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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636201/an-exploration-of-the-relationship-between-use-of-safety-seeking-behaviours-and-psychosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Sarah Tully, Adrian Wells, Anthony P Morrison
Safety-seeking behaviours are responses employed to protect against perceived threat. In relation to anxiety disorders, safety-seeking behaviours have been implicated in both the formation and maintenance of distress. Several studies have highlighted similar findings in relation to psychosis; however, this literature has not yet been synthesized. This review is, therefore, being conducted in order to synthesize the literature on safety seeking in people with psychosis to increase the understanding of this relationship...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635986/optimism-symptom-distress-illness-appraisal-and-coping-in-patients-with-advanced-stage-cancer-diagnoses-undergoing-chemotherapy-treatment
#2
Catherine Sumpio, Sangchoon Jeon, Laurel L Northouse, M Tish Knobf
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationships between optimism, self-efficacy, symptom distress, treatment complexity, illness appraisal, coping, and mood disturbance in patients with advanced-stage cancer.
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
. SETTING: Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven in Connecticut, an outpatient comprehensive cancer center.
. SAMPLE: A convenience sample of 121 adult patients with stages III-IV cancer undergoing active chemotherapy...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624982/towards-ageing-well-use-it-or-lose-it-exercise-epigenetics-and-cognition
#3
Irene Maeve Rea
More and more people are living into the 90s or becoming centenarians. But, the gift of increased 'age span' seldom equates with an improved 'health-span'. Governments across the world are expressing concern about the epidemic of chronic disease, and have responded by initiating policies that make prevention, reduction and treatment of chronic disease, a public health priority. But understanding, how to age long and well, with the avoidance of chronic disease and later life complex disease morbidity is challenging...
June 17, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623624/effect-of-parenting-and-peer-stressors-on-cognitive-vulnerability-and-risk-for-depression-among-youth
#4
Caroline W Oppenheimer, Benjamin L Hankin, Jami Young
Parenting behaviors influence clinical depression among youth, but little is known about the developmental processes that may account for this association. This study investigated whether parenting is associated with the onset of clinical depression and depressive symptoms through negative cognitive style, particularly under conditions of high exposure to stressors, in a community sample of children and adolescents (N = 275; 59% girls). Observational methods were used to assess positive and negative parenting during a laboratory social-evaluative stressor task...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616995/the-hippocampus-and-the-regulation-of-human-food-intake
#5
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis
Human and animal data suggest that the hippocampus plays certain roles in regulating food intake. However, its actual role may be far broader than currently envisaged, a claim suggested by the centrality of the hippocampus to so many aspects of human/animal cognition. Understanding these ingestion-related functions is especially significant. This is because some degree of hippocampal impairment may be quite common, resulting for example from a Western-style diet, insomnia, diabetes, and depression-among many other causes...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616126/autistic-traits-affect-interpersonal-motor-coordination-by-modulating-strategic-use-of-role-based-behavior
#6
Arianna Curioni, Ilaria Minio-Paluello, Lucia Maria Sacheli, Matteo Candidi, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that deficits in social communication and interaction are at the core of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC), no study has yet tested individuals on a continuum from neurotypical development to autism in an on-line, cooperative, joint action task. In our study, we aimed to assess whether the degree of autistic traits affects participants' ability to modulate their motor behavior while interacting in a Joint Grasping task and according to their given role. METHODS: Sixteen pairs of adult participants played a cooperative social interactive game in which they had to synchronize their reach-to-grasp movements...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605629/analytic-information-processing-style-in-epilepsy-patients
#7
Marzia Buonfiglio, Francesco Di Sabato, Silvia Mandillo, Mariarita Albini, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Annateresa Giallonardo, Giuliano Avanzini
Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602448/adaptation-of-social-and-non-social-cues-to-direction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-adults-with-autistic-traits
