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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318404/magnetization-transfer-imaging-of-treatment-resistant-depression
#1
Zhiyun Jia, Wei Peng, Ziqi Chen, Huaiqiang Sun, Huawei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Xiaoqi Huang, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To detect biophysical abnormalities in patients with postmedication treatment-resistant depression (TRD) with magnetization transfer imaging. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Participants included 69 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (30 with TRD; 39 with non-TRD) and 41 healthy control subjects. Age and sex were examined with one-way analysis of variance and χ(2) tests and were well matched among the three groups...
March 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283789/cerebral-metabolic-changes-related-to-clinical-parameters-in-idiopathic-anosmic-patients-during-olfactory-stimulation-a-pilot-investigation
#2
Alessandro Micarelli, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Roberta Danieli, Orazio Schillaci, Marco Alessandrini
Idiopathic olfactory loss neural consequences have been studied especially by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Since other functional neuroimaging technique findings are lacking in the literature, present study used a validated (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) functional positron emission tomography procedure under olfactory stimulation (OS) to assess brain changes in idiopathic anosmic patients (IAPs) in comparison with healthy subjects (HS). A voxel-based analysis between these groups was used to evaluate FDG uptake in the brain and perform a correlation analysis between metabolic responses and the Sniffin' stick test as well as intensity visuo-analogue scores and disease duration (DD)...
March 10, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269781/cognitive-efficiency-in-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-increased-occipital-connectivity
#3
Matteo De Marco, Davide Duzzi, Francesca Meneghello, Annalena Venneri
There are cognitive domains which remain fully functional in a proportion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. It is unknown, however, what distinctive mechanisms sustain such efficient processing. The concept of "cognitive efficiency" was investigated in these patients by operationalizing it as a function of the level of performance shown on the Letter Fluency test, on which, very often, patients in the early stages of AD show unimpaired performance. Forty-five individuals at the prodromal/early stage of AD (diagnosis supported by subsequent clinical follow-ups) and 45 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and an MRI protocol which included resting-state acquisitions...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269173/abnormal-interhemispheric-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#4
Peng Zhou, Jieqiong Wang, Ting Li, Ningli Wang, Junfang Xian, Huiguang He
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness and it has been the topic of massive studies to explore the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Resting-state neuroimaging studies have been widely applied to investigate the functional damage of the brain, but little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In the present study, we used a newly developed voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method to explore the interhemispheric RSFC of the brain in POAG patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268521/creation-of-a-whole-brain-short-association-bundle-atlas-using-a-hybrid-approach
#5
M Guevara, C Roman, J Houenou, D Duclap, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara
The Human brain connection map is far from being complete. In particular the study of the superficial white matter (SWM) is an unachieved task. Its description is essential for the understanding of human brain function and the study of pathogenesis triggered by abnormal connectivity. In this work we expanded a previously developed method for the automatic creation of a whole brain SWM bundle atlas. The method is based on a hybrid approach. First a cortical parcellation is used to extract fibers connecting two regions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259880/modified-fluorodeoxyglucose-metabolism-in-motor-circuitry-by-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation
#6
Chunyan Cao, Huiwei Zhang, Dianyou Li, Shikun Zhan, Jing Zhang, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Chuantao Zuo, Bomin Sun
BACKGROUND: Adjustment of the motor circuitry has been described in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the modulation of the motor circuitry of PD patients by subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: Resting-state brain 18F-FDG PET imaging was performed for 8 PD patients before surgery and also 1 year after STN DBS treatment; changes in regional glucose metabolism were identified...
March 4, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253512/neonatal-hypoglycaemia-and-visual-development-a-review
#7
Nabin Paudel, Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Jo E Hegarty, Jane E Harding, Benjamin Thompson
BACKGROUND: Many newborn babies experience low blood glucose concentrations, a condition referred to as neonatal hypoglycaemia (NH). The effect of NH on visual development in infancy and childhood is of interest because the occipital lobes, which include the primary visual cortex and a number of extrastriate visual areas, may be particularly susceptible to NH-induced injury. In addition, a number of case series have suggested that NH can affect eye and optic nerve development. OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature concerning the effect of NH on the visual system...
