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Occipital lobe function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213120/a-cross-validated-cytoarchitectonic-atlas-of-the-human-ventral-visual-stream
#1
M Rosenke, K S Weiner, M A Barnett, K Zilles, K Amunts, R Goebel, K Grill-Spector
The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212570/altered-amygdala-and-hippocampus-effective-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-with-depression-a-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-study-with-granger-causality-analysis
#2
Li Juan Zheng, Gui Fen Yang, Xin Yuan Zhang, Yun Fei Wang, Ya Liu, Gang Zheng, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang, Ying Han
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the major depression disorder would increase the risk of dementia in the older with amnestic cognitive impairment. We used granger causality analysis algorithm to explore the amygdala- and hippocampus-based directional connectivity patterns in 12 patients with major depression disorder and amnestic cognitive impairment (mean age: 69.5 ± 10.3 years), 13 amnestic cognitive impairment patients (mean age: 72.7 ± 8.5 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age: 64.7 ± 7...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202133/toddlers-later-diagnosed-with-autism-exhibit-multiple-structural-abnormalities-in-temporal-corpus-callosum-fibers
#3
Noa Fingher, Ilan Dinstein, Michal Ben-Shachar, Shlomi Haar, Anders M Dale, Lisa Eyler, Karen Pierce, Eric Courchesne
Interhemispheric functional connectivity abnormalities are often reported in autism and it is thus not surprising that structural defects of the corpus callosum (CC) are consistently found using both traditional MRI and DTI techniques. Past DTI studies however, have subdivided the CC into 2 or 3 segments without regard for where fibers may project to within the cortex, thus placing limitations on our ability to understand the nature, timing and neurobehavioral impact of early CC abnormalities in autism. Leveraging a unique cohort of 97 toddlers (68 autism; 29 typical) we utilized a novel technique that identified seven CC tracts according to their cortical projections...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180083/lateralized-occipital-degeneration-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-predicts-visual-field-deficits
#4
Rebecca S Millington, Merle James-Galton, Mari N Maia Da Silva, Gordon T Plant, Holly Bridge
BACKGROUND: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), the visual variant of Alzheimer's disease, leads to high-level visual deficits such as alexia or agnosia. Visual field deficits have also been identified, but often inconsistently reported. Little is known about the pattern of visual field deficits or the underlying cortical changes leading to this visual loss. METHODS: Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate differences in gray matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure and functional activity in patients with PCA compared to age-matched controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179560/specific-lobar-affection-reveals-a-rostrocaudal-gradient-in-functional-outcome-in-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#5
Stefan T Gerner, Joji B Kuramatsu, Sebastian Moeller, Angelika Huber, Hannes Lücking, Stephan P Kloska, Dominik Madžar, Jochen A Sembill, Stefan Schwab, Hagen B Huttner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several studies have reported a better functional outcome in lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) compared with deep location. However, among lobar ICH, a correlation of hemorrhage site-involving the specific lobes-with functional outcome has not been established. METHODS: Conservatively treated patients with supratentorial ICH, admitted to our hospital over a 5-year period (2008-2012), were retrospectively analyzed. Lobar patients were classified as isolated or overlapping ICH according to affected lobes...
February 8, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173729/structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-children-with-adhd-a-focus-on-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#6
Chenyang Zhan, Yuhong Liu, Kai Wu, Yu Gao, Xiaobo Li
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of both, is a major public health problem. Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations of these cognitive impairments with structural and functional deficits all over the brain. Existing findings are not fully consistent due to the heterogeneity of study samples and diversity of research techniques. In the current study, we propose to utilize a multi-modal MRI approach to study the structural and functional brain networks in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) with a focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)...
February 7, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163060/an-insight-into-the-vision-impairment-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Nilkantha Sen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality and it affects more than 1.7 million Americans each year. Depending on its location and severity, TBI leads to structural and functional damage in several parts of the brain such as cranial nerves, optic nerve tract or other circuitry involved in vision, and occipital lobe. As a result, the function associated with vision processing and perception are significantly affected and cause blurred vision, double vision, decreased peripheral vision and blindness...
