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Cognitive styles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791275/effects-of-web-based-instruction-and-patient-preferences-on-patient-reported-outcomes-and-learning-for-women-with-advanced-ovarian-cancer-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Sue V Petzel, Rachel Isaksson Vogel, Julie Cragg, Molly McClellan, Daniel Chan, Julie A Jacko, François Sainfort, Melissa A Geller
A randomized controlled trial was conducted of a web-based intervention to improve advanced care planning in women with ovarian cancer. A secondary analysis of 35 randomized women focused on changes in distress and knowledge about ovarian cancer through distress monitoring and information tailored to patients' cognitive coping style (monitoring, blunting). Pre-/postresults indicated the Intervention group demonstrated lower distress (p = 0.06); blunting was associated with lower depression (p = 0.04); knowledge in both groups was unchanged...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788310/trajectories-of-aging-among-us-older-adults-mixed-evidence-for-a-hispanic-paradox
#2
Wassim Tarraf, Gail A Jensen, Heather E Dillaway, Priscilla Vásquez, Hector M Gonzalez
Objectives: A well-documented paradox is that Hispanics tend to live longer than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), despite structural disadvantages. We evaluate whether the "Hispanic paradox" extends to more comprehensive longitudinal aging classifications and examine how lifecourse factors relate to these groupings. Methods: We used biennial data (1998-2014) on adults 65-years and older at baseline from the Health and Retirement Study. We use joint latent class discrete time and growth curve modeling to identify trajectories of aging, and multinomial logit models to determine whether US-born (USB-H) and Foreign-born (FB-H) Hispanics experience healthier styles of aging than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), and test how lifecycle factors influence this relationship...
May 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779440/cognitive-bias-modification-for-inferential-style
#3
Noa Avirbach, Baruch Perlman, Nilly Mor
In this study, we developed a cognitive bias modification procedure that targets inferential style, and tested its effect on hope, mood, and self-esteem. Participants were randomly assigned to training conditions intended to encourage either a negative or a positive inferential style. Participants' inferences for their failure on a cognitive challenge were congruent with their training condition. Moreover, compared to participants in the positive training condition, those in the negative condition reported less hope and exhibited lower mood and self-esteem following the failure...
May 19, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770115/the-prevalence-of-pseudoscientific-ideas-and-neuromyths-among-sports-coaches
#4
Richard P Bailey, Daniel J Madigan, Ed Cope, Adam R Nicholls
There has been an exponential growth in research examining the neurological basis of human cognition and learning. Little is known, however, about the extent to which sports coaches are aware of these advances. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of pseudoscientific ideas among British and Irish sports coaches. In total, 545 coaches from the United Kingdom and Ireland completed a measure that included questions about how evidence-based theories of the brain might enhance coaching and learning, how they were exposed to these different theories, and their awareness of neuromyths...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769796/when-is-meaning-in-life-most-beneficial-to-young-people-styles-of-meaning-in-life-and-well-being-among-late-adolescents
#5
Dariusz Krok
The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of meaning in life and subjective and psychological well-being (PWB) among late adolescents. Three hundred and eighty four Polish participants completed The Personal Meaning Profile scale, The Satisfaction With Life Scale, The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, The PWB scale, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, the findings revealed that personal meaning had strong relations with subjective well-being (SWB) and PWB...
2018: Journal of Adult Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768128/the-importance-of-emotional-intelligence-and-cognitive-style-in-institutionalized-older-adults-quality-of-life
#6
Octavio Luque-Reca, Manuel Pulido-Martos, Esther Lopez-Zafra, José M Augusto-Landa
Despite previous evidence showing a positive relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and quality of life (QoL), associating older adults' emotional processing with several health indicators, few studies have explored both the IE and the a mechanisms through which they affect QoL. This cross-sectional study analyzes the mediator role of optimistic and pessimistic cognitive styles in the relationship between perceived EI (PEI) and QoL in 115 institutionalized older adults from Southern Spain. Regression analyses showed, after controlling for cognitive style, that PEI predicted a significant percentage of variance in: Health (β = ...
April 2018: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766979/playing-it-cool-characterizing-social-play-bout-termination-and-candidate-play-signals-of-juvenile-and-infant-tibetan-macaques-macaca-thibetana
#7
Kaitlin R Wright, Jessica A Mayhew, Lori K Sheeran, Jake A Funkhouser, Ronald S Wagner, Li-Xing Sun, Jin-Hua Li
Play behaviors and signals during playful interactions with juvenile conspecifics are important for both the social and cognitive development of young animals. The social organization of a species can also influence juvenile social play. We examined the relationships among play behaviors, candidate play signals, and play bout termination in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) during juvenile and infant social play to characterize the species play style. As Tibetan macaques are despotic and live in groups with strict linear dominance hierarchies and infrequent reconciliation, we predicted that play would be at risk of misinterpretation by both the individuals engaged in the play bout and by those watching, possibly leading to injury of the players...
