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Occipital lobe function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079396/does-brain-creatine-content-rely-on-exogenous-creatine-in-healthy-youth-a-proof-of-principle-study
#1
Carlos Alberto Abujabra Merege-Filho, Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy, Ana Lúcia de Sá-Pinto, Maira Okada de Oliveira, Lívia de Souza Gonçalves, Ana Paula Tanaka Hayashi, Hamilton Roschel, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Clovis Artur Silva, Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki, Claudia da Costa Leite, Bruno Gualano
It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests...
October 5, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072804/multidisciplinary-care-of-unruptured-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-to-improve-symptomatic-headache-and-the-onset-progression-and-outcomes-of-unruptured-brain-arteriovenous-malformations
#2
Ling-Feng Lai, Min Chen, Jia-Xiang Chen, Kuang Zheng, Xu-Ying He, Xi-Feng Li, Xin Zhang, Jian Yin, Qiu-Jing Wang, Tuan-Ming Zou, Chuan-Zhi Duan
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic headaches attributed to unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ubAVMs) are very common and affect patients' quality life, but multidisciplinary care of ubAVMs to improve symptomatic headache remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to identify the features of symptomatic headaches, and to obtain headache outcomes following multidisciplinary care of ubAVMs, as well as provide background on the natural history of ubAVMs. STUDY DESIGN: The features of symptomatic headaches and headache outcomes were analyzed in a large cohort of cases after multidisciplinary care of ubAVMs...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067298/widespread-temporo-occipital-lobe-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
Kristian Loewe, Judith Machts, Jörn Kaufmann, Susanne Petri, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Christian Borgelt, Joseph Allen Harris, Stefan Vielhaber, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
Recent studies suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lie on a single clinical continuum. However, previous neuroimaging studies have found only limited involvement of temporal lobe regions in ALS. To better delineate possible temporal lobe involvement in ALS, the present study aimed to examine changes in functional connectivity across the whole brain, particularly with regard to extra-motor regions, in a group of 64 non-demented ALS patients and 38 healthy controls...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066709/alterations-of-white-matter-structural-networks-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-identified-by-probabilistic-tractography-and-connectivity-based-analyses
#4
Man Xu, Xiangliang Tan, Xinyuan Zhang, Yihao Guo, Yingjie Mei, Qianjin Feng, Yikai Xu, Yanqiu Feng
PURPOSE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory female-predominant autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system and exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In SLE patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE), recent diffusion tensor imaging studies showed white matter abnormalities in their brains. The present study investigated the entire brain white matter structural connectivity in non-NPSLE patients by using probabilistic tractography and connectivity-based analyses...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054126/longitudinal-multi-modal-neuroimaging-in-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome
#5
Sun-Young Oh, Rainer Boegle, Peter Zu Eulenburg, Matthias Ertl, Ji-Soo Kim, Marianne Dieterich
To investigate structural, metabolic, and functional connectivity changes in visual and oculomotor structures in a patient with paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, serial resting-state functional and structural MRI, and FDG-PET data were collected during the acute stage and later on when the opsoclonus had resolved. In the acute stage, an FDG-PET scan demonstrated a substantially increased metabolism in structures around the deep cerebellar nuclei [e.g., fastigial nucleus (FN)] and a relatively reduced metabolism in the bilateral occipital lobes which normalized over 12 months...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048305/su-f-j-139-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-alff-and-regional-homogeneity-reho-study-of-the-respiration-motion-control-byhypnosis
#6
Y Liu, R Li, Y Xie
PURPOSE: Respiration control by hypnosis is a method in reducing the detriment to the healthy organs or organizations for patients during radiotherapy, especially for lung and abdomen cancer (Fig.1). It's hypothesized that there exists alterations neurological brain activity during the hypnosis state of respiratory motion control in comparison with resting state. METHODS: Thirteen healthy volunteers were organized to participate in a hypnosis experiment that consisted of two sectional scans of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rest state condition (RSC) scanning and hypnosis state condition (HSC) scanning...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046076/visual-imagery-and-false-memory-for-pictures-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-in-healthy-participants
#7
Christian Stephan-Otto, Sara Siddi, Carl Senior, Daniel Muñoz-Samons, Susana Ochoa, Ana María Sánchez-Laforga, Gildas Brébion
