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Occipital lobe function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#1
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626967/strategy-over-operation-neural-activation-in-subtraction-and-multiplication-during-fact-retrieval-and-procedural-strategy-use-in-children
#2
Brecht Polspoel, Lien Peters, Maaike Vandermosten, Bert De Smedt
Arithmetic development is characterized by strategy shifts between procedural strategy use and fact retrieval. This study is the first to explicitly investigate children's neural activation associated with the use of these different strategies. Participants were 26 typically developing 4th graders (9- to 10-year-olds), who, in a behavioral session, were asked to verbally report on a trial-by-trial basis how they had solved 100 subtraction and multiplication items. These items were subsequently presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624681/semantic-word-category-processing-in-semantic-dementia-and-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#3
Zubaida Shebani, Karalyn Patterson, Peter J Nestor, Lara Z Diaz-de-Grenu, Kate Dawson, Friedemann Pulvermüller
There is general agreement that perisylvian language cortex plays a major role in lexical and semantic processing; but the contribution of additional, more widespread, brain areas in the processing of different semantic word categories remains controversial. We investigated word processing in two groups of patients whose neurodegenerative diseases preferentially affect specific parts of the brain, to determine whether their performance would vary as a function of semantic categories proposed to recruit those brain regions...
April 29, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594884/correlation-between-white-matter-microstructure-and-executive-functions-suggests-early-developmental-influence-on-long-fibre-tracts-in-preterm-born-adolescents
#4
Brigitte Vollmer, Aiko Lundequist, Gustaf Mårtensson, Zoltan Nagy, Hugo Lagercrantz, Ann-Charlotte Smedler, Hans Forssberg
MAIN OBJECTIVES: Executive functions are frequently a weakness in children born preterm. We examined associations of executive functions and general cognitive abilities with brain structure in preterm born adolescents who were born with appropriate weight for gestational age and who have no radiological signs of preterm brain injury on neuroimaging. METHODS: The Stockholm Neonatal Project (SNP) is a longitudinal, population-based study of children born preterm (<36 weeks of gestation) with very low birth weight (<1501g) between 1988-1993...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588345/neuroanatomic-variations-in-graves-dysthyroid-ophthalmopathy-as-studied-with-mri
#5
Rona Z Silkiss, Alex R Wade
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Graves' dysthyroid ophthalmopathy (GDO) have changes in brain anatomy that can be assessed by neuroimaging as compared to age-matched controls. METHODS: We examined 10 female, euthyroid patients with GDO and 14 age and gender matched controls using high-resolution structural MRI scanning. An automatic cortical segmentation algorithm was used to estimate the thickness of each subject's gray matter across the brain. The resulting cortical thickness measurements were transferred to a standard reference space via a template-based warping procedure...
August 2016: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566609/progressive-b%C3%A3-lint-s-syndrome-in-a-patient-demonstrating-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Yoshifumi Nakashima
We herein report a 65-year-old man demonstrating dementia with Lewy bodies who first presented with Bálint's syndrome. Two years later, a mild cognitive impairment was noted. From three years after onset, he developed progressive parkinsonism, visual hallucination, and autonomic dysfunction, in line with the deterioration of the cognitive function. Single photon emission computed tomography with a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer performed two years after onset revealed hypoperfusion in the restricted area of the bilateral superior parietal lobule, which extended to the lateral occipital cortices within two years...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566413/hypercalcaemic-encephalopathy-due-to-metastatic-parathyroid-carcinoma
#7
Dhalapathy Sadacharan, Shriraam Mahadevan, Jabamalai Ferdinant, Kaharin Rakeshchandru
A 49-year-old man presented in the emergency department with altered sensorium and renal failure and was placed on a ventilator. Evaluation with MRI of the brain showed enhancing lesion in the occipital lobe. Biochemical tests revealed elevated calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Further evaluation revealed multiple lesions at both lobes of the lungs and nodular lesion in the right inferior pole of the thyroid. Diagnosis of metastatic parathyroid carcinoma was suspected. Patient was stabilised with bisphosphonates and haemodialysis and planned for surgery...