#8
Rebecca P Lawson, Jessica Aylward, Jonathan P Roiser, Geraint Rees
Perceptual constancy strongly relies on adaptive gain control mechanisms, which shift perception as a function of recent sensory history. Here we examined the extent to which individual differences in magnitude of adaptation aftereffects for social and non-social directional cues are related to autistic traits and sensory sensitivity in healthy participants (Experiment 1); and also whether adaptation for social and non-social directional cues is differentially impacted in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relative to neurotypical (NT) controls (Experiment 2)...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601693/causal-role-for-inverse-reasoning-on-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-preliminary-evidence-from-a-cognitive-bias-modification-for-interpretation-bias-study
#9
Shiu F Wong, Jessica R Grisham
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The inference-based approach (IBA) is a cognitive account of the genesis and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). According to the IBA, individuals with OCD are prone to using inverse reasoning, in which hypothetical causes form the basis of conclusions about reality. Several studies have provided preliminary support for an association between features of the IBA and OCD symptoms. However, there are currently no studies that have investigated the proposed causal relationship of inverse reasoning in OCD...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598535/functional-impairment-and-risk-of-venous-thrombosis-in-older-adults
#10
Marissa J Engbers, Jeanet W Blom, Mary Cushman, Frits R Rosendaal, Astrid van Hylckama Vlieg
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of age-specific risk factors for thrombosis in older age, such as functional impairment. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: The Age and Thrombosis-Acquired and Genetic risk factors in the Elderly Study, a two-center study conducted in the Netherlands and the United States from 2008 to 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 and older with a first-time deep venous thrombosis in the leg or pulmonary embolism (n = 401) and controls aged 70 and older (n = 431) without a history of thrombosis...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596993/segmenting-subregions-of-the-human-hippocampus-on-structural-magnetic-resonance-image-scans-an-illustrated-tutorial
#11
Marshall A Dalton, Peter Zeidman, Daniel N Barry, Elaine Williams, Eleanor A Maguire
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus plays a central role in cognition, and understanding the specific contributions of its subregions will likely be key to explaining its wide-ranging functions. However, delineating substructures within the human hippocampus in vivo from magnetic resonance image scans is fraught with difficulties. To our knowledge, the extant literature contains only brief descriptions of segmentation procedures used to delineate hippocampal subregions in magnetic resonance imaging/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies...
2017: Brain and neuroscience advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593013/emotional-and-instrumental-support-influencing-male-caregivers-for-people-with-dementia-living-at-home
#12
Midori Nishio, Hiromi Kimura, Koji Ogomori, Kumiko Ogata
Object: To clarify the emotional and instrumental support influencing male caregivers for people with dementia living at home. Patients/Materials and Methods: The subjects were 298 male caregivers. Nursing care burden was assessed using the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale. Ability to cope with care problems was assessed using the Nursing Care Problems Coping Scale for Male Caregivers for People with Dementia Living at Home (NCSM). Emotional support was assessed using the Emotional Support Network Scale. Instrumental support was assessed using the question "Do you have someone to help when you have a problem with nursing care?"...
May 2017: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589632/effect-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-intervention-on-criminal-thinking-and-prison-misconduct-in-male-inmates-variable-oriented-and-person-oriented-analyses
#13
Glenn D Walters
BACKGROUND: There is some consensus on the value of cognitive-behaviourally informed interventions in the criminal justice system, but uncertainty about which components are of critical value. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that change in prisoners - criminal thinking and institutional misconduct - will both follow completion of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention. METHODS: A one-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was used to assess change on the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles among 219 male prisoners completing a 10-week cognitive behavioural intervention, referred to as 'Lifestyle Issues'...
