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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745925/-mechanism-of-action-of-intravesical-bcg-biological-bases-and-clinical-applicability
#1
Joaquín A Carballido, María Rodríguez Monsalve
The therapeutic approaches developed around immune system modulation find the therapeutic contribution of intravesical Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) for transitional cell bladder cancer an unquestionable example as a proof of concept of antitumor immunotherapy since more than 30 years ago. Intravesical immunotherapy for urothelial carcinomas is considered with periodic intravesical instillations schedules, and the one with longer historic development and wider diffusion is BCG in the form of suspension. BCG is a unique strain obtained from Mycobacterium bovis at the end of the first third of the XX century and represents the historically most successful immunotherapeutic modality of all tumors with a high level body of evidence...
May 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740711/new-avenues-for-nanoparticle-related-therapies
#2
Michael Zhao, Mingyao Liu
Development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems has been attempted for the treatment of cancer over the past decade. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is the major mechanism to passively deliver nanodrugs to tumor tissue. However, a recent systematic review demonstrated limited success of these studies, with the clearance of nanoparticles by the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) being a major hurdle. Herein, we propose that nanotechnologists should reconsider their research focuses, aiming for therapeutic targets other than cancer...
May 8, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702045/positron-emission-tomography-pet-and-pharmacokinetics-classical-blood-sampling-versus-image-derived-analysis-of-18f-faza-and-18f-fdg-in-a-murine-tumor-bearing-model
#3
Hans-Soenke Jans, Xiao-Hong Yang, Dion R Brocks, Piyush Kumar, Melinda Wuest, Leonard I Wiebe
PURPOSE: Pharmacokinetic (PK) data are generally derived from blood samples withdrawn serially over a defined period after dosing. In small animals, blood sampling after dosing presents technical difficulties, particularly when short time intervals and frequent sampling are required. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive functional imaging technique that can provide semi-quantitative temporal data for defined volume regions of interest (vROI), to support kinetic analyses in blood and other tissues...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688951/prediction-of-normal-organ-absorbed-doses-for-177lu-lu-psma-617-using-44sc-sc-psma-617-pharmacokinetics-in-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-carcinoma
#4
Ambreen Khawar, Elisabeth Eppard, Jean Phlippe Sinnes, Frank Roesch, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Stefan Kürpig, Michael Meisenheimer, Florian C Gaertner, Markus Essler, Ralph A Bundschuh
In vivo pharmacokinetic analysis of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 was used to determine the normal organ-absorbed doses that may result from therapeutic activity of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 and to predict the maximum permissible activity of [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma. METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 was evaluated in 5 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma using dynamic PET/CT, followed by 3 static PET/CT acquisitions and blood sample collection over 19...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685217/isolation-and-characterization-of-pathogenic-leptospires-associated-with-cattle
#5
Jarlath E Nally, Richard L Hornsby, David P Alt, Darrell Bayles, Jennifer H Wilson-Welder, Debra E Palmquist, Nathan E Bauer
Pathogenic leptospires colonize the renal tubules of reservoir hosts of infection, including cattle, and are excreted via urine. In order to identify circulating serovars of pathogenic leptospires in beef cattle, and their associated rates of urinary excretion, a cross sectional study was performed. Fifty urine samples were collected one day each month over 12 consecutive months (N = 600), directly from the bladder of beef cattle at a single slaughter facility and assessed for the presence of leptospires by culture and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT)...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643670/role-of-early-dynamic-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-with-68ga-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-hbed-cc-in-patients-with-adenocarcinoma-prostate-initial-results
#6
Gazala Perveen, Geetanjali Arora, Nishikant Avinash Damle, Meghana Prabhu, Saurabh Arora, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar Bal, Praveen Kumar, Rajeev Kumar, Prabhjot Singh
Rationale: Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PSMA PET/CT) is widely used for imaging of prostate cancer (PC) nowadays. However, appearance of bladder activity many a times hampers lesion detection vis-a-vis primary as well as regional nodes. We aimed to assess if early dynamic PET/CT can be a potential solution to this issue. Methodology: A total of 15 biopsy-proven PC patients who were referred to our department for 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT for staging/restaging were prospectively studied...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643541/-preparation-quality-control-and-thyroid-molecule-imaging-of-solid-target-based-radionuclide-ioine-124
#7
H Zhu, F Wang, X Y Guo, L Q Li, D B Duan, Z B Liu, Z Yang
OBJECTIVE: To provide useful information for the further production and application of this novel radio-nuclide for potential clinical application. METHODS: 124 Te (p,n) 124 I nuclide reaction was used for the 124 I production. Firstly, the target material, 124 TeO2 (200 mg) and Al2O3 (30 mg) mixture, were compressed into the round platinum based solid target by tablet device. HM-20 medical cyclotron was applied to irradiate the solid target slice for 6-10 h with helium and water cooling...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618376/pseudoprogression-manifesting-as-recurrent-ascites-with-anti-pd-1-immunotherapy-in-urothelial-bladder-cancer
#8
Randy F Sweis, Yuanyuan Zha, Lomax Pass, Brian Heiss, Tara Chongsuwat, Jason J Luke, Thomas F Gajewski, Russell Szmulewitz
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 checkpoint pathway have recently gained regulatory approval in numerous cancer types. With the widespread use of immune checkpoint therapies, varying patterns of responses and immune-related adverse events are being observed. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case, we highlight a patient who developed recurrent, large-volume ascites, while simultaneously having a 49% reduction in peritoneal tumor lesion size by RECIST criteria...
