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Sedation in the emergency room

Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, emergency department (ED) physicians rely on their clinical examination to differentiate between cellulitis and abscess when evaluating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Management of an abscess requires incision and drainage, whereas cellulitis generally requires a course of antibiotics. Misdiagnosis often results in unnecessary invasive procedures, sedations (for incision and drainage in pediatric patients), or a return ED visit for failed antibiotic therapy...
October 21, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Carmen Sulton, Courtney McCracken, Harold K Simon, Kiran Hebbar, Jason Reynolds, Joseph Cravero, Michael Mallory, Pradip Kamat
OBJECTIVES: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is widely used in pediatric procedural sedation (PPS) by a variety of pediatric subspecialists. The objective of our study was to describe the overall rates of adverse events and serious adverse events (SAEs) when DEX is used by various pediatric subspecialists. METHODS: Patients from the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium (PSRC) database were retrospectively reviewed and children that received DEX as their primary sedation agent for elective PPS were identified...
September 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Levent Dalar, Seda Tural Önür, Cengiz Özdemir, Sinem Nedime Sökücü, Ahmet Levent Karasulu, Sedat Altin
BACKGROUND/AIM: Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) leads to the obstruction of expiratory airflow and interference with secretion clearance. Stabilization of the airway wall using a silicon stent or laser coagulation of the posterior wall may be treatment options. This study aimed to retrospectively analyze which interventional bronchoscopic method could be used to provide airway stabilization and gain control of symptoms and for whom this method could be used. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients who had received treatment in our interventional pulmonology unit were analyzed...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Jocelyn R Grunwell, Curtis Travers, Courtney E McCracken, Patricia D Scherrer, Anne G Stormorken, Corrie E Chumpitazi, Mark G Roback, Jana A Stockwell, Pradip P Kamat
OBJECTIVE: Most studies of ketamine administered to children for procedural sedation are limited to emergency department use. The objective of this study was to describe the practice of ketamine procedural sedation outside of the operating room and identify risk factors for adverse events. DESIGN: Observational cohort review of data prospectively collected from 2007 to 2015 from the multicenter Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. SETTING: Sedation services from academic, community, free-standing children's hospitals and pediatric wards within general hospitals...
August 8, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Erwan Le Garff, Yann Delannoy, Vadim Mesli, Delphine Allorge, Valéry Hédouin, Gilles Tournel
Cyanide is a product that is known for its use in industrial or laboratory processes, as well as for intentional intoxication. The toxicity of cyanide is well described in humans with rapid inhibition of cellular aerobic metabolism after ingestion or inhalation, leading to severe clinical effects that are frequently lethal. We report the case of a young white man found dead in a hotel room after self-poisoning with cyanide ordered in the deep Web. This case shows a probable complex suicide kit use including cyanide, as a lethal tool, and dextromethorphan, as a sedative and anxiolytic substance...
September 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Balvinder Grewal, Devlin Elliott, Luca Daniele, James Reidy
BACKGROUND: Acute patellar dislocation is a common injury in young people, especially in adolescent females and athletes. Lateral dislocation is the most common form of patellar dislocation and often reduces spontaneously or with simple manipulation and closed reduction. We report a rare circumstance in which the patella was irreducible and required manipulation and closed reduction in the operating room. CASE REPORT: While dancing, a 32-year-old female was knocked by a fellow dancer on her left knee, and she fell to the nightclub floor...
2016: Ochsner Journal
Ravi Bhat, M C B Santhosh, Venkatesh M Annigeri, Raghavendra P Rao
BACKGROUND: Goal of premedication in pediatric anesthesia are relieving pre and postoperative anxiety, good parental separation, and smooth induction of anesthesia. Anxiety can produce aggressive reactions, increased distress, increased postoperative pain and postoperative agitation. The benzodiazepine, midazolam, is the most frequently used premedication in pediatric anesthesia. Midazolam has a number of beneficial effects when used as premedication in children: Sedation, fast onset, and limited duration of action...
May 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Toshihiko Nakatani
Palliative care prevents and relieves total pain of patients and their families and improves their quality of life. The author describes the work of anesthesiologists in palliative care unit as ward staffs. The need for palliative care units is increasing and new palliative care units are being established throughout Japan. Anesthesiologists are involved in anesthesia, pain management intensive care, emergency medicine and palliative care. The anesthesiologists in palliative care are involved in use of opioid and nerve block for treating physical pain...
March 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Christine Huang, Nathaniel Johnson
Nitrous oxide is a gas inhalation agent that has a long history of administration in procedures requiring analgesia and sedation. Although use may be limited by patient condition, patient comorbidities, and appropriate scavenging equipment, nitrous is a proven and safe tool for use in many health care settings-from the dental office to the operating room to the emergency department.
