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Thinking styles or cognitive styles or intellectual styles

Stefanie J Schmidt, Ayla Behar, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Noam Schneck, Tao Tu, Christina A Michel, George A Bonanno, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Grieving individuals demonstrate attentional bias toward reminders of the deceased versus neutral stimuli. We sought to assess bias toward reminders of the deceased versus a living attachment figure and to evaluate similarities and differences in the neural correlates of deceased- and living-related attention. We also sought to identify grief process variables associated with deceased-related attentional bias. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects grieving the death of a first-degree relative or partner within 14 months performed an emotional Stroop task, using words related to a deceased or a living attachment figure, and a standard Stroop task, to identify general selective attention, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Kyung Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: An important goal of nursing education is helping students achieve core competencies efficiently. One proposed way of improving nursing education is team-based learning (TBL). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the comparative effectiveness of TBL and lecture-style classes in terms of teaching core competencies in nursing education, which include clinical competence skills, problem-solving ability, communication competencies, critical thinking ability, and self-leadership...
April 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Anna Zdolska-Wawrzkiewicz, Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś, Mariola Bidzan
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates the connections in pregnant women between their mother attachment style and their self-image as a mother, the image of their mother as a mother, and their bond with the unborn child. BACKGROUND: The relationship with one's mother plays a crucial role in the process of becoming a mother. It influences what a pregnant woman thinks about herself as a mother. This relationship is a predictor of the bond with the child during the pregnancy...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Michael Lyvers, Susan M Kohlsdorf, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
The present study explored relationships between alexithymia-a trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings and an external thinking style-and negative moods, negative mood regulation expectancies, facial recognition of emotions, emotional empathy, and alcohol consumption. The sample consisted of 102 university (primarily psychology) students (13 men, 89 women) aged 18 to 50 years (M = 22.18 years). Participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMRS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Jiaxi Peng, Jiaxi Zhang, Yan Zhang, Pinjia Gong, Bing Han, Hao Sun, Fei Cao, Danmin Miao
The current study aims to explore how the decision-making style of maximizing affects subjective well-being (SWB), which mainly focuses on the confirmation of the mediator role of regret and suppressing role of achievement motivation. A total of 402 Chinese undergraduate students participated in this study, in which they responded to the maximization, regret, and achievement motivation scales and SWB measures. Results suggested that maximizing significantly predicted SWB. Moreover, regret and achievement motivation (hope for success dimension) could completely mediate and suppress this effect...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel M Walker, Terri Menser, Po-Yin Yen, Ann Scheck McAlearney
BACKGROUND:  Patient portals specifically designed for the inpatient setting have significant potential to improve patient care. However, little is known about how the users of this technology, the patients, may interact with the inpatient portals. As a result, hospitals have limited ability to design approaches that support patient use of the portal. OBJECTIVES:  This study aims to evaluate the user experience associated with an inpatient portal. METHODS:  We used a Think-Aloud protocol to study user interactions with a commercially available inpatient portal-MyChart Bedside (MCB)...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Lora Capobianco, Julie A Morris, Adrian Wells
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression have been linked to repetitive negative self-regulation styles in the form of worry and rumination respectively. Following predictions of the metacognitive model [Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1994). Attention and emotion: A clinical perspective. Hove: Erlbaum], the current study compared the effect on recovery from stress of three strategies: worry, rumination, and distraction using a stress exposure paradigm. It was predicted that worry and/or rumination would be associated with delayed recovery on physiological and/or self-report indices when compared to distraction...
February 12, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Sarah Elizabeth Golding, Birgitta Gatersleben, Mark Cropley
Exposure to natural environments has been shown to have beneficial effects on mood. Rumination is a thinking style associated with negative mood, and sometimes depression, and is characterized by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, often with a negative emotional element. This study investigated whether exposure to nature, operationalized using photographs presented as a slideshow, could aid reduction in levels of state rumination. An experimental, within-between (Time x Condition) participant design was used; participants (n = 58) undertook a presentation task designed to induce rumination and influence mood...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daisy Shrimpton, Deborah McGann, Leigh M Riby
Current research into mind-wandering is beginning to acknowledge that this process is one of heterogeneity. Following on from previous findings highlighting the role of self-focus during mind wandering, the present study aimed to examine individual differences in rumination and self-reflection and the impact such styles of self-focus may have on mind-wandering experiences. Thirty-three participants were required to complete the Sustained Attention Response Task (SART), aimed at inducing mind-wandering episodes, whilst also probing the content of thought in terms of temporal focus...
