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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920310/costs-and-savings-associated-with-community-water-fluoridation-in-the-united-states
#1
Joan O'Connell, Jennifer Rockell, Judith Ouellet, Scott L Tomar, William Maas
The most comprehensive study of US community water fluoridation program benefits and costs was published in 2001. This study provides updated estimates using an economic model that includes recent data on program costs, dental caries increments, and dental treatments. In 2013 more than 211 million people had access to fluoridated water through community water systems serving 1,000 or more people. Savings associated with dental caries averted in 2013 as a result of fluoridation were estimated to be $32.19 per capita for this population...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919435/social-return-on-investment-development-and-convergence
#2
Jeremy Nicholls
Social return on investment (SROI) is a relatively new approach to assessing the value created by human activity. This paper explores the development of SROI since its creation in 1996 and concludes by outlining areas for future development. SROI is compared with mainstream global approaches to generating standardized information that informs resource allocation decisions, financial accounting in general, sustainability accounting in the private sector and cost benefit analysis in the public sector.
November 21, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914022/alkaline-protease-production-from-brevibacterium-luteolum-mtcc-5982-under-solid-state-fermentation-and-its-application-for-sulfide-free-unhairing-of-cowhides
#3
R Renganath Rao, M Vimudha, N R Kamini, M K Gowthaman, B Chandrasekran, P Saravanan
Enzyme-based unhairing in replacement of conventional lime sulfide system has been attempted as an alternative for tackling pollution. The exorbitant cost of enzyme and the need for stringent process control need to be addressed yet. This study developed a mechanism for regulated release of protease from cheaper agro-wastes, which overcomes the necessity for stringent process control along with total cost reduction. The maximum protease activity of 1193.77 U/g was obtained after 96 h of incubation with 15% inoculum of the actinomycete strain Brevibacterium luteolum (MTCC 5982) under solid-state fermentation (SSF)...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899208/sroi-in-the-pay-for-success-context-are-they-at-odds
#4
Robert L Fischer, Francisca García-Cobián Richter
The Pay For Success (PFS) and Social Impact Bond (SIB) movements to date have focused heavily on shorter-term outcomes that can be monetized and show clear savings to government entities. In part, this focus derives from the need to specify contract payments based on a narrow set of well measured outcomes (e.g., avoided days in jail and foster care, decreased use of behavioral health services). Meanwhile efforts to measure the social return on investment (SROI) of interventions have sought to expand the view of relevant outcomes to include domains that lend themselves less clearly to monetization...
November 21, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885077/highlights-of-the-russian-health-studies-program-and-updated-research-findings
#5
Barrett N Fountos
Recognized for conducting cutting-edge science in the field of radiation health effects research, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program has continued to generate excitement and enthusiasm throughout its 23-year mission to assess worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union. The three goals of the Program are to: (1) clarify the relationship between health effects and chronic, low-to-medium dose radiation exposure; (2) estimate the cancer risks from exposure to gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation; and (3) provide information to the national and international organizations that determine radiation protection standards and practices...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876018/social-norms-and-family-planning-decisions-in-south-sudan
#6
Sumit Kane, Maryse Kok, Matilda Rial, Anthony Matere, Marjolein Dieleman, Jacqueline Ew Broerse
BACKGROUND: With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is key to developing and implementing locally appropriate public health responses. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in the state of Western Bahr el Ghazal (WBeG) in South Sudan to explore the social norms shaping decisions about family planning among the Fertit community...
November 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869580/qualitative-analysis-of-multi-disciplinary-round-table-discussions-on-the-acceleration-of-benefits-and-data-analytics-through-hospital-electronic-prescribing-eprescribing-systems
#7
Kathrin Cresswell, Jamie Coleman, Pam Smith, Charles Swainson, Ann Slee, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Electronic systems that facilitate prescribing, administration and dispensing of medicines (ePrescribing systems) are at the heart of international efforts to improve the safety, quality and efficiency of medicine management. Considering the initial costs of procuring and maintaining ePrescribing systems, there is a need to better understand how to accelerate and maximise the financial benefits associated with these systems. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate how different sectors are approaching the realisation of returns on investment from ePrescribing systems in U...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866664/introduction-social-return-on-investment-sroi
#8
Brian T Yates, Mita Marra
An introduction to the issue Social Return On Investment (SROI), including an overview of problems prompting this special issue, plus definitions and examples of terms in this exciting, burgeoning area of cost-inclusive evaluation.
