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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779828/followership-a-review-of-the-literature-in-healthcare-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Caleb Leung, Amanda Lucas, Peter Brindley, Shellie Anderson, Jason Park, Ashley Vergis, Lawrence M Gillman
INTRODUCTION: Research in healthcare leadership has focused on leaders. In contrast, organizational success may be more influenced by followers. Kelley described five followership styles based on two characteristics: active engagement and independent critical thinking. We examined the literature on the association between followership style and workplace outcomes. METHODS: Articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched. Given the paucity of studies, we expanded our search to non-healthcare databases...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764326/why-gerontology-and-geriatrics-can-teach-us-a-lot-about-mentoring
#2
Phillip G Clark
Gerontology, geriatrics, and mentoring have a lot in common. The prototype of this role was Mentor, an older adult in Homer's The Odyssey, who was enlisted to look after Odysseus' son, Telemachus, while his father was away fighting the Trojan War. Portrayed as an older man, the name "mentor" literally means "a man who thinks," which is not a bad characterization generally for faculty members in gerontology! In particular, gerontological and geriatrics education can teach us a lot about the importance of mentoring and provide some critical insights into this role: (1) the importance of interprofessional leadership and modeling, (2) the application of the concept of "grand-generativity" to mentoring, (3) "it takes a community" to be effective in mentoring others, and (4) the need to tailor mentorship styles to the person and the situation...
May 15, 2018: Gerontology & Geriatrics Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749425/understanding-singaporean-medical-students-stress-and-coping
#3
Li Wu, Julia Farquhar, Jackie Ma, Arpana R Vidyarthi
Medical school is intrinsically stressful, and high levels of stress have untoward effects. Although surveys have revealed some sources of stress among medical students, little is known about the qualitative aspects of these stressors and their associated coping behaviours, particularly among medical students in Singapore. Our exploratory pilot study found that relationship issues and examinations were the major sources of stress for medical students. The respondents described multiple context-sensitive coping styles, as well as reported 'avoidance' or 'wishful thinking' coping strategies as ineffective...
April 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741616/a-systematic-review-of-genome-wide-research-on-psychotic-experiences-and-negative-symptom-traits-new-revelations-and-implications-for-psychiatry
#4
Angelica Ronald, Oliver Pain
We present a systematic review of genome-wide research on psychotic experience and negative symptom traits (PENS) in the community. We integrate these new findings, most of which have emerged over the last four years, with more established behaviour genetic and epidemiological research. The review includes the first genome-wide association studies of PENS, including a recent meta-analysis, and the first SNP heritability estimates. Sample sizes of < 10,000 participants mean that no genome-wide significant variants have yet been replicated...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732989/towards-breast-cancer-vaccines-progress-and-challenges
#5
Javad Behravan, Atefeh Razazan, Ghazal Behravan
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. National cancer institute of the US estimates that one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their life time. Considering the devastating effects of the disease and the alarming numbers many scientists and research groups have devoted their research to fight breast cancer. Several recommendations are to be considered as preventing measures which include living a healthy life style, regular physical activity, weight control and, smoking cessation...
May 2, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706924/metacognitive-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-an-a-b-replication-series-across-social-anxiety-subtypes
#6
Henrik Nordahl, Adrian Wells
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for Social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, factors additional to those emphasised in CBT are the primary cause of psychological disorder according to the metacognitive model. Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) aims to target a perseverative thinking style named the cognitive attentional syndrome and its underlying metacognitive beliefs (beliefs about cognition). The present study aimed to explore the effects of generic MCT for SAD. Treatment related effects were evaluated using direct replication single case (A-B) methodology across three patients with different subtypes of SAD; performance type, generalised and generalised plus avoidant personality disorder, representing increasing SAD severity/complexity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674447/cognitive-underpinnings-of-nationalistic-ideology-in-the-context-of-brexit
#7
Leor Zmigrod, Peter J Rentfrow, Trevor W Robbins
Nationalistic identities often play an influential role in citizens' voting behavior and political engagement. Nationalistic ideologies tend to have firm categories and rules for what belongs to and represents the national culture. In a sample of 332 UK citizens, we tested whether strict categorization of stimuli and rules in objective cognitive tasks would be evident in strongly nationalistic individuals. Using voting behavior and attitudes from the United Kingdom's 2016 EU referendum, we found that a flexible representation of national identity and culture was linked to cognitive flexibility in the ideologically neutral Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Remote Associates Test, and to self-reported flexibility under uncertainty...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668391/the-reflective-mind-examining-individual-differences-in-susceptibility-to-base-rate-neglect-with-fmri