March 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253275/impact-of-frontal-white-matter-hyperintensity-on-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-elderly-women-with-alzheimer-disease-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Noriko Ogama, Takashi Sakurai, Toshiharu Nakai, Shumpei Niida, Naoki Saji, Kenji Toba, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Masafumi Kuzuya
BACKGROUND: Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) start to decline during the progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD). Cognitive and physical decline are involved in the loss of functional independence. However, little is known about AD-related neural change that leads to IADL impairment. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of regional white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on IADL impairment in persons with AD and aMCI. METHODS: The participants were 347 female subjects aged 65-85 years diagnosed with AD (n = 227), aMCI (n = 44) or normal cognition (n = 76)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249119/enhanced-task-related-brain-activation-and-resting-perfusion-in-healthy-older-adults-after-chronic-blueberry-supplementation
#9
Joanna L Bowtell, Zainie Aboo-Bakkar, Myra Conway, Anna-Lynne R Adlam, Jonathan Fulford
Blueberries are rich in flavonoids, which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. High flavonoid intakes attenuate age-related cognitive decline, but data from human intervention studies are sparse. We investigated whether 12 weeks of blueberry concentrate supplementation improved brain perfusion, task-related activation and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Participants were randomised to consume either 30 ml blueberry concentrate providing 387 mg anthocyanidins (5 female, 7 male; age 67...
March 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239531/brain-structure-working-memory-and-response-inhibition-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors
#10
Ellen van der Plas, Russell J Schachar, Johann Hitzler, Jennifer Crosbie, Sharon L Guger, Brenda J Spiegler, Shinya Ito, Brian J Nieman
INTRODUCTION: Survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) approach 95%. At the same time, there is growing concern that chemotherapy causes alterations in brain development and cognitive abilities. We performed MRI measurements of white and gray matter volume to explore how variation in brain structure may be related to cognitive abilities in ALL survivors and healthy controls. METHODS: The sample included 24 male ALL survivors who had completed contemporary treatment 3-11 years prior, and 21 age- and sex-matched controls...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236714/neural-correlates-of-graphic-cigarette-warning-labels-predict-smoking-cessation-relapse
#11
Max M Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C Gray, Brittany E Hawkshead, Cara M Murphy, Lawrence H Sweet
Exposure to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging has been found to produce heightened activity in brain regions central to emotional processing and higher-order cognitive processes. The current study extends this literature by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation in response to GWLs and use it to predict relapse in an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment program. Participants were 48 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent smokers who completed an fMRI paradigm in which they were exposed to GWLs, text-only warning labels (TOLs), and matched control stimuli...
February 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227403/abnormal-interhemispheric-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#12
Peng Zhou, Jieqiong Wang, Ting Li, Ningli Wang, Junfang Xian, Huiguang He, Peng Zhou, Jieqiong Wang, Ting Li, Ningli Wang, Junfang Xian, Huiguang He, Ningli Wang, Junfang Xian, Huiguang He, Ting Li, Jieqiong Wang, Peng Zhou
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness and it has been the topic of massive studies to explore the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Resting-state neuroimaging studies have been widely applied to investigate the functional damage of the brain, but little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In the present study, we used a newly developed voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method to explore the interhemispheric RSFC of the brain in POAG patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226695/creation-of-a-whole-brain-short-association-bundle-atlas-using-a-hybrid-approach
#13
M Guevara, C Roman, J Houenou, D Duclap, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara, M Guevara, C Roman, J Houenou, D Duclap, C Poupon, J-F Mangin, P Guevara, J-F Mangin, C Roman, D Duclap, C Poupon, J Houenou, P Guevara, M Guevara
The Human brain connection map is far from being complete. In particular the study of the superficial white matter (SWM) is an unachieved task. Its description is essential for the understanding of human brain function and the study of pathogenesis triggered by abnormal connectivity. In this work we expanded a previously developed method for the automatic creation of a whole brain SWM bundle atlas. The method is based on a hybrid approach. First a cortical parcellation is used to extract fibers connecting two regions...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213120/a-cross-validated-cytoarchitectonic-atlas-of-the-human-ventral-visual-stream
#14
Mona Rosenke, Kevin S Weiner, Michael A Barnett, Karl Zilles, Katrin Amunts, Rainer Goebel, Kalanit Grill-Spector
The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas that are considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale...