November 10, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864266/unusual-twig-twistiness-in-pawpaw-asimina-triloba-provides-biomechanical-protection-for-distal-foliage-in-high-winds
#9
Katherine R Goodrich, Luis A Ortiz, David J Coughlin
PREMISE OF STUDY: Deciduous woody species invest considerable resources in the growth of new foliage and distal stems. This new growth is at risk for mechanical damage from high winds and storms. Pawpaw has large leaves borne distally on thin twigs. Following a storm, pawpaw branches sometimes exhibit a persistent "flipped" orientation, slowly returning upright over 24 h. We investigated biomechanical properties of pawpaw twigs, comparing them to co-occurring species with similarly high leaf areas and loads, which do not exhibit this "flipping"...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847352/the-effects-of-an-e-mental-health-program-and-job-coaching-on-the-risk-of-major-depression-and-productivity-in-canadian-male-workers-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
JianLi Wang, Scott B Patten, Raymond W Lam, Mark Attridge, Kendall Ho, Norbert Schmitz, Alain Marchand, Bonnie M Lashewicz
BACKGROUND: Major depression (MDE) is prevalent in men and affects men's health and productivity. Because of the stigma against depression and social/gender norms, men are less likely to seek help for emotion and stress-related issues. Therefore, innovative solutions tailored for men are needed. With rapid development of the Internet and information technologies, one promising solution that has drawn considerable attentions is electronic mental (e-mental) health programs and services...
November 15, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815005/valuing-investments-in-sustainable-land-management-in-the-upper-tana-river-basin-kenya
#11
Adrian L Vogl, Benjamin P Bryant, Johannes E Hunink, Stacie Wolny, Colin Apse, Peter Droogers
We analyze the impacts of investments in sustainable land use practices on ecosystem services in the Upper Tana basin, Kenya. This work supports implementation of the Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund, a public-private partnership to safeguard ecosystem service provision and food security. We apply an integrated modelling framework, building on local knowledge and previous field- and model-based studies, to link biophysical landscape changes at high temporal and spatial resolution to economic benefits for key actors in the basin...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812794/are-urban-stream-restoration-plans-worth-implementing
#12
Auri Sarvilinna, Virpi Lehtoranta, Turo Hjerppe
To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812380/does-worksite-social-capital-enhance-retention-into-a-worksite-weight-loss-programme
#13
J L Hill, K Wilson, S Harden, F Almeida, L Linnan, P A Estabrooks
OBJECTIVE: To determine if worksite social capital predicted retention in a worksite-based weight-loss programme using structural equation modelling. A secondary aim was to determine if worksite social capital was related to changes in weight at 6 months. METHODS: Overweight or obese employees from 28 worksites enrolled in a larger 12-month worksite weight-loss trial. Workplace social capital was assessed using an eight-item scale specific to the workplace. Weight was measured using a HealthSpot(tm), and change in weight was computed from weigh-ins at baseline and 6 months and reported as pounds (lbs) lost...
March 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809924/time-to-consider-sharing-data-extracted-from-trials-included-in-systematic-reviews
#14
EDITORIAL
Luke Wolfenden, Jeremy Grimshaw, Christopher M Williams, Sze Lin Yoong
BACKGROUND: While the debate regarding shared clinical trial data has shifted from whether such data should be shared to how this is best achieved, the sharing of data collected as part of systematic reviews has received little attention. In this commentary, we discuss the potential benefits of coordinated efforts to share data collected as part of systematic reviews. MAIN BODY: There are a number of potential benefits of systematic review data sharing. Shared information and data obtained as part of the systematic review process may reduce unnecessary duplication, reduce demand on trialist to service repeated requests from reviewers for data, and improve the quality and efficiency of future reviews...