November 2017: Europe's Journal of Psychology
Leslie J Day
A flipped classroom is a growing pedagogy in higher education. Many research studies on the flipped classroom have focused on student outcomes, with the results being positive or inconclusive. A few studies have analyzed confounding variables, such as student's previous achievement, or the impact of a flipped classroom on long-term retention and knowledge transfer. In the present study, students in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program in a traditional style lecture of gross anatomy (n = 105) were compared to similar students in a flipped classroom (n = 112)...
January 22, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
Namrata Chhabra, Sahiba Kukreja, Sarah Chhabra, Sahil Chhabra, Sameenah Khodabux, Harshal Sabane
Background: Team-based learning (TBL) strategy has been widely adapted by medical schools all over the world, but the reports regarding the perceptions and the attitudes of faculty and undergraduate medical students towards TBL approach have been conflicting. Aim: The study aimed to introduce TBL strategy in curriculum of Biochemistry after evaluating its effectiveness through perceptions and attitudes of faculty and 1st-year medical students. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty students of first professional M...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Thomas Talhelm
This study tests whether liberals and conservatives within the same society think as if they were from different cultures. I tested this by measuring the cultural thought style of social liberals and conservatives in Hong Kong (Study 1). Liberals tended to think more analytically (more "WEIRD"), and conservatives tended to think more holistically (more common in East Asia). In Study 2, I trained people to think analytically or holistically before they read articles on political issues. Analytic thought caused people to form more liberal opinions, and holistic thought caused people to form more conservative opinions...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Po-Yin Yen, Daniel M Walker, Jessica M Garvey Smith, Michelle P Zhou, Terri L Menser, Ann Scheck McAlearney
OBJECTIVES: Patient portals designed for inpatients have potential to increase patient engagement. However, little is known about how patients use inpatient portals. To address this gap, we aimed to understand how users 1) interact with, 2) learn to use, and 3) communicate with their providers through an inpatient portal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a usability evaluation using think-aloud protocol to study user interactions with a commercially available inpatient portal - MyChart Bedside (MCB)...
February 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Kyo-Man Koo, Chae-Hee Park, Chun-Jong Kim
The purpose of this study was to develop strategies for promoting physical activity for the disabled older adults who were in the transtheoretical model of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages about participating physical activities for promoting healthy life-styles. In order to achieve this goal, we developed a preliminary strategy for promoting physical activity for the elderly with disabilities based on the data gathered through the ground-work studies and the results of the research on the changes of the exercise behavior directly investigated from the elderly with disabilities...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Philip Heffer-Rahn, Peter L Fisher
AIM: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease that poses significant life challenges. Depression and anxiety often occur in people with MS (PwMS). An information processing model of psychopathology, the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs play a fundamental role in the development and maintenance of distress. The model also asserts that a style of thinking known as the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS), which consists of worry and rumination, focusing on sources of threat, and unhelpful coping responses, is common across all psychological conditions...
January 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Xing Ma, Yuanyuan Yang, Xue Wang, Yuli Zang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and synthesise the existing evidence on creativity in nursing. DESIGN: An integrative review. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was conducted using seven English databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, Wiley, and Medline) and the top three best Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP). REVIEW METHODS: The combined keywords, creativity and nursing/nurse, were used to search for relevant journal articles that were written in English or Chinese from January 1995 to December 2016...
December 13, 2017: Nurse Education Today
Yu-Chen Li, Ya-Jing Meng, Min-Lan Yuan, Hong-Ru Zhu, Zheng-Jia Ren, Chang-Jian Qiu, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). METHODS: A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls...
November 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Lenka van Riemsdijk, Paul T M Ingenbleek, Hans C M van Trijp, Gerrita van der Veen
This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers' social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to their competitors...
December 14, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Ljiljana Mihić, Zdenka Novović, Milica Lazić, David J A Dozois, Radomir Belopavlović
The Ruminative Thought Scale (RTS) was developed to measure the ruminative thinking style, presumably common to various psychopathological disorders. However, prior factor-analytic research was inconclusive regarding unidimensionality versus multidimensionality of the RTS. The present study was conducted on a large, heterogeneous Serbian sample ( N = 838). A subsample was retested 6 months later providing information about symptoms of depression and various anxiety symptoms. Results showed that a bifactor model of the RTS (representing one general and four group factors) had a better fit than the second-order and one-factor models...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
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