April 4, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602840/vitamin-d-obesity-and-leptin-in-relation-to-bladder-cancer-incidence-and-survival-prospective-protocol-study
#9
Randi Elin Gislefoss, Jo Steinson Stenehjem, Helga Helseth Hektoen, Bettina Kulle Andreassen, Hilde Langseth, Karol Axcrona, Elisabete Weiderpass, Alison Mondul, Trude Eid Robsahm
INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer (BC) (including renal pelvis, ureter and urethra) is one of the most common urogenital cancers and the fourth most frequent cancer in men in the USA. In Norway, the incidence of BC has increased over the last decades. The age-standardised incidence rates per 100 000 for 2011-2015 were 53.7 in men and 16.5 in women. Compared to the 5-year period 2006-2010, the percentage increase in incidence was 6.1% in men and 12.3% in women. The recurrence rate of BC is over 50%, the highest recurrence rate of any malignancy...
March 30, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599449/implications-of-tert-promoter-mutations-and-telomerase-activity-in-urothelial-carcinogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Cagatay Günes, Felix Wezel, Jennifer Southgate, Christian Bolenz
Telomerase activity imparts eukaryotic cells with unlimited proliferation capacity, one of the cancer hallmarks. Over 90% of human urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) tumours are positive for telomerase activity. Telomerase activation can occur through several mechanisms. Mutations in the core promoter region of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) cause telomerase reactivation in 60-80% of UCBs, whereas the prevalence of these mutations is lower in urothelial cancers of other origins...
March 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553950/the-emerging-role-of-immunotherapy-in-advanced-urothelial-cancers
#11
William Tabayoyong, Jianjun Gao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of five new immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer represents the first major treatment breakthrough for this disease since the introduction of combination chemotherapy over 30 years ago. This review examines the recent clinical trials leading to FDA approval of these agents, the current challenges facing immunotherapy and areas that require further research. RECENT FINDINGS: The programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are important negative regulators of immune activity, preventing destruction of normal tissues and autoimmunity...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545038/preclinical-animal-studies-of-intravesical-recombinant-human-proteoglycan-4-as-a-novel-potential-therapy-for-diseases-resulting-from-increased-bladder-permeability
#12
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Ehsan Mohammadi, Rocco Latorre, Edward R Truitt, Gregory D Jay, Benjamin D Sullivan, Tannin A Schmidt, Nataliya Smith, Debra Saunders, Jadith Ziegler, Megan Lerner, Robert Hurst, Rheal A Towner
OBJECTIVE: To test in an animal model the hypothesis that recombinant human proteoglycan 4 (rhPRG4; lubricin), a highly O-glycosylated mucin-like glycoprotein, may be a novel surface-active therapeutic for treating bladder permeability with comorbid bowel permeability. Previously we showed that inducing bladder permeability in rats with dilute protamine sulfate (PS) produced colonic permeability and visceral hypersensitivity, suggesting increased bladder permeability could represent an etiologic factor in both interstitial cystitis-bladder pain syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome...
March 12, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541812/-18-f-psma-1007-pet-ct-at-60-and-120-minutes-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-biodistribution-tumour-detection-and-activity-kinetics
#13
Kambiz Rahbar, Ali Afshar-Oromieh, Martin Bögemann, Stefan Wagner, Michael Schäfers, Lars Stegger, Matthias Weckesser
PURPOSE: PSMA-targeted PET in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) has a significant impact on treatment decisions. By far the most frequently used PSMA ligand is 68 Ga-labelled PSMA-11. However, due to the availability of larger amounts of activity, 18 F-labelled PSMA ligands are of major interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biodistribution and performance of the novel 18 F-labelled ligand PSMA-1007 at two different time points. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 40 consecutive patients (mean age 68...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485430/-44sc-sc-psma-617-biodistribution-and-dosimetry-in-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-carcinoma
#14
Ambreen Khawar, Elisabeth Eppard, Jean Phlippe Sinnes, Frank Roesch, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar, Stefan Kürpig, Michael Meisenheimer, Florian C Gaertner, Markus Essler, Ralph A Bundschuh
AIM: [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 with 3.9-hour half-life, in vitro and in vivo characteristics similar to [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 and possibility of delayed imaging after 24 hours or later, implies it to be advantageous than [ Ga]Ga-PSMA-617 for pretherapeutic dosimetric assessment for [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 in metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (mCRPC) patients. In this study, we investigated biodistribution and radiation exposure to normal organs with [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 in mCRPC patients. METHODS: Five mCRPC patients (mean age, 69 years) enrolled for [Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 therapy were injected with 40-62 MBq [Sc]Sc-PSMA-617 intravenously; Siemens Biograph 2 PET/CT system was used to acquire dynamic PET data (30 minutes) in list mode over the abdomen, followed by the collection of static PET/CT images (skull to mid-thigh) at 45 minutes, 2 and approximately 20 hours postinjection...