BACKGROUND: Visual mental imagery might be critical in the ability to discriminate imagined from perceived pictures. Our aim was to investigate the neural bases of this specific type of reality-monitoring process in individuals with high visual imagery abilities. METHODS: A reality-monitoring task was administered to twenty-six healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the encoding phase, 45 words designating common items, and 45 pictures of other common items, were presented in random order...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041652/abnormal-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-type-2-diabetic-retinopathy-revealed-by-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Z-L Wang, L Zou, Z-W Lu, X-Q Xie, Z-Z Jia, C-J Pan, G-X Zhang, X-M Ge
AIM: To explore the altered spontaneous cerebral activity patterns and impaired functional regions in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) based on the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) algorithm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with DR (mean age, 54.9±9.9 years; 11 females) and 17 healthy control subjects (54.8±5.7 years; 9 females) were prospectively studied. The DR patients underwent laboratory tests...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012401/using-fnirs-to-examine-occipital-and-temporal-responses-to-stimulus-repetition-in-young-infants-evidence-of-selective-frontal-cortex-involvement
#9
Lauren L Emberson, Grace Cannon, Holly Palmeri, John E Richards, Richard N Aslin
How does the developing brain respond to recent experience? Repetition suppression (RS) is a robust and well-characterized response of to recent experience found, predominantly, in the perceptual cortices of the adult brain. We use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate how perceptual (temporal and occipital) and frontal cortices in the infant brain respond to auditory and visual stimulus repetitions (spoken words and faces). In Experiment 1, we find strong evidence of repetition suppression in the frontal cortex but only for auditory stimuli...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999530/disturbed-interhemispheric-functional-connectivity-rather-than-structural-connectivity-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
Rongfeng Qi, Chang Liu, Yifei Weng, Qiang Xu, Liya Chen, Fangyu Wang, Long J Zhang, Guang M Lu
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-a relapsing functional bowel disorder-presents with disrupted brain connections. However, little is known about the alterations of interhemispheric functional connectivity and underlying structural connectivity in IBS. This study combined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate changes in interhemispheric coordination in IBS patients. Resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from 65 IBS patients and 67 healthy controls (HCs; matched for age, sex and educational level)...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989909/altered-regional-homogeneity-of-brain-spontaneous-signals-in-siv-infected-rhesus-macaque-model
#11
Jing Zhao, Bin Jing, Feng Chen, Jiaojiao Liu, Yuanyuan Wang, Hongjun Li
BACKGROUND: Regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measurement from resting-state functional magnetic imaging (rs-fMRI) to reflect local synchronization of brain activities, has been widely explored in previous studies of neurological diseases. SIV infected model for detecting the neurological changes with progression was studied. METHODS: In the study, six rhesus macaques infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were scanned by resting-state fMRI at the following time points: before SIV inoculation (baseline), 12weeks and 24weeks post inoculation (12wpi, 24wpi)...
October 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989553/cerebrovascular-function-in-presymptomatic-and-symptomatic-individuals-with-hereditary-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-a-case-control-study
#12
Anna M van Opstal, Sanneke van Rooden, Thijs van Harten, Eidrees Ghariq, Gerda Labadie, Panagiotis Fotiadis, M Edip Gurol, Gisela M Terwindt, Marieke J H Wermer, Mark A van Buchem, Steven M Greenberg, Jeroen van der Grond
BACKGROUND: Previous work suggests that impairments of cerebrovascular flow or reactivity might be early markers of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D) is a genetic form of CAA that can be diagnosed before the onset of clinical symptoms by DNA testing. We aimed to investigate whether haemodynamic measures are decreased in presymptomatic and symptomatic HCHWA-D mutation carriers compared with healthy controls. METHODS: In this case-control study, we included presymptomatic and symptomatic HCHWA-D mutation carriers diagnosed through genetic testing and recruited through the HCHWA-D patient association (Katwijk, Netherlands) and the outpatient clinic of the Department of Neurology of the Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, Netherlands), and healthy controls...
December 15, 2016: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986609/the-neural-circuits-for-arithmetic-principles
#13
Jie Liu, Han Zhang, Chuansheng Chen, Hui Chen, Jiaxin Cui, Xinlin Zhou
Arithmetic principles are the regularities underlying arithmetic computation. Little is known about how the brain supports the processing of arithmetic principles. The current fMRI study examined neural activation and functional connectivity during the processing of verbalized arithmetic principles, as compared to numerical computation and general language processing. As expected, arithmetic principles elicited stronger activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus than did language processing, and stronger activation in left middle temporal lobe and left orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus than did computation...