February 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161030/brain-behavior-relationships-in-source-memory-effects-of-age-and-memory-ability
#8
Liesel-Ann Meusel, Cheryl L Grady, Patricia E Ebert, Nicole D Anderson
There is considerable evidence for age-related decrements in source memory retrieval, but the literature on the neural correlates of these impairments is mixed. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine source memory retrieval-related brain activity, and the monotonic relationship between retrieval-related brain activity and source memory accuracy, as a function of both healthy aging (younger vs older) and memory ability within the older adult group (Hi-Old vs Lo-Old). Participants studied lists of word pairs, half visually, half aurally; these were re-presented visually in a scanned test phase and participants indicated if the pair was 'seen' or 'heard' in the study phase...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139055/associations-between-neurodevelopmental-genes-neuroanatomy-and-ultra-high-risk-symptoms-of-psychosis-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#9
Carlie A Thompson, Jason Karelis, Frank A Middleton, Karen Gentile, Ioana L Coman, Petya D Radoeva, Rashi Mehta, Wanda P Fremont, Kevin M Antshel, Stephen V Faraone, Wendy R Kates
22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder resulting in the deletion of over 40 genes. Up to 40% of individuals with 22q11.2DS develop schizophrenia, though little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that allelic variation in functional polymorphisms in seven genes unique to the deleted region would affect lobar brain volumes, which would predict risk for psychosis in youth with 22q11.2DS. Participants included 56 individuals (30 males) with 22q11.2DS. Anatomic MR images were collected and processed using Freesurfer...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128987/preliminary-report-on-neuroanatomical-differences-among-reading-disabled-nonverbally-gifted-and-gifted-reading-disabled-college-students
#10
Jeffrey W Gilger, Mollie Bayda, Olumide A Olulade, Meaghan N Altman, Michael O'Boyle
Regional comparisons (cortical surface area and thickness) were performed on a well described sample of adults with reading disability alone (RD), nonverbal giftedness alone (G), and reading disability and nonverbal giftedness combined (GRD). These anatomical results are considered in relation to behavioral and functional work previously reported on this sample. GRD-RD regional differences were found in both hemispheres and were more common than GRD-G differences. Regional differences were found in the temporal, parietal, occipital and frontal lobes...
January 27, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127513/preliminary-fmri-findings-concerning-the-influence-of-5-htp-on-food-selection
#11
Stephanos Ioannou, Adrian L Williams
OBJECTIVE: This functional magnetic resonance imaging study was designed to observe how physiological brain states can alter food preferences. A primary goal was to observe food-sensitive regions and moreover examine whether 5-HTP intake would activate areas which have been associated with appetite suppression, anorexia, satiety, and weight loss. METHODS AND PROCEDURE: Fourteen healthy male and female participants took part in the study, of which half of them received the supplement 5-HTP and the rest vitamin C (control) on an empty stomach...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126471/decreased-functional-connectivity-between-the-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-lingual-gyrus-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-with-depression
#12
Xiaozheng Liu, Wei Chen, Hongtao Hou, Xingli Chen, Jiangtao Zhang, Jian Liu, Zhongwei Guo, Guanghui Bai
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), occurring in up to 40% of AD patients. It influences the cognitive function of patients and increases the burden on their caregivers. Currently, there are few effective medical treatments for reducing the symptoms of depression in AD patients. Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms in AD patients with depression (D-AD) is crucial for developing effective interventions. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is an important brain region involved in emotional and cognitive processing...
January 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123951/large-scale-cortico-subcortical-functional-networks-in-focal-epilepsies-the-role-of-the-basal-ganglia
#13
Eva Výtvarová, Radek Mareček, Jan Fousek, Ondřej Strýček, Ivan Rektor
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe the contribution of basal ganglia (BG) thalamo-cortical circuitry to the whole-brain functional connectivity in focal epilepsies. METHODS: Interictal resting-state fMRI recordings were acquired in 46 persons with focal epilepsies. Of these 46, 22 had temporal lobe epilepsy: 9 left temporal (LTLE), 13 right temporal (RTLE); 15 had frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE); and 9 had parietal/occipital lobe epilepsy (POLE). There were 20 healthy controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116563/frequency-dependent-changes-in-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-patients-with-wilson-s-disease-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#14
Xiaopeng Hu, Siyi Chen, Chang-Bing Huang, Yinfeng Qian, Yongqiang Yu
To investigate the frequency-dependent changes in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in patients with Wilson's disease (WD). Resting-state function magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) were employed to measure the amplitude of ALFF in 28 patients with WD and 27 matched normal controls. Slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) and slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) frequency bands were analyzed. Apart from the observation of atrophy in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, occipital gyrus, frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and paracentral lobule, we also found widespread differences in ALFF of the two bands in the medial frontal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, basal ganglia, hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus bilaterally...
