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Voxel based morphometry MRI

R Sheelakumari, C Kesavadas, V S Lekha, Sunitha Justus, P Sankara Sarma, Ramshekhar Menon
Context: Annually 10-12% of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are likely to progress to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The morphometric profile in stable non-converters has not been adequately characterized. Aims: To determine the structural differences between amnestic MCI and early AD using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with neuropsychological test performances. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case-control study...
March 2018: Neurology India
Ondrej Bezdicek, Tommaso Ballarini, Filip Růžička, Jan Roth, Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Matthias L Schroeter
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects approximately one-third of non-demented Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. We aimed at investigating the neural correlates of MCI in PD combining multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with large-scale data from the literature. We analyzed 31 PD patients and 30 matched controls. The standard neuropsychological assessment of PD-MCI covered memory, attention, executive functions, language and visuospatial abilities. Following validated criteria, 16 patients were classified as showing MCI...
March 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Marta Gómez-Sancho, Jussi Tohka, Vanessa Gómez-Verdejo
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. The identification of at-risk subjects yet showing no dementia symptoms but who will later convert to AD can be crucial for the effective treatment of AD. For this, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is expected to play a crucial role. During recent years, several Machine Learning (ML) approaches to AD-conversion prediction have been proposed using different types of MRI features...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Thibo Billiet, Iris Elens, Charlotte Sleurs, Anne Uyttebroeck, Rudi D'Hooge, Jurgen Lemiere, Sabine Deprez
Background: This study aimed to assess functional and structural brain connectivity in adult childhood leukemia survivors and the link with cognitive functioning and previously identified risk factors such as intrathecal methotrexate dose and age at start of therapy. Methods: Thirty-one nonirradiated adult childhood leukemia survivors and 35 controls underwent cognitive testing and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (resting state functional MRI, T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and myelin water imaging [MWI])...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Roxana G Burciu, Rachael D Seidler, Priyank Shukla, Mike A Nalls, Andrew B Singleton, Michael S Okun, David E Vaillancourt
The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs356219 in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene has been shown to significantly contribute to an earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD), and regulates SNCA expression in PD brain regions, blood, and plasma. Here, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study healthy adults with and without the rs356219 risk genotype. Motor and cognitive tests were administered, and all participants underwent functional and structural MRI. Imaging analyses included (1) task-based functional MRI; (2) task-based functional connectivity; (3) free-water diffusion MRI of the substantia nigra; (4) voxel-based morphometry; and (5) surface-based morphometry...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Keren Bachi, Muhammad A Parvaz, Scott J Moeller, Gabriela Gan, Anna Zilverstand, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Background : Childhood trauma affects neurodevelopment and promotes vulnerability to impaired constraint, depression, and addiction. Reduced gray matter concentration (GMC) in the mesocorticolimbic regions implicated in reward processing and cognitive control may be an underlying substrate, as documented separately in addiction and for childhood trauma. The purpose of this study was to understand the contribution of childhood maltreatment to GMC effects in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Methods : Individuals with cocaine use disorder were partitioned into groups of low vs...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Laura Zamarian, Christoph Scherfler, Christian Kremser, Marie-Theres Pertl, Elke Gizewski, Thomas Benke, Margarete Delazer
Acquisition of numerical knowledge and understanding of numerical information are crucial for coping with the changing demands of our digital society. In this study, we assessed arithmetic learning in older and younger individuals in a training experiment including brain imaging. In particular, we assessed age-related effects of training intensity, prior arithmetic competence, and neuropsychological variables on the acquisition of new arithmetic knowledge and on the transfer to new, unknown problems. Effects were assessed immediately after training and after 3 months...
2018: PloS One
Malin Björnsdotter, Monika Davidovic, Louise Karjalainen, Göran Starck, Håkan Olausson, Elisabet Wentz
BACKGROUND: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. METHODS: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Paula Squarzoni, Fabio Luis Souza Duran, Geraldo F Busatto, Tania Correa Toledo de Ferraz Alves
BACKGROUND: Many cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry (VBM) investigations have shown significant inverse correlations between chronological age and gray matter (GM) volume in several brain regions in healthy humans. However, few VBM studies have documented GM decrements in the healthy elderly with repeated MRI measurements obtained in the same subjects. Also, the extent to which the APOE ɛ4 allele influences longitudinal findings of GM reduction in the healthy elderly is unclear...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kenichiro Harada, Toshikazu Ikuta, Mami Nakashima, Toshio Watanuki, Masako Hirotsu, Toshio Matsubara, Hirotaka Yamagata, Yoshifumi Watanabe, Koji Matsuo
Patients with later-life depression (LLD) show abnormal gray matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
B I Haynes, M Pitkanen, R Kulasegaram, S J Casey, M Schutte, K Towgood, B Peters, G J Barker, M D Kopelman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis of accelerated cognitive ageing in HIV-positive individuals using longitudinal assessment of cognitive performance and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We assessed a broad cognitive battery and quantitative MRI metrics [voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)] in asymptomatic HIV-positive men who have sex with men (15 aged 20-40 years and 15 aged ≥ 50 years), and HIV-seronegative matched controls (nine aged 20-40 years and 16 aged ≥ 50 years)...