December 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932974/patterns-of-longitudinal-neural-activity-linked-to-different-cognitive-profiles-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Atsuko Nagano-Saito, Mohamed S Al-Azzawi, Alexandru Hanganu, Clotilde Degroot, Béatriz Mejia-Constain, Christophe Bedetti, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Valérie Soland, Sylvain Chouinard, Oury Monchi
Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked with functional brain changes. Previously, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we reported reduced cortico-striatal activity in patients with PD who also had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) vs. those who did not (non-MCI). We followed up these patients to investigate the longitudinal effect on the neural activity. Twenty-four non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (non-MCI: 12, MCI: 12) were included in the study. Each participant underwent two fMRIs while performing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task 20 months apart...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911950/a-specialized-multi-transmit-head-coil-for-high-resolution-fmri-of-the-human-visual-cortex-at-7t
#15
Shubharthi Sengupta, Alard Roebroeck, Valentin G Kemper, Benedikt A Poser, Jan Zimmermann, Rainer Goebel, Gregor Adriany
PURPOSE: To design, construct and validate radiofrequency (RF) transmit and receive phased array coils for high-resolution visual cortex imaging at 7 Tesla. METHODS: A 4 channel transmit and 16 channel receive array was constructed on a conformal polycarbonate former. Transmit field efficiency and homogeneity were simulated and validated, along with the Specific Absorption Rate, using [Formula: see text] mapping techniques and electromagnetic simulations. Receiver signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), temporal SNR (tSNR) across EPI time series, g-factors for accelerated imaging and noise correlations were evaluated and compared with a commercial 32 channel whole head coil...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910866/biomechanical-analysis-of-normal-brain-development-during-the-first-year-of-life-using-finite-strain-theory
#16
Jeong Chul Kim, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen, Weili Lin
The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899123/a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-investigation-of-visual-hallucinations-in-the-human-striate-cortex
#17
Hina Abid, Fayyaz Ahmad, Soo Y Lee, Hyun W Park, Dongmi Im, Iftikhar Ahmad, Safee U Chaudhary
PURPOSE: Human beings frequently experience fear, phobia, migraine and hallucinations, however, the cerebral mechanisms underpinning these conditions remain poorly understood. Towards this goal, in this work, we aim to correlate the human ocular perceptions with visual hallucinations, and map them to their cerebral origins. METHODS: An fMRI study was performed to examine the visual cortical areas including the striate, parastriate and peristriate cortex in the occipital lobe of the human brain...
November 29, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878764/the-involvement-of-supratentorial-white-matter-in-multiple-system-atrophy-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-study
#18
Po-Shan Wang, Chien-Li Yeh, Chia-Feng Lu, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Bing-Wen Soong, Yu-Te Wu
It has been assumed that cognitive disorder and visual-spatial disturbance in multiple system atrophy of the predominantly cerebellar type (MSA-C) are attributable to degradation of cerebellar function. The purpose of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to determine if patients with MSA-C characterized in part by visual-spatial disorders and cognitive disorders have changes of the structural connectivity network of nerve fibers, and to further describe the structural connectivity network...
November 23, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873557/face-processing-in-adolescents-with-positive-and-negative-threat-bias
#19
C M Sylvester, S E Petersen, J L Luby, D M Barch
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anxiety disorders exhibit a 'vigilance-avoidance' pattern of attention to threatening stimuli when threatening and neutral stimuli are presented simultaneously, a phenomenon referred to as 'threat bias'. Modifying threat bias through cognitive retraining during adolescence reduces symptoms of anxiety, and so elucidating neural mechanisms of threat bias during adolescence is of high importance. We explored neural mechanisms by testing whether threat bias in adolescents is associated with generalized or threat-specific differences in the neural processing of faces...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871435/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-subthalamic-nucleus-in-different-parkinson-s-disease-phenotypes
#20
Zhan Wang, Huimin Chen, Huizi Ma, Lingyan Ma, Tao Wu, Tao Feng
Previous studies showed that the subthalamic nucleus (STN) plays a crucial role in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology. During rest, PD phenotypes exhibit different STN functional connectivity. STN functional connectivity was examined in 31 PD patients [12 tremor-dominant (TD) and 19 posture instability gait difficulty (PIGD)] and 22 healthy controls (HC). Compared with controls and PIGD patients, the TD patients exhibited higher functional connectivity between the bilateral STN and the left cerebellar anterior lobe...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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