May 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464320/comparative-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-interstitial-cells-in-the-urinary-bladder-of-human-guinea-pig-and-pig
#15
Clara Steiner, Thomas Gevaert, Roman Ganzer, Dirk De Ridder, Jochen Neuhaus
Interstitial cells (ICs) are thought to play a functional role in urinary bladder. Animal models are commonly used to elucidate bladder physiology and pathophysiology. However, inter-species comparative studies on ICs are rare. We therefore analyzed ICs and their distribution in the upper lamina propria (ULP), the deeper lamina propria (DLP) and the detrusor muscular layer (DET) of human, guinea pig (GP) and pig. Paraffin slices were examined by immunohistochemistry and 3D confocal immunofluorescence of the mesenchymal intermediate filament vimentin (VIM), alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) and transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1)...
February 20, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440213/does-industry-sponsored-education-foster-overdiagnosis-and-overtreatment-of-depression-osteoporosis-and-over-active-bladder-syndrome-an-australian-cohort-study
#16
Barbara Mintzes, Swestika Swandari, Alice Fabbri, Quinn Grundy, Ray Moynihan, Lisa Bero
OBJECTIVES: To investigate patterns of industry-sponsored educational events that focus on specific health conditions for which there are concerns about overdiagnosis and overtreatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective cohort study examines publicly reported industry-sponsored events in Australia from October 2011 to September 2015 for three conditions potentially subject to overdiagnosis and overtreatment: depression, osteoporosis and overactive bladder. We used a database of transparency reports to identify events with a focus on depression, osteoporosis and overactive bladder and compared these with other sponsored events...
February 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422117/inhibition-of-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-3b-suppresses-cells-proliferation-and-promotes-cells-apoptosis-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#17
Laiquan Huang, Kun He, Jianxin Wang, Jiawei Yan, Yizhi Jiang, Zhongling Wei, Jun Zhang, Guangxi Li, Dongping Huang
Eukaryotic translation initiation factors 3B (eIF3b) is a subtype of the eIF3 category, which has been verified to be over-expressed in colon cancer, bladder, prostate cancers and glioblastoma due to its impact on the cellular activity of cancer cells. However, no related research on exploring the correlation of eIF3b gene expression with cell proliferation and apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has been conducted until now. Our study showed that the expression of eIF3b mRNA in CML patients was higher compared with nonmalignancy controls...
February 8, 2018: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379662/a-comparison-of-normal-and-high-post-void-residual-urine-and-urodynamic-parameters-in-women-with-overactive-bladder
#18
Hediye Dağdeviren, Hüseyin Cengiz, Çağlar Helvacıoğlu, Ulkar Heydarova, Cihan Kaya, Murat Ekin
Objective: To investigate voiding functions and assess the relationships of voiding parameters to overactive bladder symptoms and postvoiding residue volumes. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study analyzing urodynamic parameters in patients who were diagnosed as having overactive in our urogynecology clinic between April 2014 and April 2016. A total of 290 women who met the selection criteria were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to postvoiding residue volumes: group 1, postvoiding residue volumes <100 mL (n=135); group 2, postvoiding residue volumes ≥100 mL (n=155)...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366513/vibegron-a-novel-potent-and-selective-%C3%AE-3-adrenoreceptor-agonist-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-overactive-bladder-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-study
#19
Masaki Yoshida, Masayuki Takeda, Momokazu Gotoh, Shinji Nagai, Takafumi Kurose
BACKGROUND: Vibegron is a novel, potent, and selective β3 -adrenoreceptor agonist for the treatment of patients with overactive bladder (OAB). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of vibegron versus placebo in Japanese OAB patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with OAB entered a 2-wk placebo run-in phase. Once eligibility (≥8 micturition/d and either ≥1 urgency episodes/d or ≥1 urgency incontinence episodes/d) was confirmed, patients entered a 12-wk double-blind treatment phase...
May 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361664/noninvasive-neurophysiological-mapping-of-the-lower-urinary-tract-in-adult-and-aging-rhesus-macaques
#20
Parag N Gad, Nelly Kokikian, Kari L Christe, V Reggie Edgerton, Leif A Havton
The lower urinary tract (LUT) may be activated by spinal cord stimulation, but the physiological mapping characteristics of LUT activation with noninvasive transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (TSCS) are not known. The effects of aging on the contractile properties of the detrusor are also not well understood. Therefore, TSCS was applied over the T10 /T11 to L6 /L7 spinous processes in adult ( n = 6) and aged ( n = 9) female rhesus macaques. A combination of urodynamic studies and electromyography recordings of the external urethral sphincter (EUS), external anal sphincter (EAS), and pelvic floor muscles was performed...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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