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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914472/imitation-inspiration-and-creation-cognitive-process-of-creative-drawing-by-copying-others-artworks
#1
Takeshi Okada, Kentaro Ishibashi
To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without having seen another's work; and (c) copying another artist's work, then reproducing that artist's style independently. We discovered that through copying unfamiliar abstract drawings, participants were able to produce creative drawings qualitatively different from the model drawings...
September 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903595/religious-coping-and-defense-style-in-a-sample-of-persons-with-cognitive-complaints
#2
Leila S Abuelhiga, Kevin Mazzola, Lana A Tiersky, Benjamin Freer, Evelina Eyzerovich, Michelle A Pievsky, Usha D Persaud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898168/practice-evaluation-strategies-among-social-workers-why-an-evidence-informed-dual-process-theory-still-matters
#3
Thomas D Davis
Practice evaluation strategies range in style from the formal-analytic tools of single-subject designs, rapid assessment instruments, algorithmic steps in evidence-informed practice, and computer software applications, to the informal-interactive tools of clinical supervision, consultation with colleagues, use of client feedback, and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to provide practice researchers in social work with an evidence-informed theory that is capable of explaining both how and why social workers use practice evaluation strategies to self-monitor the effectiveness of their interventions in terms of client change...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892126/peer-victimization-predicts-heightened-inflammatory-reactivity-to-social-stress-in-cognitively-vulnerable-adolescents
#4
Matteo Giletta, George M Slavich, Karen D Rudolph, Paul D Hastings, Matthew K Nock, Mitchell J Prinstein
BACKGROUND: During adolescence, peer victimization is a potent type of social stressor that can confer enduring risk for poor mental and physical health. Given recent research implicating inflammation in promoting a variety of serious mental and physical health problems, this study examined the role that peer victimization and cognitive vulnerability (i.e. negative cognitive styles and hopelessness) play in shaping adolescents' pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to an acute social stressor...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888729/easy-going-rational-susceptible-and-struggling-eaters-a-segmentation-study-based-on-eating-behaviour-tendencies
#5
Saara Pentikäinen, Anne Arvola, Leila Karhunen, Kyösti Pennanen
Eating behaviour tendencies, emotional eating (EE), uncontrolled eating (UE) and cognitive restraint (CR), are associated with various indicators of physical and mental health. Therefore, it is important to understand these tendencies in order to design interventions to improve health. Previous research has mostly examined eating behaviour tendencies individually, without considering typical combinations of these tendencies or their manifestation in well-being and food choices. This study aimed to understand the interactive occurrence of EE, UE and CR in two independent populations...
September 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885041/developmental-origins-of-rumination-in-middle-childhood-the-roles-of-early-temperament-and-positive-parenting
#6
Tina H Schweizer, Thomas M Olino, Margaret W Dyson, Rebecca S Laptook, Daniel N Klein
Rumination, a thinking style characterized by a repetitive inward focus on negative cognitions, has been linked to internalizing disorders, particularly depression. Moreover, research suggests that rumination may be a cognitive vulnerability that predisposes individuals to psychopathology. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the etiology and development of rumination. The present study examined the role of specific components of child temperamental negative emotionality (sadness, fear, anger) and effortful control (inhibition), as well as parenting behaviors during early childhood on the development of rumination in middle childhood...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882811/effect-of-caffeine-on-attention-and-alertness-measured-in-a-home-setting-using-web-based-cognition-tests
#7
Wilrike J Pasman, Ruud Boessen, Yoni Donner, Nard Clabbers, André Boorsma
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest among nutritional researchers to perform lifestyle and nutritional intervention studies in a home setting instead of testing subjects in a clinical unit. The term used in other disciplines is 'ecological validity' stressing a realistic situation. This becomes more and more feasible because devices and self-tests that enable such studies are more commonly available. Here, we present such a study in which we reproduced the effect of caffeine on attention and alertness in an at-home setting...
