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Cognitive styles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742115/mind-wandering-during-attention-performance-effects-of-adhd-inattention-symptomatology-negative-mood-ruminative-response-style-and-working-memory-capacity
#1
Lisa M Jonkman, C Rob Markus, Michael S Franklin, Jens H van Dalfsen
OBJECTIVE: In adulthood, depressive mood is often comorbid with ADHD, but its role in ADHD-inattentiveness and especially relations with mind wandering remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of laboratory-induced dysphoric mood on task-unrelated mind wandering and its consequences on cognitive task performance in college students with high (n = 46) or low (n = 44) ADHD-Inattention symptomatology and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity symptoms in the normal range. METHODS: These non-clinical high/low ADHD-Inattention symptom groups underwent negative or positive mood induction after which mind wandering frequency was measured in a sustained attention (SART), and a reading task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740475/the-cognitive-information-effect-of-televised-news
#2
REVIEW
George Lăzăroiu, Aurel Pera, Ramona O Ştefănescu-Mihăilă, Sofia Bratu, Nela Mircică
The purpose of this review is to summarize the key findings which prove that the biased perceptions of viewers may provide an inaccurate image of the informational validity of televised news. The news may generate distorted recollections of what occurred in particular reported events if displayed routines influence viewers not to pay attention to the essential features of a narrative. Elaborating on Fiske and Hartley (2010), Zelizer (2010), and Gunter (2015), we indicate that the character of the news setting has altered and individuals' news consumption routines have changed in adapting to media advancements...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735169/aberrant-link-between-empathy-and-social-attribution-style-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#3
Philipp Homan, Marianne C Reddan, Tobias Brosch, Harold W Koenigsberg, Daniela Schiller
In social interactions, we often need to quickly infer why other people do what they do. More often than not, we infer that behavior is a result of personality rather than circumstances. It is unclear how the tendency itself may contribute to psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe interpersonal dysfunction. Here, we investigated if this dysfunction is related to the tendency to over-attribute behaviors to personality traits. Healthy controls and patients with BPD judged positive and negative behaviors presented within a situational constraint during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732799/monocausal-attribution-and-its-relationship-with-reasoning-biases-in-schizophrenia
#4
Steffen Moritz, Richard P Bentall, Katharina Kolbeck, Daniela Roesch-Ely
BACKGROUND: Aberrant attributional styles are counted to a set of circumscribed cognitive biases that are implicated in the pathogenesis of (paranoid) psychosis. However, evidence for a specific profile (e.g., an exaggerated self-serving bias, other-blaming bias) has become equivocal over the years. More recently, one-sided (monocausal) attributions have been reported in patients with psychosis. METHODS: We compared a large sample of patients with diagnosed schizophrenia (n=145) to nonclinical controls (n=30) on a revised version of the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ-R)...
July 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728618/binge-viewing-sleep-and-the-role-of-pre-sleep-arousal
#5
Liese Exelmans, Jan Van den Bulck
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of binge viewing, its association with sleep and examine arousal as an underlying mechanism of this association. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-three adults (aged 18-25 years old, 61.9% female) completed an online survey assessing regular television viewing, binge viewing, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), fatigue (Fatigue Assessment Scale), insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), and pre-sleep arousal (Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727758/longevity-effect-of-a-polysaccharide-from-chlorophytum-borivilianum-on-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Steve Thomas Pannakal, Sibylle Jäger, Albert Duranton, Amit Tewari, Subarna Saha, Aneesha Radhakrishnan, Nita Roy, Jean François Kuntz, Soraya Fermas, Darryl James, Jane Mellor, Namita Misra, Lionel Breton
The traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, provides insights and practical solutions towards a healthy life style. Rasayana is a branch of Ayurveda known for preserving and promoting health, enhancing the quality of life and delaying the aging process. In the traditional knowledge, the Rasayana herb, Chlorophytum borivilianum (C. borivilanum) is regarded as a general health promoting tonic that delays aging and increases lifespan, cognitive function and physical strength. Aging is a complex and multifactorial physiological phenomenon that manifests itself over a wide range of biological systems, tissues, and functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715595/lifestyle-physical-activity-and-cognitive-functions-the-impact-on-the-scores-of-montreal-cognitive-assessment-moca
#7
A Innocenti, D M Cammisuli, D Sgromo, F Franzoni, J Fusi, F Galetta, C Pruneti
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening tool, including subtests to assess several cognitive domains, developed to detect MCI from normal ageing cognitive changes. Several validation and normative studies have conducted around the world considering the influences of age and education on the MoCA score, but none takes into account the lifestyle and habits. However, lifestyles, and particularly physical activity (PA) have been positively associated with both physical and mental health in elderly...
