
May 9, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Amit K Mathur, Jiawei Xing, David M Dickinson, Patricia H Warren, Kimberly A Gifford, Barry A Hong, Akinlolu Ojo, Robert M Merion
BACKGROUND: The National Living Donor Assistance Center (NLDAC) enables living donor kidney transplants through financial assistance of living donors, but its return on investment (ROI) through savings on dialysis costs remains unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 2012-2015 data from NLDAC, the United States Renal Data System, and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients to construct 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year ROI models based on NLDAC applications and national dialysis and transplant cost data...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Heather Wipfli, Kristin Dessie Zacharias, Nuvjote Nivvy Hundal, Luz Myriam Reynales Shigematsu, Deepika Bahl, Monika Arora, Shalini Bassi, Shubha Kumar
BACKGROUND: A qualitative study of key informant semi-structured interviews were conducted between March and July 2016 in Mexico and India to achieve the following aims: to explore corporations' and stakeholders' views, attitudes and expectations in relation to health, wellness and cancer prevention in two middle-income countries, and to determine options for health professions to advance their approach to workplace wellness programming globally, including identifying return-on-investment incentives for corporations to implement wellness programming...
May 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
Alicia G Dugan, Laura Punnett
The translation of evidence-based health innovations into real-world practice is both incomplete and exceedingly slow. This represents a poor return on research investment dollars for the general public. U.S. funders of health sciences research (e.g., NIH, CDC, NIOSH) are increasingly calling for dissemination plans, and to a lesser extent for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, which are studies that examine the effectiveness of D&I efforts and strategies and the predictors of D&I success...
December 2017: Occupational health science
Zafar Zafari, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Wenjia Chen, J Mark FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Achieving optimal control is the primary objective of asthma management. However, despite the existence of effective treatments, many patients experience periods of sub-optimal asthma control. The objective of this study was to quantify and project the future economic and health burden of sub-optimal asthma control in Canada. METHODS: A probabilistic time-in-state model of asthma was created with inputs from published studies on the prevalence of asthma, levels of asthma control, and the impact of asthma control on costs and quality of life...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Brian Kelley, Robert Kiss, Michael Laird
As biopharmaceutical companies have optimized cell line and production culture process development, titers of recombinant antibodies have risen steadily to 3-8 g/L for fed-batch mammalian cultures at production scales of 10 kL or larger. Most new antibody products are produced from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines, and there are relatively few alternative production hosts under active evaluation. Many companies have adopted a strategy of using the same production cell line for early clinical phases as well as commercial production, which reduces the risk of product comparability issues during the development lifecycle...
May 3, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
J Mason Heberling, Norman W H Mason
Recent studies have concluded that native and invasive species share a common set of trait relationships. However, native species in isolated regions might be functionally constrained by their unique evolutionary histories such that they follow different carbon capture strategies than introduced species. We compared leaf traits relating to resource investment, carbon return, and resource-use efficiency in 16 native (endemic) and three non-native (invasive) species in a temperate forest in Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand...
2018: PloS One
Mary Jo Lamberti, Wayne Kubick, Josephine Awatin, John McCormick, James Carroll, Ken Getz
BACKGROUND: The adoption and use of real-world evidence (RWE) is becoming increasingly important to drug development and patient safety. METHODS: The Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD) conducted a benchmark survey of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and contract research organizations in a number of areas that support real-world data (RWD) and evidence, including operations and performance areas. Data were gathered on organizational functions, staff, roles and responsibilities, and skill sets required...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Bennett Levitan, Kenneth Getz, Eric L Eisenstein, Michelle Goldberg, Matthew Harker, Sharon Hesterlee, Bray Patrick-Lake, Jamie N Roberts, Joseph DiMasi
BACKGROUND: While patient groups, regulators, and sponsors are increasingly considering engaging with patients in the design and conduct of clinical development programs, sponsors are often reluctant to go beyond pilot programs because of uncertainty in the return on investment. We developed an approach to estimate the financial value of patient engagement. METHODS: Expected net present value (ENPV) is a common technique that integrates the key business drivers of cost, time, revenue, and risk into a summary metric for project strategy and portfolio decisions...
March 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Marina Themoteo Varela, Joao Paulo S Fernandes
BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases are a group of infections caused by microorganisms and viruses that affect mainly poor regions of the world. In addition, most available drugs are associated with long periods of treatment and high toxicity which limits the application and patient compliance. Investment in research and development is not seen as an attractive deal by the pharmaceutical industry since the final product must ideally be cheap, not returning the amount invested. Natural products have always played an important source for bioactive compounds and are advantageous over synthetic compounds when considering the unique structural variety and biological activities...
April 30, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Frank DeVilbiss, Aravinda Mandli, Doraiswami Ramkrishna
Diauxic growth of E. coli is driven by a host of internal, complex regulatory actions. In this classic scenario of cellular control, the cell employs a rational algorithm to modulate its metabolism in a competitive fashion. Cybernetic models of metabolism, whose development now spans three decades, were first formulated to describe regulation of cells in complex, multi-substrate environments. They modeled this scenario using the hypothesis that the formation of the enzymatic machinery is regulated to maximize a return on investment...
April 30, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
J E Newton, B J Hayes, J E Pryce
Recent improvements in dairy cow fertility and female reproductive technologies offer an opportunity to apply greater selection pressure to females. This means there may be greater incentive to obtain genomic breeding values for females. We modeled the impact of changes to key parameters on the net benefit from genomic testing of heifer calves with and without usage of sexed semen. This paper builds on earlier cost-benefit studies but uses parameters relevant to pasture-based systems. A deterministic model was used to evaluate the effect on net benefit due to changes in (1) reproduction rate, (2) genomic test costs, (3) availability of parent-derived breeding values (EBVPA ), and (4) replacement rate...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Evelyn T Chang, Donna M Zulman, Steven M Asch, Susan E Stockdale, Jean Yoon, Michael K Ong, Martin Lee, Alissa Simon, David Atkins, Gordon Schectman, Susan R Kirsh, Lisa V Rubenstein
BACKGROUND: Patient-centered medical homes have made great strides providing comprehensive care for patients with chronic conditions, but may not provide sufficient support for patients at highest risk for acute care use. To address this, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) initiated a five-site demonstration project to evaluate the effectiveness of augmenting the VA's Patient Aligned Care Team (PACT) medical home with PACT Intensive Management (PIM) teams for Veterans at highest risk for hospitalization...
April 23, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Patricia B Nemec
TOPIC: Funding for behavioral health service provider agencies is always limited, making it difficult to decide how and when to spend scarce resources on staff training. If evidence existed for a clear return on investment for certain training topics or techniques, agency administrators may find it easier to make the decisions about how much and what type of training to provide to staff. PURPOSE: In spite of expert opinion and some evidence that the most common training approaches are ineffective, yielding no return on investment, or a negative return (money wasted), agencies continue to provide primarily single-session lecture-based training-either face-to-face or via a tedious and uninspiring online format...
April 26, 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
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