May 31, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560333/learning-to-read-alters-cortico-subcortical-cross-talk-in-the-visual-system-of-illiterates
#8
Michael A Skeide, Uttam Kumar, Ramesh K Mishra, Viveka N Tripathi, Anupam Guleria, Jay P Singh, Frank Eisner, Falk Huettig
Learning to read is known to result in a reorganization of the developing cerebral cortex. In this longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study in illiterate adults, we show that only 6 months of literacy training can lead to neuroplastic changes in the mature brain. We observed that literacy-induced neuroplasticity is not confined to the cortex but increases the functional connectivity between the occipital lobe and subcortical areas in the midbrain and the thalamus. Individual rates of connectivity increase were significantly related to the individual decoding skill gains...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560160/application-of-calibrated-fmri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Isabelle Lajoie, Scott Nugent, Clément Debacker, Kenneth Dyson, Felipe B Tancredi, AmanPreet Badhwar, Sylvie Belleville, Yan Deschaintre, Pierre Bellec, Julien Doyon, Christian Bocti, Serge Gauthier, Douglas Arnold, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Howard Chertkow, Oury Monchi, Richard D Hoge
Calibrated fMRI based on arterial spin-labeling (ASL) and blood oxygen-dependent contrast (BOLD), combined with periods of hypercapnia and hyperoxia, can provide information on cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), resting blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and resting oxidative metabolism (CMRO2). Vascular and metabolic integrity are believed to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus, the use of calibrated fMRI in AD may help understand the disease and monitor therapeutic responses in future clinical trials...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553215/eeg-cortical-connectivity-analysis-of-working-memory-reveals-topological-reorganization-in-theta-and-alpha-bands
#10
Zhongxiang Dai, Joshua de Souza, Julian Lim, Paul M Ho, Yu Chen, Junhua Li, Nitish Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos, Yu Sun
Numerous studies have revealed various working memory (WM)-related brain activities that originate from various cortical regions and oscillate at different frequencies. However, multi-frequency band analysis of the brain network in WM in the cortical space remains largely unexplored. In this study, we employed a graph theoretical framework to characterize the topological properties of the brain functional network in the theta and alpha frequency bands during WM tasks. Twenty-eight subjects performed visual n-back tasks at two difficulty levels, i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545980/altered-brain-function-in-new-onset-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-before-chemotherapy-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Zhanqi Hu, Dongfang Zou, Huirong Mai, Xiuli Yuan, Lihong Wang, Yue Li, Jianxiang Liao, Liwei Liu, Guosheng Liu, Hongwu Zeng, Feiqiu Wen
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairments had been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, what caused the impairments needed to be demonstrated, chemotherapy-related or the disease itself. The primary aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine if there were changes in brain function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy. METHODS: In this study, we advanced a measure named regional homogeneity to evaluate the resting-state brain activities, intelligence quotient test was performed at same time...
May 22, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539636/effect-of-kidney-dysfunction-on-cerebral-cortical-thinning-in-elderly-population
#12
Chih-Hao Chen, Ya-Fang Chen, Ming-Jang Chiu, Ta-Fu Chen, Ping-Huan Tsai, Jen-Hau Chen, Chung-Jen Yen, Sung-Chun Tang, Shin-Joe Yeh, Yen-Ching Chen
Chronic kidney disease has been linked to cognitive impairment and morphological brain change. However, less is known about the impact of kidney functions on cerebral cortical thickness. This study investigated the relationship between kidney functions and global or lobar cerebral cortical thickness (CTh) in 259 non-demented elderly persons. Forty-three participants (16.7%) had kidney dysfunction, which was defined as either a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of proteinuria...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535638/-application-of-long-term-video-electroencephalogram-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-detection-of-cognition-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#13
X X Yan, Q Yu, Y T Gao, L T Li, D H Yu, Y Chen, X J Yao, W D Yang, Z J Chen, J Z Yin, Y An, K Tan
Objective: To study the relationship between the changes of brain network and cognition in patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) by using long term video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technology. Methods: Eleven patients with right-handed were recruited (from April 2015 to September 2016) from epilepsy specialist outpatients and functional department of neurosurgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532712/photosensitivity-and-epilepsy-current-concepts-and-perspectives-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
A Martins da Silva, Bárbara Leal
The authors review the influence of photic stimuli on the generation of epileptic seizures, addressing the first descriptions of the phenomenon and its subsequent exploration. Initially defined in the 1950's, links between intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) and seizures were well understood by the 1970. Since then the increasing exposure to photic stimuli associated with modern life (for instance through TVs, patterns, computer games and electronic instruments with flickering displays) has led to an increased interest in this issue...