July 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712729/gene-by-cognition-interaction-on-stress-induced-attention-bias-for-food-effects-of-5-httlpr-and-ruminative-thinking
#8
Robbie Schepers, C Rob Markus
INTRODUCTION: Stress is often found to increase the preference and intake of high caloric foods. This effect is known as emotional eating and is influenced by cognitive as well as biological stress vulnerabilities. An S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene has been linked to decreased (brain) serotonin efficiency, leading to decreased stress resilience and increased risks for negative affect and eating related disturbances. Recently it has been proposed that a cognitive ruminative thinking style can further exacerbate the effect of this gene by prolonging the already increased stress response, thereby potentially increasing the risk of compensating by overeating high palatable foods...
July 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708861/incidental-mood-state-before-dissonance-induction-affects-attitude-change
#9
Marie-Amélie Martinie, Yves Almecija, Christine Ros, Sandrine Gil
The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702447/effects-of-physical-activity-on-debilitating-behaviours-in-13-to-20-year-old-males-with-severe-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Linda Duffy, Bahman Baluch, Sarah Welland, Evren Raman
The presented study investigated the extent to which engaging in a therapeutic sporting programme in males with severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improves the debilitating behaviours commonly associated with ASD. Furthermore, the views of parents of the autistic participants were assessed concerning the effectiveness of the programme. Participants were eight 13- to 20-year-old males born in the United Kingdom from a school and sports college for pupils with severe learning difficulties. The selection was using volunteer sampling from the "Monday Club" initiative, run by Saracens Sports Foundation in partnership with a local school and specialist sports college...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701989/supramodal-enhancement-of-auditory-perceptual-and-cognitive-learning-by-video-game-playing
#11
Yu-Xuan Zhang, Ding-Lan Tang, David R Moore, Sygal Amitay
Medical rehabilitation involving behavioral training can produce highly successful outcomes, but those successes are obtained at the cost of long periods of often tedious training, reducing compliance. By contrast, arcade-style video games can be entertaining and highly motivating. We examine here the impact of video game play on contiguous perceptual training. We alternated several periods of auditory pure-tone frequency discrimination (FD) with the popular spatial visual-motor game Tetris played in silence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690563/modeling-infant-i-s-look-on-trial-t-race-face-preference-depends-on-i-s-looking-style
#12
Hoben Thomas, Ina Fassbender
When employing between-infant designs young infants' looking style is related to their development: Short looking (SL) infants are cognitively accelerated over their long looking (LL) peers. In fact, looking style is a within-infant variable, and depends on infant i's look distribution over trials. For the paired array setting, a model is provided which specifies the probability, π i ∈ [0, 1], that i is SL. The model is employed in a face preference study; 74 Caucasian infants were longitudinally assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685273/bayesian-techniques-for-analyzing-group-differences-in-the-iowa-gambling-task-a-case-study-of-intuitive-and-deliberate-decision-makers
#13
REVIEW
Helen Steingroever, Thorsten Pachur, Martin Šmíra, Michael D Lee
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most popular experimental paradigms for comparing complex decision-making across groups. Most commonly, IGT behavior is analyzed using frequentist tests to compare performance across groups, and to compare inferred parameters of cognitive models developed for the IGT. Here, we present a Bayesian alternative based on Bayesian repeated-measures ANOVA for comparing performance, and a suite of three complementary model-based methods for assessing the cognitive processes underlying IGT performance...
