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Return on investment

Richard J Lilford, Oyinlola Oyebode, David Satterthwaite, G J Melendez-Torres, Yen-Fu Chen, Blessing Mberu, Samuel I Watson, Jo Sartori, Robert Ndugwa, Waleska Caiaffa, Tilahun Haregu, Anthony Capon, Ruhi Saith, Alex Ezeh
In the first paper in this Series we assessed theoretical and empirical evidence and concluded that the health of people living in slums is a function not only of poverty but of intimately shared physical and social environments. In this paper we extend the theory of so-called neighbourhood effects. Slums offer high returns on investment because beneficial effects are shared across many people in densely populated neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood effects also help explain how and why the benefits of interventions vary between slum and non-slum spaces and between slums...
October 12, 2016: Lancet
Leonie Segal, Claire Marsh, Rob Heyes
OBJECTIVES: We explored the real cost of training the workforce in a range of primary health care professions in Australia with a focus on the impact of retention to contribute to the debate on how best to achieve the optimal health workforce mix. METHODS: The cost to train an entry-level health professional across 12 disciplines was derived from university fees, payment for clinical placements and, where relevant, cost of internship, adjusted for student drop-out...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
Michael Popovich, Brandy Altstadter, Lara Hargraves Popovich, B S Biology
The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act encourages health information exchange between clinical care and public health through Meaningful Use measures. Meaningful Use specifically identifies objectives to support a number of public health programs including immunizations, cancer registries, syndromic surveillance, and disease case reports. The objective is to improve public and population health. Stage 2 of Meaningful Use focused on compliance to sending of information to public health...
2016: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
Sarah Brudler, Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Michael Zwicky Hauschild, Martin Rygaard
Expected increases in pluvial flooding, due to climatic changes, require large investments in the retrofitting of cities to keep damage at an acceptable level. Many cities have investigated the possibility of implementing stormwater management (SWM) systems which are multi-functional and consist of different elements interacting to achieve desired safety levels. Typically, an economic assessment is carried out in the planning phase, while environmental sustainability is given little or no attention. In this paper, life cycle assessment is used to quantify environmental impacts of climate change adaptation strategies...
October 11, 2016: Water Research
Sairam Parthasarathy, Mary A Carskadon, Girardin Jean-Louis, Judith Owens, Adam Bramoweth, Daniel Combs, Lauren Hale, Elizabeth Harrison, Chantelle N Hart, Brant P Hasler, Sarah M Honaker, Elisabeth Hertenstein, Samuel Kuna, Clete Kushida, Jessica C Levenson, Caitlin Murray, Allan I Pack, Vivek Pillai, Kristi Pruiksma, Azizi Seixas, Patrick Strollo, Saurabh S Thosar, Natasha Williams, Daniel Buysse
A wealth of scientific knowledge is being generated in sleep and circadian science. In order for us to realize the return on investment for such scientific knowledge and to improve the health of the nation, we need to disseminate and implement research findings into practice. An implementation gap - termed a "quality chasm" by the Institutes of Medicine - separates the scientific knowledge we possess and the implementation of such knowledge into preventative interventions or healthcare treatments. It is frequently reported that a time lag of 17 years transpires before medical research reaches clinical practice...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Phoebe E Bailey, Katherine Petridis, Skye N McLennan, Ted Ruffman, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: This study assesses age-related differences in the weighting and integration of appearance and behavior cues to trustworthiness. The aim is to assess whether it becomes more difficult with age to detect a cheater in disguise. METHOD: Young and older adults invested real money in a repeated trust game with trustees who varied on facial expression (smiling, neutral, angry) and return rate (high, low). Trustees were also rated for trustworthiness pre- and post-trust game...
October 14, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Charles C Branas, Michelle C Kondo, Sean M Murphy, Eugenia C South, Daniel Polsky, John M MacDonald
OBJECTIVES: To determine if blight remediation of abandoned buildings and vacant lots can be a cost-beneficial solution to firearm violence in US cities. METHODS: We performed quasi-experimental analyses of the impacts and economic returns on investment of urban blight remediation programs involving 5112 abandoned buildings and vacant lots on the occurrence of firearm and nonfirearm violence in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1999 to 2013. We adjusted before-after percent changes and returns on investment in treated versus control groups for sociodemographic factors...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
R Pabst, P B Linke, N B A Neudeck, M Schmiel, S B Ernst
BACKGROUND: German medical faculties currently have severe financial problems. There is the conflict between financing teaching medical students, inpatient and outpatient costs and supporting basic and applied research. METHODS: Young postdocs can apply for a grant to start research projects to establish techniques on publishing data as a basis for applying for grants from the German Research Foundation or foundations with a critical review system. Successful applicants from the years 1998-2011 were asked to answer a questionnaire...
October 12, 2016: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Kurt B Petersen, Martin Burd
The primitive land plant life cycle featured the production of spores of unimodal size, a condition called homospory. The evolution of bimodal size distributions with small male spores and large female spores, known as heterospory, was an innovation that occurred repeatedly in the history of land plants. The importance of desiccation-resistant spores for colonization of the land is well known, but the adaptive value of heterospory has never been well established. It was an addition to a sexual life cycle that already involved male and female gametes...
