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Occipital lobe function

Pei-Lin Lee, Kun-Hsien Chou, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Nai-Wen Tsai, Ai-Ling Hsu, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Che Lin, Ching-Po Lin
OBJECTIVES: To identify disease-related spatial covariance patterns of grey matter volume as an aid in the classification of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Seventy structural covariance networks (SCNs) based on grey matter volume covariance patterns were defined using independent component analysis with T1-weighted structural MRI scans (discovery sample, 70 PD patients and 70 healthy controls). An image-based classifier was constructed from SCNs using a multiple logistic regression analysis with a leave-one-out cross-validation-based feature selection scheme...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
Morten Gersel Stokholm, Alex Iranzo, Karen Østergaard, Mónica Serradell, Marit Otto, Kristina Bacher Svendsen, Alicia Garrido, Dolores Vilas, Peter Parbo, Per Borghammer, Joan Santamaria, Arne Møller, Carles Gaig, David J Brooks, Eduardo Tolosa, Nicola Pavese
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) progress over time to a Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. This in vivo molecular imaging study aimed to investigate if extrastriatal monoaminergic systems are affected in iRBD patients and if this coincides with neuroinflammation. METHODS: We studied twenty-one polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients with18 F-DOPA and11 C-PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate extrastriatal monoaminergic function and microglial activation...
March 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Guido Gainotti, Luigi Trojano
Since the classic papers of Kleist, Mayer Gross, and Critchley, constructional apraxia (CA) has been considered to be a typical sign of a parietal lobe lesion, and as a precious tool to appreciate the spatial abilities subserved by this lobe. However, the development of more sophisticated neuropsychologic models and methods of investigation has revealed several problematic aspects. It has become increasingly clear that CA is a heterogeneous construct that can be examined with very different tasks, that are only mildly interconnected, and tap various kinds of visuospatial, perceptual, attentional, planning, and motor mechanisms...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
A David Milner, Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi
It is argued here that apperceptive object agnosia (generally now known as visual form agnosia) is in reality not a kind of agnosia, but rather a form of "imperception" (to use the term coined by Hughlings Jackson). We further argue that its proximate cause is a bilateral loss (or functional loss) of the visual form processing systems embodied in the human lateral occipital cortex (area LO). According to the dual-system model of cortical visual processing elaborated by Milner and Goodale (2006), area LO constitutes a crucial component of the ventral stream, and indeed is essential for providing the figural qualities inherent in our normal visual perception of the world...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ruey-Song Huang, Martin I Sereno
The parietal lobe plays a major role in sensorimotor integration and action. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed more than 40 retinotopic areas distributed across five visual streams in the human brain, two of which enter the parietal lobe. A series of retinotopic areas occupy the length of the intraparietal sulcus and continue into the postcentral sulcus. On the medial wall, retinotopy extends across the parieto-occipital sulcus into the precuneus and reaches the cingulate sulcus. Full-body tactile stimulation revealed a multisensory homunculus lying along the postcentral sulcus just posterior to primary somatosensory cortical areas and overlapping with the anteriormost retinotopic maps...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Carrie W Hoppes, Patrick J Sparto, Susan L Whitney, Joseph M Furman, Theodore J Huppert
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with visual vertigo describe symptoms of dizziness, disorientation, and/or impaired balance in environments with conflicting visual and vestibular information or complex visual stimuli. Physical therapists often prescribe habituation exercises using optic flow to treat these symptoms, but there are no evidence-based guidelines for delivering optic flow and it is unclear how the brain processes such stimuli. The purposes of this study were to use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to explore cerebral activation during optic flow, and determine if visual fixation had a modulating effect on brain activity...
2018: PloS One
Rotem Monsa, Michael Peer, Shahar Arzy
BACKGROUND: Conversion disorder (CD), or functional neurological disorder, is manifested as a neurological disturbance that is not macroscopically visible in clinical structural neuroimaging, and is instead ascribed to underlying psychological stress. Known for many years in neuropsychiatry, a comprehensive explanation to the way by which psychological stress leads to a neurological deficit of a structural-like origin is still a mystery. METHODS: We applied whole-brain network-based data-driven analyses on resting-state functional MRI, recorded in seven CD patients with unilateral paresis and hypoesthesia as compared to 15 age-matched healthy controls...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Noah Sideman, Ganne Chaitanya, Xiaosong He, Gaelle Doucet, Na Young Kim, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
OBJECTIVE: In epilepsy, asymmetries in the organization of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) functions help determine the cognitive risk associated with procedures such as anterior temporal lobectomy. Past studies have investigated the change/shift in a visual episodic memory laterality index (LI) in mesial temporal lobe structures through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task activations. Here, we examine whether underlying task-related functional connectivity (FC) is concordant with such standard fMRI laterality measures...