January 24, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113671/cortical-dynamic-causality-network-for-auditory-motor-tasks
#15
Tiejun Liu, Fali Li, Yi Jiang, Tao Zhang, Fei Wang, Diankun Gong, Peiyang Li, Teng Ma, Kan Qiu, He Li, Dezhong Yao, Peng Xu
Motor preparation and execution require the interactions of a large-scale brain network, while the study of the dynamic changes of their interactions could uncover the underlying neural mechanism of the corresponding information processing. This dynamic analysis requires high temporal resolution of the recorded signals. Electroencephalogram (EEG) with high temporal resolution has been widely used in related studies. However, studies based on scalp EEG always lead to distorted results, due to scalp volume conduction, compared with that of cortically recorded signals...
September 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088450/assessment-of-ganglioside-age-related-and-topographic-specificity-in-human-brain-by-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#16
Mirela Sarbu, Liana Dehelean, Cristian V A Munteanu, Željka Vukelić, Alina D Zamfir
The gangliosides (GGs) of the central nervous system (CNS) exhibit age and topographic specificity and these patterns may correlate with the functions and pathologies of the brain regions. Here, chloroform extraction, nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) negative ionization, together with Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) determined the topographic and age-related GG specificity in normal adult human brain. Mapping of GG mixtures extracted from 20 to 82 year old frontal and occipital lobes revealed besides a decrease in the GG number with age, a variability of sialylation degree within the brain regions...
January 11, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079396/does-brain-creatine-content-rely-on-exogenous-creatine-in-healthy-youth-a-proof-of-principle-study
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Carlos Alberto Abujabra Merege-Filho, Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy, Ana Lúcia de Sá-Pinto, Maira Okada de Oliveira, Lívia de Souza Gonçalves, Ana Paula Tanaka Hayashi, Hamilton Roschel, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Clovis Artur Silva, Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki, Claudia da Costa Leite, Bruno Gualano
It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests...
February 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072804/multidisciplinary-care-of-unruptured-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-to-improve-symptomatic-headache-and-the-onset-progression-and-outcomes-of-unruptured-brain-arteriovenous-malformations
#18
Ling-Feng Lai, Min Chen, Jia-Xiang Chen, Kuang Zheng, Xu-Ying He, Xi-Feng Li, Xin Zhang, Jian Yin, Qiu-Jing Wang, Tuan-Ming Zou, Chuan-Zhi Duan
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic headaches attributed to unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ubAVMs) are very common and affect patients' quality life, but multidisciplinary care of ubAVMs to improve symptomatic headache remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to identify the features of symptomatic headaches, and to obtain headache outcomes following multidisciplinary care of ubAVMs, as well as provide background on the natural history of ubAVMs. STUDY DESIGN: The features of symptomatic headaches and headache outcomes were analyzed in a large cohort of cases after multidisciplinary care of ubAVMs...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067298/widespread-temporo-occipital-lobe-dysfunction-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Kristian Loewe, Judith Machts, Jörn Kaufmann, Susanne Petri, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Christian Borgelt, Joseph Allen Harris, Stefan Vielhaber, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
Recent studies suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lie on a single clinical continuum. However, previous neuroimaging studies have found only limited involvement of temporal lobe regions in ALS. To better delineate possible temporal lobe involvement in ALS, the present study aimed to examine changes in functional connectivity across the whole brain, particularly with regard to extra-motor regions, in a group of 64 non-demented ALS patients and 38 healthy controls...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066709/alterations-of-white-matter-structural-networks-in-patients-with-non-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-identified-by-probabilistic-tractography-and-connectivity-based-analyses
#20
Man Xu, Xiangliang Tan, Xinyuan Zhang, Yihao Guo, Yingjie Mei, Qianjin Feng, Yikai Xu, Yanqiu Feng
PURPOSE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory female-predominant autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system and exhibit neuropsychiatric symptoms. In SLE patients without neuropsychiatric symptoms (non-NPSLE), recent diffusion tensor imaging studies showed white matter abnormalities in their brains. The present study investigated the entire brain white matter structural connectivity in non-NPSLE patients by using probabilistic tractography and connectivity-based analyses...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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