2016: Current Emergency and Hospital Medicine Reports
Andrew J B Pisansky, Sascha S Beutler, Richard D Urman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been a significant increase in the number and types of procedures performed outside of the operating room with nonanesthesia providers administering sedation. This review describes current recommendations for training nonanesthesiologists involved in administering deep sedation, summarizes best practices and highlights select patient outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: There are numerous guidelines and standards related to the administration of deep sedation...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Giora Weiser, Uri Ilan, Joseph Mendlovic, Tarif Bader, Itai Shavit
Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) should be a priority in the emergency care of injured children. This humanistic approach is particularly important in paediatric victims of disaster, because these patients are prone to psychological distress secondary to the traumatic event. Following the Nepal earthquake, an Israeli field hospital (IFH) was deployed in Kathmandu. We report our experience with PSA in the emergency room (ER) of the IFH. 22 children underwent surgery in the operating room and 10 underwent PSA in the ER by paediatric emergency physicians: 6 had wound debridement, 2 had fracture reduction and 2 had laceration repair...
October 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Joseph A Giovannitti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anesthesia for dentistry is commonly performed outside the operating room. The combination of a shared airway between surgeon and anesthetist, the variety of open airway techniques, and the out-of-operating room setting often results in anxiety and avoidance of dental cases among anesthesia personnel. This review attempts to demystify dental treatment and facilitate the anesthesia provider in providing effective sedation of dental procedures performed in the nonoperating room setting...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Nobuyasu Komasawa, Isao Nishihara, Toshiaki Minami
As Japan's population ages, the number of cases of emergency abdominal surgery at advanced ages is increasing. A 105-year-old man weighing 37 kg combined with aortic stenosis and regurgitation was scheduled for emergency surgery for incarcerated inguinofemoral hernia. General anesthesia was induced with short-acting analgesics and sedatives. The patient was extubated uneventfully in the operating room and discharged without any major complications. Anesthetic management of elderly patients requires appropriate preoperative evaluation of complicating diseases, degree of consciousness, and nutritional condition...
February 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
L Munk, G Andersen, A M Møller
BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium (ED) after general anaesthesia (GA) is a well-known phenomenon, yet the risk factors are still unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and independent predictors of ED and secondly to determine to which degree ED has any relevant, clinical consequences to medical staff as well as to patients. METHOD: This prospective, observational cohort study assessed adult patients emerging from GA in the operating room, using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS)...
September 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Lakshmi Mudambi, Andrew Spiegelman, Duncan Geron, Max Hirshkowitz, Babak Mokhlesi, Yasser Shaib, Suryakanta Velamuri, Charlie O Lan, Amir Sharafkhaneh
RATIONALE: The use of sedation allows medical procedures to be performed outside the operating room while ensuring patient comfort and a controlled environment to increase the yield of the procedure. There is concern about a higher risk of adverse events with use of sedation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine if the presence of obstructive sleep apnea increased the risk of hospitalization and/or health care use after patients received moderate conscious sedation for an elective, ambulatory colonoscopy...
March 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
F Bham, H Perrie, J Scribante, C-A Lee
BACKGROUND: Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is often required to perform dental procedures in children. Serious adverse outcomes, while rare, are usually preventable. OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of dental practitioners making use of paediatric dental chair PSA in Gauteng Province, South Africa, describe their PSA practice, and determine compliance with recommended safety standards. METHOD: A prospective, contextual, descriptive study design was used, with 222 randomly selected dental practitioners contacted to determine whether they offered paediatric dental chair PSA...
June 2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Rajan Verma, Brij Mohan, Joginder Pal Attri, Veena Chatrath, Anju Bala, Manjit Singh
The Anesthesiologist provides continuous medical care before, during, and after operation to permit the surgeons to perform surgeries; sometimes quite challenging that could otherwise cause substantial threats to the patient's survival. Anesthesiologists, because of their combination of skills are uniquely qualified to care for dying patients suffering from end diseases like cancer. These skills include knowledge of analgesic and sedative pharmacology for the management of pain, awareness of perceptual alterations along with well-known skills in drug titration and experience with critically ill and highly anxious, often agitated patients under stressful circumstances...
September 2015: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Dong Jun Kim, Sang Hun Kim, Keum Young So, Ki Tae Jung
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative dexmedetomidine may decrease postoperative emergence agitation in elderly patients due to its sedative effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adjuvant dexmedetomidine on smooth emergence from anaesthesia after orthopaedic surgery in elderly patients. METHODS: A total 115 patients (ASA I-II, aged over 65 years) were randomly allocated into four groups. Anaesthesia was maintained with either sevoflurane or total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) comprising propofol and remifentanil...
2015: BMC Anesthesiology
Christian Imboden, Martin Hatzinger
Suicidality is a common problem in the general hospital. Patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders or during a psychosocial crisis can develop suicidal ideation during their stay at the general hospital, especially if they suffer from chronic disease. Some somatic disorders, such as cancer, epilepsy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, stroke and chronic pain conditions are associated with an increased risk of suicide. The fact that (1) a major part of patients are treated in the emergency room (ER) after a suicide attempt and (2) a suicide attempt is the strongest predictor for later completed suicide emphasizes the importance of expertise in dealing with suicidal patients in the ER...
October 2015: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Tyler S Pidgeon, Jonathan Schiller
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe the long leg cast with a pelvic band (LLCPB), a novel alternative to spica casting for treating femur fractures in patients aged 6 months to 6 years which requires no casting above the waist, allows for hip flexion adjustments after it is applied, and does not require an operating room for placement. METHODS: Seven children aged 7.9 months to 3.7 years with femur fractures treated with the LLCPB at a single institution were retrospectively studied...
September 23, 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
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