July 18, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749625/statistical-learning-and-probabilistic-prediction-in-music-cognition-mechanisms-of-stylistic-enculturation
#8
Marcus T Pearce
Music perception depends on internal psychological models derived through exposure to a musical culture. It is hypothesized that this musical enculturation depends on two cognitive processes: (1) statistical learning, in which listeners acquire internal cognitive models of statistical regularities present in the music to which they are exposed; and (2) probabilistic prediction based on these learned models that enables listeners to organize and process their mental representations of music. To corroborate these hypotheses, I review research that uses a computational model of probabilistic prediction based on statistical learning (the information dynamics of music (IDyOM) model) to simulate data from empirical studies of human listeners...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742965/personality-characteristics-and-cognitive-appraisals-associated-with-self-discrepancy-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Elizabeth Jane Beadle, Tamara Ownsworth, Jennifer Fleming, David H K Shum
Although changes to self-identity or self-discrepancy are common after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the influence of personality characteristics and cognitive appraisals on self-discrepancy. Participants were 51 adults (74% male) with severe TBI (M age = 36.22 years; SD = 12.65) who were on average 34 months (SD = 40.29) post-injury. They completed self-report measures of personality style (optimism and defensiveness), cognitive appraisals (threat appraisals, rumination and reflection and perceived coping resources), and self-discrepancy (Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale - III)...
May 9, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741993/of-mice-men-and-trolleys-hypothetical-judgment-versus-real-life-behavior-in-trolley-style-moral-dilemmas
#10
Dries H Bostyn, Sybren Sevenhant, Arne Roets
Scholars have been using hypothetical dilemmas to investigate moral decision making for decades. However, whether people's responses to these dilemmas truly reflect the decisions they would make in real life is unclear. In the current study, participants had to make the real-life decision to administer an electroshock (that they did not know was bogus) to a single mouse or allow five other mice to receive the shock. Our results indicate that responses to hypothetical dilemmas are not predictive of real-life dilemma behavior, but they are predictive of affective and cognitive aspects of the real-life decision...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738943/feasibility-of-group-cognitive-remediation-therapy-in-an-adult-eating-disorder-day-program-in-new-zealand
#11
Marion E Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of integrating group Cognitive Remediation Therapy (gCRT) into an eating disorder day program in Auckland, New Zealand. METHOD: A consecutive series of 28 patients took part over an 8-month period in the context of a service audit. Main outcome measures were the Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire (DFlex) and qualitative feedback from patients. RESULTS: Significant shifts in self-report inefficient cognitive style were observed pre/post gCRT with large effect sizes (Cohen's dav ) for both cognitive rigidity and attention to detail outcomes...
May 2, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730994/initial-validation-of-a-transdiagnostic-compulsivity-questionnaire-the-cambridge-chicago-compulsivity-trait-scale
#12
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Compulsivity refers to a tendency toward repetitive habitual behaviors. Multiple disorders have compulsive symptoms at their core, including substance use disorders, gambling disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this study was to validate a scale for the objective, transdiagnostic measurement of compulsivity. METHODS: The 15-item Cambridge-Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T) was developed for the rapid but comprehensive measurement of compulsivity...
May 7, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729254/physical-exercise-reserved-amyloid-beta-induced-brain-dysfunctions-by-regulating-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-inflammatory-response-via-mapk-signaling
#13
Li-Na Sun, Jin-Shun Qi, Rong Gao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia that induced by aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in brain tissue. With high structural and functional plasticity, hippocampus plays fundamental roles in cognitive regulation. Moreover, impaired hippocampal functions present during early onset of AD. Hence, targeting on improving hippocampal plasticity would be recognized as the effective strategy in AD therapy. Physical exercise is widely encouraged healthy life style. However, whether exercise could reserve the neural dysfunctions in AD model and the possible neurobiological mechanism still need for better understanding...