July 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682091/a-quantum-probability-framework-for-human-probabilistic-inference
#14
Jennifer S Trueblood, James M Yearsley, Emmanuel M Pothos
There is considerable variety in human inference (e.g., a doctor inferring the presence of a disease, a juror inferring the guilt of a defendant, or someone inferring future weight loss based on diet and exercise). As such, people display a wide range of behaviors when making inference judgments. Sometimes, people's judgments appear Bayesian (i.e., normative), but in other cases, judgments deviate from the normative prescription of classical probability theory. How can we combine both Bayesian and non-Bayesian influences in a principled way? We propose a unified explanation of human inference using quantum probability theory...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680314/physical-activity-level-of-ambulatory-stroke-patients-is-it-related-to-neuropsychological-factors
#15
Burcu Ersöz Hüseyinsinoğlu, Gökşen Kuran Aslan, Devrim Tarakci, Arzu Razak Özdinçler, Hayriye Küçükoğlu, Sevim Baybaş
INTRODUCTION: Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence. There is insufficient knowledge about the physical activity (PA) level in stroke patients who are ambulatory in the subacute phase. Our aim was to compare the PA level between ambulatory stroke patients and a population of the same age and to investigate neuropsychological factors that could affect the PA level in the same stroke group. METHODS: Eighty-five subacute stroke patients and 58 healthy subjects were included...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678448/-psychotherapy-training-for-psychiatrists-issues-and-challenges
#16
Jean-Nicolas Despland, Alessandra Duc Marwood, Fabrice Herrera, Giorgio Enrico Maccaferri
Since the adoption of the Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist double title in 1961, the medical training in psychotherapy must obey specific requirements. In parallel to the clinical practice, the supervisions and the personal experience, 180 hours of theoretical training are required, in each of the psychotherapeutic orientations chosen by the medical doctor (psychodynamic, family / systemic and behavioural and cognitive therapies). Even though the effectiveness of these treatments is well established and there is no significant difference between psychotherapeutic schools in this respect, the choice of an orientation for psychotherapy training requires an adequate pedagogic process, both on the theoretical side, and in the ability to choose a suitable form of psychotherapeutic treatment adapted to the psychiatrist's conversational style...
September 21, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669422/slower-resting-alpha-frequency-is-associated-with-superior-localisation-of-moving-targets
#17
Christina J Howard, Craig P A Arnold, Matthew K Belmonte
We examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of individual differences in the ability to maintain up-to-date representations of the positions of moving objects. In two experiments similar to the multiple object tracking (MOT) task, we asked observers to monitor continuously one or several targets as they moved unpredictably for a semi-random period. After all objects disappeared, observers were immediately prompted to report the perceived final position of one queried target. Precision of these position reports declined with attentional load, and reports tended to best resemble positions occupied by the queried target between 0 and 30ms in the past...
June 29, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666025/comparison-of-the-cba-h-and-sf-36-for-the-screening-of-the-psychological-and-behavioural-variables-in-chronic-dialysis-patients
#18
Concetta De Pasquale, Daniela Conti, Maria Luisa Pistorio, Pasquale Fatuzzo, Massimiliano Veroux, Santo Di Nuovo
The aim of the study was to perform an analysis of the emotional reactions, perception of stressful life and behavioural changes related to Haemodialysis (HD) in order to identify those variables that can improve lifestyle and the adherence to treatment. Some psychometric assessment, such as the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment, Hospital Form, (CBA-H) and the Health Survey (SF-36), which provides two indexes: the Physical Component Score (PCS) and the Mental Component Score (MCS), are suitable to assess a patient's psychological and behavioural style and their health-related quality of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658051/the-relationship-between-cognitive-style-and-event-related-potentials-during-auditory-and-somatosensory-go-no-go-paradigms
#19
Minori Imanaka, Ryusuke Kakigi, Hiroki Nakata
Cognitive style including field dependence/independence (FDI) is an important factor affecting individual personalities. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between cognitive styles and the characteristics of cognitive processing using event-related potentials. We used the Embedded-Figures Test to assess the cognitive styles [field dependence (FD), field independence (FI)] of the individuals, and individuals performed auditory and somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. Participants were divided into two groups (FD and FI) on the basis of EFT scores...
June 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657472/evaluating-the-effects-of-exercise-on-cognitive-function-in-hypertensive-and-diabetic-patients-using-the-mental-test-and-training-system
#20
Robson Bonoto Teixeira, João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Paulo Roberto Santos Amorim, Israel Teoldo, Rocío Cupeiro, Marcelo Odilon Cabral de Andrade, Yuri de Lucas Xavier Martins, Pollyana de Rezende Castilho, Daniel Demétrio Magalhães, András Palotás, Luciana Moreira Lima
OBJECTIVES: Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are important risk factors for developing cognitive impairment. General life-style changes including physical training are known to reduce elevated blood pressure and sugar levels, as well as improve mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether supervised physical exercise enhances the cognitive status of patients with chronic diseases. METHODS: Volunteers with SAH, DM or SAH + DM participated in either aerobic or resistance training during a period of 12 weeks...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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