February 14, 2018: HIV Medicine
Song Cao, Bangyong Qin, Yi Zhang, Jie Yuan, Bao Fu, Peng Xie, Ganjun Song, Ying Li, Tian Yu
OBJECTIVE: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Whether the chronification from HZ to PHN induced brain functional or structural change is unknown and no study compared the changes of the same brains of patients who transited from HZ to PHN. We minimized individual differences and observed whether the chronification of HZ to PHN induces functional and pain duration dependent grey matter volume (GMV) change in HZ-PHN patients...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Christoph Vogelbacher, Thomas W D Möbius, Jens Sommer, Verena Schuster, Udo Dannlowski, Tilo Kircher, Astrid Dempfle, Andreas Jansen, Miriam H A Bopp
Large, longitudinal, multi-center MR neuroimaging studies require comprehensive quality assurance (QA) protocols for assessing the general quality of the compiled data, indicating potential malfunctions in the scanning equipment, and evaluating inter-site differences that need to be accounted for in subsequent analyses. We describe the implementation of a QA protocol for functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI) data based on the regular measurement of an MRI phantom and an extensive variety of currently published QA statistics...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
Yuchun Tang, Lu Zhao, Yunxia Lou, Yonggang Shi, Rui Fang, Xiangtao Lin, Shuwei Liu, Arthur Toga
Numerous behavioral observations and brain function studies have demonstrated that neurological differences exist between East Asians and Westerners. However, the extent to which these factors relate to differences in brain structure is still not clear. As the basis of brain functions, the anatomical differences in brain structure play a primary and critical role in the origination of functional and behavior differences. To investigate the underlying differences in brain structure between the two cultural/ethnic groups, we conducted a comparative study on education-matched right-handed young male adults (age = 22-29 years) from two cohorts, Han Chinese (n = 45) and Caucasians (n = 45), using high-dimensional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
February 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
A Pitiot, J K Smith, D J Humes, J Garratt, S T Francis, P A Gowland, R C Spiller, L Marciani
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the brain of patients with gastrointestinal disease differ both structurally and functionally from that of controls. Highly somatizing diverticular disease (HSDD) patients were also shown to differ from low somatizing (LSDD) patients functionally. This study aimed to investigate how they differed structurally. METHODS: Four diseases subgroups were studied in a cross-sectional design: 20 patients with asymptomatic diverticular disease (ADD), 18 LSDD, 16 HSDD, and 18 with irritable bowel syndrome...
February 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Mário Ribeiro, João Castelhano, Lorena I Petrella, José Sereno, Tiago Rodrigues, Christian Neves, Liliana Letra, Filipa I Baptista, Raquel Seiça, Paulo Matafome, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder with a broad range of complications in the brain that depend on the conditions that precede its onset, such as obesity and metabolic syndromes. It has been suggested that neurotransmitter and metabolic perturbations may emerge even before the early stages of T2DM and that high-caloric intake could adversely influence the brain in such states. Notwithstanding, evidence for neurochemical and structural alterations in these conditions are still sparse and controversial...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Ana Paula Arantes Bueno, Walter Hugo L Pinaya, Luciana M Moura, Maxime Bertoux, Ratko Radakovic, Matthew C Kiernan, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Michael Hornberger, João Ricardo Sato
Cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is heterogeneous but now recognized as a feature in non-demented patients and no longer exclusively attributed to executive dysfunction. However, despite common reports of temporal lobe changes and memory deficits in ALS, episodic memory has been less explored. In the current study, we examined how the Papez circuit-a circuit known to participate in memory processes-is structurally and functionally affected in ALS patients (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 15), and whether these changes correlated with a commonly used clinical measure of episodic memory...
January 27, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jacob M Redel, Mark DiFrancesco, Jennifer Vannest, Mekibib Altaye, Dean Beebe, Jane Khoury, Lawrence M Dolan, Gregory Lee, Hermine Brunner, Scott Holland, Cassandra Brady, Amy S Shah
BACKGROUND: Adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have significantly lower gray matter volume (GMV) compared to healthy peers. Whether GMV differences exist in youth with T2D remains unclear. Thus, we compared global and regional GMV between obese youth with T2D with age, race and sex similar healthy controls. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 20 obese youth with T2D underwent T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Comparisons were made to 20 age, race and sex similar controls...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
G Olivito, M Lupo, C Iacobacci, S Clausi, S Romano, M Masciullo, M Molinari, M Cercignani, M Bozzali, M Leggio
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebellum and characterized by a typical motor syndrome. In addition, the presence of cognitive impairment is now widely acknowledged as a feature of SCA2. Given the extensive connections between the cerebellum and associative cerebral areas, it is reasonable to hypothesize that cerebellar neurodegeneration associated with SCA2 may impact on the cerebellar modulation of the cerebral cortex, thus resulting in functional impairment...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Farnaz Farokhian, Chunlan Yang, Iman Beheshti, Hiroshi Matsuda, Shuicai Wu
Normal aging is associated with both structural changes in many brain regions and functional declines in several cognitive domains with advancing age. Advanced neuroimaging techniques enable explorative analyses of structural alterations that can be used as assessments of such age-related changes. Here we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate regional and global brain volume differences among four groups of healthy adults from the IXI Dataset: older females (OF, mean age 68.35 yrs; n=69), older males (OM, 68...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
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