October 11, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Emmanuel Chanda, Birkinesh Ameneshewa, Magaran Bagayoko, John M Govere, Michael B Macdonald
The increasing global threat of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases (VBDs) poses a serious health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integrated vector management (IVM) strategy for combating VBD transmission. An IVM approach requires entomological knowledge, technical and infrastructure capacity, and systems facilitating stakeholder collaboration. In sub-Saharan Africa, successful operational IVM experience comes from relatively few countries. This article provides an update on the extent to which IVM is official national policy, the degree of IVM implementation, the level of compliance with WHO guidelines, and concordance in the understanding of IVM, and it assesses the operational impact of IVM...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Guangyu Lu, Yaobao Liu, Claudia Beiersmann, Yu Feng, Jun Cao, Olaf Müller
BACKGROUND: China has made great progress in malaria control over the last century and now aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. In 2012, the country launched its 1-3-7 surveillance and response strategy for malaria elimination. The strategy involves to case reporting within 1 day, case investigation within 3 days, and focus investigation and public health actions within 7 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the challenges in and lessons learned during the implementation of the 1-3-7 strategy in China so far...
October 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Karen L Pellegrin, Les Krenk, Sheena Jolson Oakes, Anita Ciarleglio, Joanne Lynn, Terry McInnis, Alistair W Bairos, Lara Gomez, Mercedes Benitez McCrary, Alexandra L Hanlon, Jill Miyamura
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between a system of medication management services provided by specially trained hospital and community pharmacists (Pharm2Pharm) and rates and costs of medication-related hospitalization in older adults. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental interrupted time series design comparing intervention and nonintervention hospitals using a mixed-effects analysis that modeled the intervention as a time-dependent variable. SETTING: Sequential implementation of Pharm2Pharm at six general nonfederal acute care hospitals in Hawaii with more than 50 beds in 2013 and 2014...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Maria M Lowe, David A Blaser, Lisa Cone, Steve Arcona, John Ko, Rahul Sasane, Paul Wicks
BACKGROUND: To ensure the creation of treatments that maximize value at the lowest cost, all aspects of the health care system need to align with patient needs and preferences. Despite growing efforts to engage patients in research and regulatory activities, the pharmaceutical industry has yet to maximize patient involvement in the drug development process. OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding of the present state of patient involvement in drug development...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Anirban Basu, Prasun Subedi, Sachin Kamal-Bahl
BACKGROUND: Financing medical breakthroughs or cures is becoming increasingly challenging in the current fiscal environment. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we develop the precise conditions needed for a financing mechanism, HealthCoin, to work between a private payer and Medicare, to incentivize the former to invest in breakthrough therapies or cures in the US. METHODS: We illustrate the valuation of such a currency for a cure of Type 2 diabetes...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
William P Fisher, A Jackson Stenner
Huge resources are invested in metrology and standards in the natural sciences, engineering, and across a wide range of commercial technologies. Significant positive returns of human, social, environmental, and economic value on these investments have been sustained for decades. Proven methods for calibrating test and survey instruments in linear units are readily available, as are data- and theory-based methods for equating those instruments to a shared unit. Using these methods, metrological traceability is obtained in a variety of commercially available elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education programs in the U...
October 2016: Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation
J F Provencher, M R Forbes, M L Mallory, S Wilson, H G Gilchrist
Arctic wildlife can be exposed to high mercury (Hg) levels, and are also naturally exposed to gastrointestinal parasites that can reduce condition and negatively affect reproductive output and/or survival in similar ways. Importantly, both Hg and parasites are increasing in wildlife in some Arctic regions. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria mollissima) to explore how Hg in association with both natural levels and experimentally reduced parasitic infections, affect reproduction and survival...
September 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Prabhavathi Fernandes, Evan Martens
Most pharmaceutical companies have stopped or have severely limited investments to discover and develop new antibiotics to treat the increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria, because the return on investment has been mostly negative for antibiotics that received marketing approved in the last few decades. In contrast, a few small companies have taken on this challenge and are developing new antibiotics. This review describes those antibiotics in late-stage clinical development...
September 26, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Julia Anna Matz
This study sheds light on the development of family structures in a polygamous context with a particular emphasis on wife order, and offers an explanation for the association between outcomes of children and the status of their mothers among wives based on observable maternal characteristics. In a simple framework, I propose that selection into rank among wives with respect to female productivity takes place: highly productive women are more strongly demanded in the marriage market than less productive women, giving them a higher chance of becoming first wives...
October 2016: Demography
Dilip U Makhija, Surrey Walton, Juan P Mora, Mauricio Sanabria
♦ Background: There is little information regarding the financial burden of peritonitis and the economic impact of continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The objectives of this study were to measure the costs of peritonitis, and determine the net savings of a PD CQI program in Colombia. ♦ Methods: The Renal Therapy Services (RTS) network in Colombia, along with Coomeva EPS, provided healthcare resource utilization data for PD patients with and without peritonitis between January 2012 and December 2013...
September 28, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Carmen M Coombs, Ryan Y Shields, Elizabeth A Hunt, Ying Wei Lum, Patrick R Sosnay, Julianne S Perretta, Rhett H Lieberman, Nicole A Shilkofski
PROBLEM: Because reported use of simulation in preclinical basic science courses is limited, the authors describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a simulation-based clinical correlation curriculum in an anatomy course for first-year medical students at Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine (in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine). APPROACH: The simulation curriculum, with five weekly modules, was a component of a noncadaveric human anatomy course for three classes (n = 81 students) from September 2011 to November 2013...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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