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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340436/a-comparative-study-on-biochemical-methane-potential-of-algal-substrates-implications-of-biomass-pre-treatment-and-product-extraction
#1
Faiz Ahmad Ansari, Shantanu Wahal, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Ismail Rawat, Faizal Bux
Dried powdered algae (SDPA), heat treated algae (MHTA), lipid extracted algae (LEA) and protein extracted algae (PEA) were digested to determine biomethane potential. The average CH4 production rate was ∼2.5-times higher for protein and lipid extracted algae than for whole algae (SDPA and MHTA) whilst the cumulative CH4 production was higher for pre-treated algae. Highest cumulative CH4 production (318.7mlCH4g(-1)VS) was observed for MHTA followed by SDPA (307.4mlCH4g(-1)VS). CH4/CO2 ratios of 1.5 and 0.7 were observed for MHTA and LEA respectively...
March 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337213/root-branching-is-a-leading-root-trait-of-the-plant-economics-spectrum-in-temperate-trees
#2
Rebecca Liese, Katrin Alings, Ina C Meier
Global vegetation models use conceived relationships between functional traits to simulate ecosystem responses to environmental change. In this context, the concept of the leaf economics spectrum (LES) suggests coordinated leaf trait variation, and separates species which invest resources into short-lived leaves with a high expected energy return rate from species with longer-lived leaves and slower energy return. While it has been assumed that being fast (acquisitive) or slow (conservative) is a general feature for all organ systems, the translation of the LES into a root economics spectrum (RES) for tree species has been hitherto inconclusive...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332835/toward-nucleating-the-concept-of-the-water-resource-recovery-facility-wrrf-perspective-from-the-principal-actors
#3
Erik R Coats, Patrick I Wilson
Wastewater resource recovery has been advocated for decades; necessary structural pathways were long-ago articulated, and established and emerging technologies exist. Nevertheless, broad wastewater valorization remains elusive. In considering implementation barriers, the argument is made that decision-makers focus on avoiding permit violations and negative publicity by embracing a conservative/safe approach - seemingly ignoring research on economic/environmental benefits. Conversely positing that economics is a primary barrier, we investigated, characterized, and described non-technical socio-political barriers to realizing wastewater resource recovery...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319832/comparative-life-cycle-cost-assessment-of-painted-and-hot-dip-galvanized-bridges
#4
B Rossi, S Marquart, G Rossi
The study addresses the life cycle cost assessment (LCCA) of steel bridges, focusing on the maintenance activities and the maintenance scenario. Firstly, the unit costs of maintenance activities and their durability (i.e. the time between two activities) are evaluated. Pragmatic data are provided for the environment category C4 and for three activities: Patch Up, Overcoating and Remove & Replace. A comparative LCCA for a typical hypothetic steel girder bridge is carried out, either painted or hot-dip galvanized (HDG), in the environmental class C4...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319519/process-improvement-initiative-for-the-perioperative-management-of-patients-with-a-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device
#5
Margaret K Menzel Ellis, Miriam M Treggiari, Jamie M Robertson, Marc A Rozner, Peter F Graven, Michael F Aziz, Matthias J Merkel, Edward A Kahl, Norman A Cohen, Eric C Stecker, Peter M Schulman
BACKGROUND: Economic, personnel, and procedural challenges often complicate and interfere with efficient and safe perioperative care of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). In the context of a process improvement initiative, we created and implemented a comprehensive anesthesiologist-run perioperative CIED service to respond to all routine requests for perioperative CIED consultations at a large academic medical center. This study was designed to determine whether this new care model was associated with improved operating room efficiency, reduced institutional cost, and adequate patient safety...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318148/barriers-to-innovation-in-human-rabies-prophylaxis-and-treatment-a-causal-analysis-of-insights-from-key-opinion-leaders-and-literature
#6
L H M van de Burgwal, A M G Neevel, C A C M Pittens, A D M E Osterhaus, C E Rupprecht, E Claassen
Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
March 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301162/determination-of-cell-doubling-times-from-the-return-on-investment-time-of-photosynthetic-vesicles-based-on-atomic-detail-structural-models
#7