November 3, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807245/my-last-lecture
#15
EDITORIAL
Michael P O'Donnell
In celebration of my final comments as editor in chief of the American Journal of Health Promotion, I offer reflections on the importance of workplace health promotion, the impact of financial incentives on program effectiveness and financial sustainability, return on investment (ROI) analysis, reducing the federal debt by improving health, balancing high technology approaches with human touch, focusing on passions and sense of purpose, and nurturing a loving and caring community of professionals.
November 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807080/dementia-and-imagination-a-mixed-methods-protocol-for-arts-and-science-research
#16
Gill Windle, Andrew Newman, Vanessa Burholt, Bob Woods, Dave O'Brien, Michael Baber, Barry Hounsome, Clive Parkinson, Victoria Tischler
INTRODUCTION: Dementia and Imagination is a multidisciplinary research collaboration bringing together arts and science to address current evidence limitations around the benefits of visual art activities in dementia care. The research questions ask: Can art improve quality of life and well-being? If it does make a difference, how does it do this-and why? Does it have wider social and community benefits? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This mixed-methods study recruits participants from residential care homes, National Health Service (NHS) wards and communities in England and Wales...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805045/dpdr-cpi-a-server-that-predicts-drug-positioning-and-drug-repositioning-via-chemical-protein-interactome
#17
Heng Luo, Ping Zhang, Xi Hang Cao, Dizheng Du, Hao Ye, Hui Huang, Can Li, Shengying Qin, Chunling Wan, Leming Shi, Lin He, Lun Yang
The cost of developing a new drug has increased sharply over the past years. To ensure a reasonable return-on-investment, it is useful for drug discovery researchers in both industry and academia to identify all the possible indications for early pipeline molecules. For the first time, we propose the term computational "drug candidate positioning" or "drug positioning", to describe the above process. It is distinct from drug repositioning, which identifies new uses for existing drugs and maximizes their value...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791109/evolutionary-consequences-of-behavioral-diversity
#18
Alexander J Stewart, Todd L Parsons, Joshua B Plotkin
Iterated games provide a framework to describe social interactions among groups of individuals. This body of work has focused primarily on individuals who face a simple binary choice, such as "cooperate" or "defect." Real individuals, however, can exhibit behavioral diversity, varying their input to a social interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we explore how access to a greater diversity of behavioral choices impacts the evolution of social dynamics in populations. We show that, in public goods games, some simple strategies that choose between only two possible actions can resist invasion by all multichoice invaders, even while engaging in relatively little punishment...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790146/fostering-competence-in-medicines-development-the-ifapp-perspective
#19
Dominique J Dubois, Anna Jurczynska, Sandor Kerpel-Fronius, Gustavo Kesselring, Kyoko Imamura, Gerfried Nell, Honorio Silva, Peter Stonier
IFAPP (International Federation of Associations of Pharmaceutical Physicians and Pharmaceutical Medicine) is a nonprofit organization with the mission to promote Pharmaceutical Medicine & Medicines Development (PM&MD) by enhancing the competencies and maintaining high research ethical standards of Pharmaceutical Physicians and other professionals involved in medicines development worldwide, leading to the availability and appropriate use of medicines for the benefit of patients and society. About 30 national professional associations related to PM&MD, involving 7000 professionals, are affiliated to IFAPP...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782025/improving-the-quality-of-informed-consent-in-clinical-research-with-information-technology
#20
Celia Taber, Jim Warren, Karen Day
The clinical research industry has yet to fully embrace information technology (IT) for informed consent purposes, even though it is used indispensably in our everyday lives and in other areas of clinical research and healthcare. This paper presents findings of a meta-narrative literature review to discuss the potential for IT to improve the quality of clinical research informed consent. The review reveals three main rationales for including IT in research consent. First, in the current context consent documents frequently fail to be effective decision aids for patients, and the lack of patient centricity in the process...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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