June 7, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588529/program-to-promote-personal-and-social-responsibility-in-the-secondary-classroom
#14
Miguel A Carbonero, Luis J Martín-Antón, Lourdes Otero, Eugenio Monsalvo
The performance of school children has been studied by considering partial relationships between several personal variables such as the link between cognition and motivation. However, contextual variables, such as a child's willingness to accept social responsibility, also influence students' social and academic performance. Thus, students with greater responsibility have a better attitude toward their studies, resulting in higher academic achievement. This 2-year study aims to reveal to what extent an intervention program affects student performance and is based on the Theory of Positive Action among young people proposed by Don Hellison and the Theory of Reasoned Action by Fishbein and Ajzen...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579480/sensory-reactivity-empathizing-and-systemizing-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-and-sensory-processing-disorder
#15
Teresa Tavassoli, Lucy Jane Miller, Sarah A Schoen, Jennifer Jo Brout, Jillian Sullivan, Simon Baron-Cohen
Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD). To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578379/social-cognition-in-autism-face-tuning
#16
Marina A Pavlova, Michele Guerreschi, Lucia Tagliavento, Filippo Gitti, Alexander N Sokolov, Andreas J Fallgatter, Elisa Fazzi
Faces convey valuable information for social cognition, effective interpersonal interaction, and non-verbal communication. Face perception is believed to be atypical in autism, but the origin of this deficit is controversial. Dominant featural face encoding is suggested to be responsible for face tuning scarcity. Here we used a recently developed Face-n-Food paradigm for studying face tuning in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The key benefit of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face processing...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571036/sexual-dynamics-of-married-women-with-interpersonal-dependency-a-qualitative-study-on-iranian-women
#17
Marziye Sharifi, Maryam Fatehizade, Fatemeh Bahrami, Rezvan Alsadat Jazayeri, Ozra Etemadi
BACKGROUND: Considering the lack of documented research on the sexuality of dependent persons, this qualitative study examined sexual dynamics among Iranian married women with excessive interpersonal dependency. METHODS: Interviews with 18 married women with high interpersonal dependency were coded using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three major areas emerged from the data under which the themes clustered. These were (1) intrapersonal level which included confused sexual cognitions, intrusive thoughts during sex, preoccupation by sexual thoughts, low tolerance for reduction or interruption of sexual activity, and emotional distress during sex, (2) interactional dynamics including imposing pressure on the husband to have sex and assuming a submissive and receptive role during sex, and (3) contextual processes including social stigma and the effects of social phenomena...
June 2, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569390/do-children-and-adolescents-have-different-types-of-trauma-narratives-and-does-it-matter-reliability-and-face-validation-for-a-narrative-taxonomy
#18
Michael S Scheeringa, Megan E Lilly, Allison B Staiger, Maren L Heller, Edward G Jones, Carl F Weems
The construction of trauma narratives is a major component of several psychotherapy approaches for trauma-related problems, but questions remain as to whether fully expressive narratives are necessary and whether it is detrimental to ask avoidant youths to tell their narratives repeatedly. Characteristics of trauma narratives during psychotherapy have not been examined in youths and this represents a salient gap in knowledge. This study aimed to begin filling this gap by identifying categories of trauma narratives and empirically validating them...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553662/subsistence-styles-shape-human-social-learning-strategies
#19
Luke Glowacki, Lucas Molleman
Social learning is a fundamental element of human cognition. Learning from others facilitates the transmission of information that helps individuals and groups rapidly adjust to new environments and underlies adaptive cultural evolution1-6. While basic human propensities for social learning are traditionally assumed to be species-universal1,7, recent empirical studies show that they vary between individuals and populations8-13. Yet the causes of this variation remain poorly understood9. Here we show that interdependence in everyday social and economic activities can strongly amplify social learning...
April 28, 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553216/autistic-children-show-a-surprising-relationship-between-global-visual-perception-non-verbal-intelligence-and-visual-parvocellular-function-not-seen-in-typically-developing-children
#20
Alyse C Brown, David P Crewther
Despite much current research into the visual processing style of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), understanding of the neural mechanisms is lagging, especially with respect to the contributions of the overlapping dichotomies of magnocellular/parvocellular (afferent neural pathways), global/local (perception) and dorsal/ventral (cortical streams). Here, we addressed this deficiency by measuring inspection times (ITs) for novel global/local stimuli as well as recording nonlinear visually evoked potentials (VEPs), in particular, magnocellular and parvocellular temporal efficiencies...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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