February 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Harmke A Polinder-Bos, David Vállez García, Johanna Kuipers, Jan Willem J Elting, Marcel J H Aries, Wim P Krijnen, Henk Groen, Antoon T M Willemsen, Peter J van Laar, Fijanne Strijkert, Gert Luurtsema, Riemer H J A Slart, Ralf Westerhuis, Ron T Gansevoort, Carlo A J M Gaillard, Casper F M Franssen
The initiation of hemodialysis is associated with an accelerated decline of cognitive function and an increased incidence of cerebrovascular accidents and white matter lesions. Investigators have hypothesized that the repetitive circulatory stress of hemodialysis induces ischemic cerebral injury, but the mechanism is unclear. We studied the acute effect of conventional hemodialysis on cerebral blood flow (CBF), measured by [15 O]H2 O positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). During a single hemodialysis session, three [15 O]H2 O PET-CT scans were performed: before, early after the start of, and at the end of hemodialysis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Kyra Bonasia, Melanie J Sekeres, Asaf Gilboa, Cheryl L Grady, Gordon Winocur, Morris Moscovitch
Congruence with prior knowledge and novelty have long been identified as two prominent factors that, despite their opposing characteristics, can both enhance episodic memory. Using narrative film clip stimuli, this study investigated these effects in naturalistic event memories - examining behaviour and neural activation to help explain this paradox. Furthermore, we examined encoding, immediate retrieval, and one-week delayed retrieval to determine how these effects evolve over time. Behaviourally, both congruence with prior knowledge and incongruence/novelty enhanced memory for events, though incongruent events were recalled with more errors over time...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lin Jiang, Tijiang Zhang, Fajin Lv, Shiguang Li, Heng Liu, Zhiwei Zhang, Tianyou Luo
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is associated with cognitive and language problems. According to recent studies, disruptions in brain structure and function in children with BECTS are beyond a Rolandic focus, suggesting atypical cortical development. However, previous studies utilizing surface-based metrics (e.g., cortical gyrification) and their structural covariance networks at high resolution in children with BECTS are limited. Twenty-six children with BECTS (15 males/11 females; 10...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jianxin Dong, Bin Jing, Xiangyu Ma, Han Liu, Xiao Mo, Haiyun Li
Exploring functional information among various brain regions across time enables understanding of healthy aging process and holds great promise for age-related brain disease diagnosis. This paper proposed a method to explore fractal complexity of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signal in the human brain across the adult lifespan using Hurst exponent (HE). We took advantage of the examined rs-fMRI data from 116 adults 19 to 85 years of age (44.3 ± 19.4 years, 49 females) from NKI/Rockland sample...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Song Cao, Bangyong Qin, Yi Zhang, Jie Yuan, Bao Fu, Peng Xie, Ganjun Song, Ying Li, Tian Yu
OBJECTIVE: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Whether the chronification from HZ to PHN induced brain functional or structural change is unknown and no study compared the changes of the same brains of patients who transited from HZ to PHN. We minimized individual differences and observed whether the chronification of HZ to PHN induces functional and pain duration dependent grey matter volume (GMV) change in HZ-PHN patients...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Guangjie Yuan, Guangyuan Liu, Dongtao Wei, Gaoyuan Wang, Qiang Li, Mingming Qi, Shifu Wu
Recent research has demonstrated that resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) within the human auditory cortex (HAC) is frequency-selective, but whether RS-FC between the HAC and other brain areas is differentiated by frequency remains unclear. Three types of data were collected in this study, including resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, task-based fMRI data using six pure tone stimuli (200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 Hz), and structural imaging data. We first used task-based fMRI to identify frequency-selective cortical regions in the HAC...
February 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Yuchun Tang, Lu Zhao, Yunxia Lou, Yonggang Shi, Rui Fang, Xiangtao Lin, Shuwei Liu, Arthur Toga
Numerous behavioral observations and brain function studies have demonstrated that neurological differences exist between East Asians and Westerners. However, the extent to which these factors relate to differences in brain structure is still not clear. As the basis of brain functions, the anatomical differences in brain structure play a primary and critical role in the origination of functional and behavior differences. To investigate the underlying differences in brain structure between the two cultural/ethnic groups, we conducted a comparative study on education-matched right-handed young male adults (age = 22-29 years) from two cohorts, Han Chinese (n = 45) and Caucasians (n = 45), using high-dimensional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data...
February 5, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jodie Naim-Feil, Mica Rubinson, Dominik Freche, Alexander Grinshpoon, Abraham Peled, Elisha Moses, Nava Levit-Binnun
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the dynamic coordination of widespread brain networks are proposed to underlie cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, there is limited understanding of the temporal evolution of these networks and how they relate to cognitive impairment. The current study was designed to explore dynamic patterns of network connectivity underlying cognitive features of schizophrenia. METHODS: In total, 21 inpatients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control participants completed a cognitive task while electroencephalography data were simultaneously acquired...
January 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Ji Won Choi, Myoung Hyoun Kim, Soon-Ah Park, Deok Su Sin, Min-Su Kim
Objective: To investigate neural correlates associated with recovery of motor function over 6 months in patients with basal ganglia (BG) stroke using acetazolamide (ACZ) stress brain-perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Medical records of 22 patients presenting first-ever BG stroke were retrospectively reviewed. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) were measured for 9 regions in each cerebral hemisphere (primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, BG, and thalamus)...
December 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Lingguo Bu, Dawei Wang, Congcong Huo, Gongcheng Xu, Zengyong Li, Jianfeng Li
OBJECTIVE: Poor sleep quality, which is typically related to impairments in cognitive control, is pervasive among the elderly. However, the brain function mechanisms underlying the association between sleep and elderly behavior remain elusive. This study aims to assess the effects of poor sleep quality on low-frequency neural oscillations based on the wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) and wavelet amplitude (WA) of oxyhemoglobin concentration changes (Delta [HbO2]) measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Leah M Mattiaccio, Ioana L Coman, Carlie A Thompson, Wanda P Fremont, Kevin M Antshel, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In this study, we performed a functional connectivity analysis using the CONN toolbox to test for differential connectivity patterns between 54 individuals with 22q11DS and 30 healthy controls, between the ages of 17-25 years old...
January 20, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Zabit Hameed, Saqib Saleem, Jawad Mirza, Muhammad Salman Mustafa, Qamar-Ul-Islam
Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterised by the recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, called epileptic seizures. The present study attempts to derive new diagnostic indices which may delineate between ictal and interictal states of epilepsy. To achieve this, the nonlinear modeling approach of global principal dynamic modes (PDMs) is adopted to examine the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal lobes with the occipital brain segment using an ensemble of paediatric EEGs having the presence of epileptic seizure...
2018: PloS One
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