April 5, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524796/improvement-of-visual-field-defects-after-focal-resection-for-occipital-lobe-epilepsy-case-report
#15
Takahiro Yamamoto, Tadashi Hamasaki, Hideo Nakamura, Kazumichi Yamada
Improvement of visual field defects after surgical treatment for occipital lobe epilepsy is rare. Here, the authors report on a 24-year-old man with a 15-year history of refractory epilepsy that developed after he had undergone an occipital craniotomy to remove a cerebellar astrocytoma at the age of 4. His seizures started with an elementary visual aura, followed by secondary generalized tonic-clonic convulsion. Perimetry revealed left-sided incomplete hemianopia, and MRI showed an old contusion in the right occipital lobe...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509077/relationships-between-cognitive-impairment-on-adas-cog-and-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-using-spect-in-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Michio Takahashi, Yasunori Oda, Toshiyuki Okubo, Yukihiko Shirayama
The aim of this study was to examine brain hypoperfusion and its relationship with cognitive dysfunction in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Forty patients with late-onset AD and not receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were recruited from outpatient clinics. We examined cognitive function using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) and brain perfusion using single-photon emission computed tomography, and analyzed classified gyrus level segments with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and the stereotactic extraction estimation method level 3...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506483/cortical-and-subcortical-functional-neuroanatomy-for-low-grade-glioma-surgery
#17
REVIEW
L Chenin, M Lefranc, S Velut, P Foulon, E Havet, J Peltier
Knowledge of the encephalon anatomy is crucial for neurosurgical practice, especially the main cortical functional structures and their connections. General organisation of the encephalon is presented with frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, limbic and insular lobes and their Brodmann correspondence. Secondly, subcortical anatomy will be presented with main white matter fasciculi in three separated categories: association, commissural and projection fibers. Main association fibers are inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and cingulum...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498826/divergent-influences-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-domains-on-cognition-and-gray-and-white-matter-morphology
#18
Mitzi M Gonzales, Olusola Ajilore, Rebecca C Charlton, Jamie Cohen, Shaolin Yang, Erica Sieg, Dulal K Bhaumik, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. METHODS: A total of 124 adults (age, 59.8 [13.1] years; 41% African American; 50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458637/group-cognitive-behavior-therapy-reversed-insula-subregions-functional-connectivity-in-asthmatic-patients
#19
Yuqun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Rongrong Bian, Yingying Yin, Zhenghua Hou, Yingying Yue, Huanxin Chen, Yonggui Yuan
Background: Group cognitive behavior therapy (GCBT) is an effective treatment in improving self-management behaviors and quality of life for asthmatic patients. However, the mechanisms by which GCBT improves asthma-related clinical symptoms remain unknown. Previous studies have indicated that insula is an important region involved in the neuropathology of asthma. Therefore, we examined the possible alteration of functional connectivity (FC) in insula subregions after GCBT in asthmatic patients. Methods: Forty-two asthmatic patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs) received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan and clinical assessments, 17 asthmatic patients completed GCBT treatment consisting of 8 sessions, and then received rs-fMRI scan and clinical assessments...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457575/objective-analysis-of-the-topological-organization-of-the-human-cortical-visual-connectome-suggests-three-visual-pathways
#20
Koen V Haak, Christian F Beckmann
The cortical visual system is composed of many areas serving various visual functions. In non-human primates, these are broadly organised into two distinct processing pathways: a ventral pathway for object recognition, and a dorsal pathway for action. In humans, recent theoretical proposals suggest the possible existence of additional pathways, but direct empirical evidence has yet to be presented. Here, we estimated the connectivity patterns between 22 human visual areas using resting-state functional MRI data of 470 individuals, leveraging the unprecedented data quantity and quality of the Human Connectome Project and a novel probabilistic atlas...
April 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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