September 7, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879495/a-quantum-theory-account-of-order-effects-and-conjunction-fallacies-in-political-judgments
#8
James M Yearsley, Jennifer S Trueblood
Are our everyday judgments about the world around us normative? Decades of research in the judgment and decision-making literature suggest the answer is no. If people's judgments do not follow normative rules, then what rules if any do they follow? Quantum probability theory is a promising new approach to modeling human behavior that is at odds with normative, classical rules. One key advantage of using quantum theory is that it explains multiple types of judgment errors using the same basic machinery, unifying what have previously been thought of as disparate phenomena...
September 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878722/prenatal-internal-locus-of-control-is-positively-associated-with-offspring-iq-mediated-through-parenting-behavior-prenatal-lifestyle-and-social-circumstances
#9
Jean Golding, Steven Gregory, Genette L Ellis, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Stephen Nowicki
Locus of control (LOC) is a measure that identifies the likelihood as to whether an individual considers what happens to him is largely a matter of luck or fate (known as externally oriented) or whether it is something that the individual can influence (internality). Here we have used data collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to determine the associations between the mothers' LOC orientation before the birth of the child and her child's cognition measured at age 8...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878672/differences-in-spatial-memory-recognition-due-to-cognitive-style
#10
Laura Tascón, Maddalena Boccia, Laura Piccardi, José M Cimadevilla
Field independence refers to the ability to perceive details from the surrounding context as a whole and to represent the environment by relying on an internal reference frame. Conversely, field dependence individuals tend to focus their attention on single environmental features analysing them individually. This cognitive style affects several visuo-spatial abilities including spatial memory. This study assesses both the effect of field independence and field dependence on performance displayed on virtual environments of different complexity...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874742/global-local-processing-relates-to-spatial-and-verbal-processing-implications-for-sex-differences-in-cognition
#11
Belinda Pletzer, Andrea Scheuringer, Thomas Scherndl
Sex differences have been reported for a variety of cognitive tasks and related to the use of different cognitive processing styles in men and women. It was recently argued that these processing styles share some characteristics across tasks, i.e. male approaches are oriented towards holistic stimulus aspects and female approaches are oriented towards stimulus details. In that respect, sex-dependent cognitive processing styles share similarities with attentional global-local processing. A direct relationship between cognitive processing and global-local processing has however not been previously established...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867938/environmental-transmission-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-from-parents-to-children-worries-experiential-avoidance-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty
#12
Evin Aktar, Milica Nikolić, Susan M Bögels
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) runs in families. Building on recent theoretical approaches, this review focuses on potential environmental pathways for parent-to-child transmission of GAD. First, we address child acquisition of a generalized pattern of fearful/anxious and avoidant responding to potential threat from parents via verbal information and via modeling. Next, we address how parenting behaviors may contribute to maintenance of fearful/anxious and avoidant reactions in children. Finally, we consider intergenerational transmission of worries as a way of coping with experiential avoidance of strong negative emotions and with intolerance of uncertainty...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863602/clear-speech-and-lexical-competition-in-younger-and-older-adult-listeners
#13
Kristin J Van Engen
This study investigated whether clear speech reduces the cognitive demands of lexical competition by crossing speaking style with lexical difficulty. Younger and older adults identified more words in clear versus conversational speech and more easy words than hard words. An initial analysis suggested that the effect of lexical difficulty was reduced in clear speech, but more detailed analyses within each age group showed this interaction was significant only for older adults. The results also showed that both groups improved over the course of the task and that clear speech was particularly helpful for individuals with poorer hearing: for younger adults, clear speech eliminated hearing-related differences that affected performance on conversational speech...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860729/aging-and-extrapulmonary-effects-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Emanuela Tudorache, Ariadna Petronela Fildan, Mirela Frandes, Elena Dantes, Doina Ecaterina Tofolean