February 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212570/altered-amygdala-and-hippocampus-effective-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-with-depression-a-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-study-with-granger-causality-analysis
#15
Li Juan Zheng, Gui Fen Yang, Xin Yuan Zhang, Yun Fei Wang, Ya Liu, Gang Zheng, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang, Ying Han
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the major depression disorder would increase the risk of dementia in the older with amnestic cognitive impairment. We used granger causality analysis algorithm to explore the amygdala- and hippocampus-based directional connectivity patterns in 12 patients with major depression disorder and amnestic cognitive impairment (mean age: 69.5 ± 10.3 years), 13 amnestic cognitive impairment patients (mean age: 72.7 ± 8.5 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age: 64.7 ± 7...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202133/toddlers-later-diagnosed-with-autism-exhibit-multiple-structural-abnormalities-in-temporal-corpus-callosum-fibers
#16
Noa Fingher, Ilan Dinstein, Michal Ben-Shachar, Shlomi Haar, Anders M Dale, Lisa Eyler, Karen Pierce, Eric Courchesne
Interhemispheric functional connectivity abnormalities are often reported in autism and it is thus not surprising that structural defects of the corpus callosum (CC) are consistently found using both traditional MRI and DTI techniques. Past DTI studies however, have subdivided the CC into 2 or 3 segments without regard for where fibers may project to within the cortex, thus placing limitations on our ability to understand the nature, timing and neurobehavioral impact of early CC abnormalities in autism. Leveraging a unique cohort of 97 toddlers (68 autism; 29 typical) we utilized a novel technique that identified seven CC tracts according to their cortical projections...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180083/lateralized-occipital-degeneration-in-posterior-cortical-atrophy-predicts-visual-field-deficits
#17
Rebecca S Millington, Merle James-Galton, Mari N Maia Da Silva, Gordon T Plant, Holly Bridge
BACKGROUND: Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), the visual variant of Alzheimer's disease, leads to high-level visual deficits such as alexia or agnosia. Visual field deficits have also been identified, but often inconsistently reported. Little is known about the pattern of visual field deficits or the underlying cortical changes leading to this visual loss. METHODS: Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate differences in gray matter volume, cortical thickness, white matter microstructure and functional activity in patients with PCA compared to age-matched controls...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179560/specific-lobar-affection-reveals-a-rostrocaudal-gradient-in-functional-outcome-in-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#18
Stefan T Gerner, Joji B Kuramatsu, Sebastian Moeller, Angelika Huber, Hannes Lücking, Stephan P Kloska, Dominik Madžar, Jochen A Sembill, Stefan Schwab, Hagen B Huttner
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several studies have reported a better functional outcome in lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) compared with deep location. However, among lobar ICH, a correlation of hemorrhage site-involving the specific lobes-with functional outcome has not been established. METHODS: Conservatively treated patients with supratentorial ICH, admitted to our hospital over a 5-year period (2008-2012), were retrospectively analyzed. Lobar patients were classified as isolated or overlapping ICH according to affected lobes...
February 8, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173729/structural-and-functional-abnormalities-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-focus-on-subgenual-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#19
Chenyang Zhan, Yuhong Liu, Kai Wu, Yu Gao, Xiaobo Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by developmentally inappropriate inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, or a combination of both, is a major public health problem. Neuroimaging studies have revealed associations of these cognitive impairments with structural and functional deficits all over the brain. Existing findings are not fully consistent because of the heterogeneity of study samples and diversity of research techniques. In this study, we propose to utilize a multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to study the structural and functional brain networks in children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) with a focus on the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)...
March 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163060/an-insight-into-the-vision-impairment-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
REVIEW
Nilkantha Sen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major cause of morbidity and mortality and it affects more than 1.7 million Americans each year. Depending on its location and severity, TBI leads to structural and functional damage in several parts of the brain such as cranial nerves, optic nerve tract or other circuitry involved in vision, and occipital lobe. As a result, the function associated with vision processing and perception are significantly affected and cause blurred vision, double vision, decreased peripheral vision and blindness...
February 2, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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