Andrew Hitchcock, C Neil Hunter, Melih Sener
Cell doubling times of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides during photosynthetic growth are determined experimentally and computationally as a function of illumination. For this purpose, energy conversion processes in an intracytoplasmic membrane vesicle, the chromatophore, are described based on an atomic detail structural model. The cell doubling time and its illumination dependence are computed in terms of the return-on-investment (ROI) time of the chromatophore, determined computationally from the ATP production rate, and the mass ratio of chromatophores in the cell, determined experimentally from whole cell absorbance spectra...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289548/the-comparative-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-ranibizumab-for-neovascular-macular-degeneration-revisited
#8
Gary C Brown, Melissa M Brown, Heidi B Lieske, Adam Turpcu, Yamina Rajput
BACKGROUND: To compare a near decade of follow-up, newer control cohort data, use of both the societal and third party insurer cost perspectives, and integration of unilateral/bilateral therapy on the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for neovascular, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Value-Based Medicine(®), 12-year, combined-eye model, cost-utility analysis employing MARINA and HORIZON clinical trial data...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286350/maternal-natal-environment-and-breeding-territory-predict-the-condition-and-sex-ratio-of-offspring
#9
E Keith Bowers, Charles F Thompson, Scott K Sakaluk
Females in a variety of taxa adjust offspring sex ratios to prevailing ecological conditions. However, little is known about whether conditions experienced during a female's early ontogeny influence the sex ratio of her offspring. We tested for past and present ecological predictors of offspring sex ratios among known-age females that were produced as offspring and bred as adults in a population of house wrens. The body condition of offspring that a female produced and the proportion of her offspring that were male were negatively correlated with the size of the brood in which she herself was reared...
March 2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284471/does-the-institution-of-a-statewide-trauma-system-reduce-preventable-mortality-and-yield-a-positive-return-on-investment-for-taxpayers
#10
Todd Maxson, Charles D Mabry, Michael J Sutherland, Ronald D Robertson, James O Booker, Terry Collins, Horace J Spencer, Charles F Rinker, Teri L Sanddal, Nels D Sanddal
BACKGROUND: In July 2009, Arkansas began to annually fund $20 million for a statewide trauma system (TS). We studied injury deaths both pre-TS (2009) and post-TS (2013 to 2014), with attention to causes of preventive mortality, societal cost of those preventable mortality deaths, and benefit to tax payers of the lives saved. STUDY DESIGN: A multi-specialty trauma-expert panel met and reviewed records of 672 decedents (290 pre-TS and 382 post-TS) who met standardized inclusion criteria, were judged potentially salvageable, and were selected by a proportional sampling of the roughly 2,500 annual trauma deaths...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279440/the-leap-from-roi-to-sroi-farther-than-expected
#11
John Gargani
Social return on investment (SROI) is a popular method for evaluating the impact that organizations have on society and the environment. It has its roots in finance, where return on investment (ROI) is used to evaluate investments. Over the past ten years, SROI has made the leap from a tool for building private wealth to one that advances the public good. Has it landed us in a better place? To answer the question, I describe the general approach to financial analysis, how it is applied to financial decisions, and how it has been adapted to evaluate impact...
February 11, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274244/where-is-students-research-in-evidence-informed-decision-making-in-health-assessing-productivity-and-use-of-postgraduate-students-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#12
E A Obuku, J N Lavis, A Kinengyere, D K Mafigiri, F Sengooba, C Karamagi, N K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Investing in research that is not accessible or used is a waste of resources and an injustice to human subject participants. Post-graduate students' research in institutions of higher learning involves considerable time, effort and money, warranting evaluation of the return on investment. Although individual studies addressing research productivity of post-graduate students are available, a synthesis of these results in low-income settings has not been undertaken. Our first aim is to identify the types of approaches that increase productivity and those that increase the application of medical post-graduate students' research and to assess their effectiveness...