INTRODUCTION: People with COPD have a decline in functional status, but little is known about the rate of decline and factors that contribute. Of particular concern is the decline in cognitive and functional performance. Decrease in cognitive and functional performance will finally lead to decreased health status, sedentary life style and premature frailty. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare functional performance and cognitive status in patients with COPD of different ages and to examine the changes in extrapulmonary effects...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855880/effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-training-via-smartphones
#15
Ranming Yang, Lixia Cui, Feng Li, Jing Xiao, Qin Zhang, Tian P S Oei
Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different types of training programmes (cognitive bias modification-attention, CBM-A; cognitive bias modification-interpretation, CBM-I; attention and interpretation modification, AIM) administered via smart-phones by using a control condition (CC)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843239/evaluation-of-cognitive-functions-in-iranian-children-and-adolescents-with-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Ata Pourabbasi, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Soqra Ebrahimi Qavam, Jalal Farzami, Bagher Larijani
Diabetes in children and adolescents is a chronic condition with an expanding trend in the community. Several studies have shown cognitive dysfunctions are the most important side effects of diabetes among individuals of younger ages. Due to cultural differences and their impact on cognitive issues, the authors decided to assess the cognitive functions of Iranian children and adolescents with diabetes. Cognitive functions including memory, attention and executive functions were evaluated in 62 diabetic children and adolescents and healthy peers using CANTAB cognitive tests...
June 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840895/the-evaluation-of-a-continuing-professional-development-package-for-primary-care-dentists-designed-to-reduce-stress-build-resilience-and-improve-clinical-decision-making
#17
H R Chapman, S Y Chipchase, R Bretherton
Introduction Stress and burnout are widely accepted as a problem for primary care dental practitioners. Previous programmes to address this issue have met with some success. Burnout is associated with poor coping skills and emotion regulation, and increased rates of clinical errors. Anxiety is associated with poor decision-making and is thought to be associated with poor clinical decision-making. Attempts to improve decision-making use increasing meta-awareness and review of thinking processes. Bibliotherapy is an effective method of delivering cognitive behavioural therapy as self-help or guided self-help (with some therapist input) formats...
August 25, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836147/reduced-emotional-empathy-in-adults-with-subclinical-adhd-evidence-from-the-empathy-and-systemizing-quotient
#18
Y Groen, A E den Heijer, A B M Fuermaier, M Althaus, O Tucha
Studies in children with ADHD suggest impairments in social cognitive functions, whereas studies in adults with ADHD are scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ADHD traits and self-reported social cognitive style in a sample of adults from the general population. For this purpose, a community sample of 685 adults filled out online self-report questionnaires about ADHD symptoms (ADHD Rating Scale, ARS), social cognitive functioning and friendships. The Empathy Quotient (EQ) with the subscales Cognitive Empathy (CE), Emotional Empathy (EE) and Social Skills (SS), and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were included for measuring social cognitive style and the Friendship Questionnaire (FQ) for the quality of friendships...
August 23, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829653/twelve-month-prospective-cohort-study-of-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-relatives-coping-satisfaction-with-life-and-neurological-functioning
#19
Chiara S Haller
BACKGROUND: To examine the associations between the functioning of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), and their relatives' coping style and quality of life across 12 months post-injury. METHODS: Prospective, population-based cohort study assessing 188 patients with severe TBI (Abbreviated Injury Scale of the head region [HAIS] score >3), and their relatives, 3, 6 and 12 months post-injury. Data were drawn from a larger national study run in Switzerland (2007-2011)...
August 22, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826378/improvement-in-adult-anxious-and-avoidant-attachment-during-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-panic-disorder
#20
Dina Zalaznik, Michal Weiss, Jonathan D Huppert
OBJECTIVE: This study examined attachment within the framework of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) by measuring the changes in avoidant and anxious attachment in a session-by-session analysis. METHOD: Thirty-one patients with PDA were treated using CBT. Pre-session data on attachment style (ECR), avoidance behaviors (MI-alone: MI-al; MI-accompanied: MI-ac), anxiety sensitivity (ASI), emotion regulation (ERQ), and working alliance (WAI) were collected...
August 22, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
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