May 2, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724708/behind-the-scenes-of-online-therapeutic-feedback-in-blended-therapy-for-depression-mixed-methods-observational-study
#14
Mayke Mol, Els Dozeman, Simon Provoost, Anneke van Schaik, Heleen Riper, Johannes H Smit
BACKGROUND: In Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapies (iCBT), written feedback by therapists is a substantial part of therapy. However, it is not yet known how this feedback should be given best and which specific therapist behaviors and content are most beneficial for patients. General instructions for written feedback are available, but the uptake and effectiveness of these instructions in iCBT have not been studied yet. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify therapist behaviors in written online communication with patients in blended CBT for adult depression in routine secondary mental health care, to identify the extent to which the therapists adhere to feedback instructions, and to explore whether therapist behaviors and adherence to feedback instructions are associated with patient outcome...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720167/development-of-a-neonatal-curriculum-for-medical-students-in-zimbabwe-a-cross-sectional-survey
#15
Simbarashe Chimhuya, Bothwell Mbuwayesango, Eva M Aagaard, Kusum J Nathoo
BACKGROUND: Calls have been made to reassess the curricula of medical schools throughout the world to adopt competence-based programs that address the healthcare needs of society. Zimbabwe is a country characterized by a high neonatal mortality rate of 24 per 1000 live births. The current research sought to determine the content and appropriate teaching strategies needed to guide the development of an undergraduate neonatal curriculum map for medical students at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences...
May 2, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708820/brain-to-brain-synchrony-and-learning-outcomes-vary-by-student-teacher-dynamics-evidence-from-a-real-world-classroom-electroencephalography-study
#16
Dana Bevilacqua, Ido Davidesco, Lu Wan, Matthias Oostrik, Kim Chaloner, Jess Rowland, Mingzhou Ding, David Poeppel, Suzanne Dikker
How does the human brain support real-world learning? We used wireless electroencephalography to collect neurophysiological data from a group of 12 senior high school students and their teacher during regular biology lessons. Six scheduled classes over the course of the semester were organized such that class materials were presented using different teaching styles (videos and lectures), and students completed a multiple-choice quiz after each class to measure their retention of that lesson's content. Both students' brain-to-brain synchrony and their content retention were higher for videos than lectures across the six classes...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706924/metacognitive-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-an-a-b-replication-series-across-social-anxiety-subtypes
#17
Henrik Nordahl, Adrian Wells
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for Social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, factors additional to those emphasised in CBT are the primary cause of psychological disorder according to the metacognitive model. Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) aims to target a perseverative thinking style named the cognitive attentional syndrome and its underlying metacognitive beliefs (beliefs about cognition). The present study aimed to explore the effects of generic MCT for SAD. Treatment related effects were evaluated using direct replication single case (A-B) methodology across three patients with different subtypes of SAD; performance type, generalised and generalised plus avoidant personality disorder, representing increasing SAD severity/complexity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704744/the-role-of-psychological-distancing-in-appreciation-of-art-can-native-versus-foreign-language-context-affect-responses-to-abstract-and-representational-paintings
#18
Elena Stephan, Miriam Faust, Katy Borodkin
Our work examines the role of psychological distancing in responses to art. We argued that the context of a foreign (vs native) language may distance the individual away from the pragmatic everyday perception style and enhance appreciation of paintings. We established the distinction between the sets of abstract and representational paintings in terms of perceptual-cognitive features and affective responses (Study 1). Then, we examined the influence of language context on appreciation of paintings. When examined separately, abstract paintings were better appreciated within a foreign (than native) language context (Study 2a), whereas appreciation of representational paintings was not significantly enhanced by a foreign language (Study 2b)...
April 25, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699842/effects-of-appraisal-training-on-responses-to-a-distressing-autobiographical-event
#19
Marcella L Woud, Armin Zlomuzica, Jan C Cwik, Jürgen Margraf, Lorika Shkreli, Simon E Blackwell, Thomas E Gladwin, Thomas Ehring
Dysfunctional appraisals are a key factor suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Research has shown that experimental induction of a positive or negative appraisal style following a laboratory stressor affects analogue posttraumatic stress symptoms. This supports a causal role of appraisal in the development of traumatic stress symptoms and the therapeutic promise of modifying appraisals to reduce PTSD symptoms. The present study aimed to extend previous findings by investigating the effects of experimentally induced appraisals on reactions to a naturally occurring analogue trauma and by examining effects on both explicit and implicit appraisals...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683028/the-factors-associated-with-anxiety-symptom-severity-in-older-adults-living-in-nursing-homes-and-other-residential-aged-care-facilities
#20
Alexandra S Creighton, Tanya E Davison, David W Kissane
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the biopsychosocial factors associated with anxiety among a residential aged care sample. METHOD: A total of 178 residents ( M age = 85.4 years, SD = 7.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment or normal cognition participated. Participants completed the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and a set of measures assessing cognition, depression, self-perceived health, mastery, attachment, perceived social support, social engagement, functional status, the experience of a fall, and other negative life events...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
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