March 9, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257407/early-childhood-education-to-promote-health-equity-a-community-guide-economic-review
#13
Ismaila Ramon, Sajal K Chattopadhyay, W Steven Barnett, Robert A Hahn
CONTEXT: A recent Community Guide systematic review found that early childhood education (ECE) programs improve educational, social, and health-related outcomes and advance health equity because many are designed to increase enrollment for high-risk children. This follow-up economic review examines how the economic benefits of center-based ECE programs compare with their costs. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Kay and Pennucci from the Washington State Institute for Public Policy, whose meta-analysis formed the basis of the Community Guide effectiveness review, conducted a benefit-cost analysis of ECE programs for low-income children in Washington State...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257401/measuring-the-cost-and-value-of-quality-improvement-initiatives-for-local-health-departments
#14
Li-Wu Chen, Fernando A Wilson, Abbey Gregg, Niodita Gupta, Sarbinaz Bekmuratova, David Palm
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate an approach to measuring the cost and value of quality improvement (QI) implementation in local health departments (LHDs). DESIGN: We conducted cost estimation for 4 LHD QI projects and return-on-investment (ROI) analysis for 2 selected LHD QI projects. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Four Nebraska LHDs varying in rurality and jurisdiction size. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total costs, unit costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and ROI...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254127/return-on-investment-in-implantable%C3%A2-devices-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-in-mildly-symptomatic%C3%A2-heart-failure
#15
EDITORIAL
Benjamin A Steinberg, Robert J Mentz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251346/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-shunt-surgery-for-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-based-on-the-sinphoni-and-sinphoni-2-trials
#16
Masahiro Kameda, Shigeki Yamada, Masamichi Atsuchi, Teruo Kimura, Hiroaki Kazui, Masakazu Miyajima, Etsuro Mori, Masatsune Ishikawa, Isao Date
BACKGROUND: We showed that ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt surgeries are beneficial for patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in the Study of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus on Neurological Improvement (SINPHONI; a multicenter prospective cohort study) and in SINPHONI-2 (a multicenter randomized trial). Although therapeutic efficacy is important, cost-effectiveness analysis is equally valuable. METHODS: Using both a set of assumptions and using the data from SINPHONI and SINPHONI-2, we estimated the total cost of treatment for iNPH, which consists of medical expenses (e...
March 1, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248696/the-leadership-case-for-investing-in-continuing-professional-development
#17
Graham T McMahon
Continuing medical education (CME) has the power and capacity to address many challenges in the health care environment, from clinician well-being to national imperatives for better health, better care, and lower cost. Health care leaders who recognize the strategic value of education and engage their people in education can expect a meaningful return on their investment-not only in terms of the quality and safety of their clinicians' work but also in the spirit and cohesiveness of the clinicians who work at their institution...
February 28, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247177/technical-efficiency-of-nursing-homes-do-five-star-quality-ratings-matter
#18
Rajendra Dulal
This study investigates associations between five-star quality ratings and technical efficiency of nursing homes. The sample consists of a balanced panel of 338 nursing homes in California from 2009 through 2013 and uses two-stage data envelopment (DEA) analysis. The first-stage applies an input oriented variable returns to scale DEA analysis. The second-stage uses a left censored random-effect Tobit regression model. The five-star quality ratings i.e., health inspections, quality measures, staffing available on the Nursing Home Compare website are divided into two categories: outcome and structure form of quality...
February 28, 2017: Health Care Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246379/the-antibiotic-resistance-crisis-with-a-focus-on-the-united-states
#19
REVIEW
Evan Martens, Arnold L Demain
Beginning with the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in the late 1920s, antibiotics have revolutionized the field of medicine. They have saved millions of lives each year, alleviated pain and suffering, and have even been used prophylactically for the prevention of infectious diseases. However, we have now reached a crisis where many antibiotics are no longer effective against even the simplest infections. Such infections often result in an increased number of hospitalizations, more treatment failures and the persistence of drug-resistant pathogens...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235611/a-survey-on-ivivc-ivivr-development-in-the-pharmaceutical-industry-past-experience-and-current-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
M A Nguyen, T Flanagan, M Brewster, F Kesisoglou, S Beato, J Biewenga, J Crison, R Holm, R Li, E Mannaert, M McAllister, M Mueller-Zsigmondy, U Muenster, K Ojala, S Page, A Parr, S Rossenu, P Timmins, A Van Peer, A Vermeulen, P Langguth
The present work aimed to describe the current status of IVIVC/IVIVR development in the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on the use and perception of specific approaches as well as successful and failed case studies. Two questionnaires have been distributed to 13 EFPIA partners of the Oral Biopharmaceutics Tools Initiative and to the Pharmacokinetics Working Party of the European Medicines Agency in order to capture the perspectives and experiences of industry scientists and agency members, respectively. Responses from ten companies and three European Agencies were received between May 21st 2014 and January 19th 2016...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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