#8
Oshin Vartanian, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Sarah Forbes, Wim De Neys
Performance on heuristics and biases tasks has been shown to be susceptible to bias. In turn, susceptibility to bias varies as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities (e.g., intelligence) and thinking styles (e.g., propensity for reflection). Using a classic task (i.e., lawyer-engineer problem), we conducted two experiments to examine the differential contributions of cognitive abilities versus thinking styles to performance. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT)-a well-established measure of reflective thinking-predicted performance on conflict problems (where base rates and intuition point in opposite directions), whereas STM predicted performance on nonconflict problems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642955/successful-implementation-of-lean-as-a-managerial-principle-in-health-care-a-conceptual-analysis-from-systematic-literature-review
#9
Riikka Maijala, Sini Eloranta, Tero Reunanen, Tuija S Ikonen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the characteristics of leadership and management associated with a successful Lean thinking adaptation in healthcare. DESIGN: A systematic literature review was undertaken using electronic databases: PubMed, PubMed Systematic Review, ABI/INFORM, Business Source Complete, Emerald, JBI, and Cinahl. Inclusion criteria were: (i) a description of Lean management or leadership in health care, (ii) a reference to Lean thinking, (iii) a peer-reviewed original research article or a literature review, and (iv) a full text article available in English...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615092/improving-the-effectiveness-of-psychological-interventions-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-the-cardiac-rehabilitation-pathway-using-group-based-metacognitive-therapy-pathway-group-mct-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Adrian Wells, Kirsten McNicol, David Reeves, Peter Salmon, Linda Davies, Anthony Heagerty, Patrick Doherty, Rebecca McPhillips, Rebecca Anderson, Cintia Faija, Lora Capobianco, Helen Morley, Hannah Gaffney, Gemma Shields, Peter Fisher
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are prevalent among cardiac rehabilitation patients but pharmacological and psychological treatments have limited effectiveness in this group. Furthermore, psychological interventions have not been systematically integrated into cardiac rehabilitation services despite being a strategic priority for the UK National Health Service. A promising new treatment, metacognitive therapy, may be well-suited to the needs of cardiac rehabilitation patients and has the potential to improve outcomes...
April 3, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605169/burnout-and-posttraumatic-stress-in-paediatric-critical-care-personnel-prediction-from-resilience-and-coping-styles
#11
Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Alba Palacios, Jesús Alonso-Tapia, Elena Pérez, Elena Álvarez, Ana Coca, Santiago Mencía, Ana Marcos, Juan Mayordomo-Colunga, Francisco Fernández, Fernando Gómez, Jaime Cruz, Olga Ordóñez, Ana Llorente
INTRODUCTION: Our aims were (1) to explore the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BOS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of Spanish staff working in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and compare these rates with a sample of general paediatric staff and (2) to explore how resilience, coping strategies, and professional and demographic variables influence BOS and PTSD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multicentre, cross-sectional study. Data were collected in the PICU and in other paediatric wards of nine hospitals...
March 28, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596633/opennotes-in-oncology-oncologists-perceptions-and-a-baseline-of-the-content-and-style-of-their-clinician-notes
#12
Jordan M Alpert, Bonny B Morris, Maria D Thomson, Khalid Matin, Charles E Geyer, Richard F Brown
Patients' ability to access their provider's clinical notes (OpenNotes) has been well received and has led to greater transparency in health systems. However, the majority of this research has occurred in primary care, and little is known about how patients' access to notes is used in oncology. This study aims to understand oncologists' perceptions of OpenNotes, while also establishing a baseline of the linguistic characteristics and patterns used in notes.Data from 13 in-depth, semistructured interviews with oncologists were thematically analyzed...
March 27, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587740/a-communication-focused-curriculum-for-dental-students-an-experiential-training-approach
#13
Simone Alvarez, Jobst-Hendrik Schultz
BACKGROUND: Successful interaction and communication with patients is as vital for dentists as it is for physicians. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development and evaluation of an interactive, experiential training curriculum with an emphasis on communication for dual degree seekers of medicine and dentistry. METHODS: A pre-clinical course with an emphasis in physician/dentist-patient communication and interaction was adapted by a team of subject experts based largely on the propositions of Experiential Learning Theory...
March 27, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573757/the-metacognitive-anger-processing-map-scale-validation-in-a-mixed-clinical-and-a-forensic-in-patient-sample
#14
Stine Bjerrum Moeller, Per Bech
BACKGROUND: The metacognitive approach by Wells and colleagues has gained empirical support with a broad range of symptoms. The Metacognitive Anger Processing (MAP) scale was developed to provide a metacognitive measure on anger (Moeller, 2016). In the preliminary validation, three components were identified (positive beliefs, negative beliefs and rumination) to be positively correlated with the anger. AIMS: To validate the MAP in a sample of mixed clinical patients (n = 88) and a sample of male forensic patients (n = 54)...
March 25, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560307/stress-related-dysfunction-of-the-right-inferior-frontal-cortex-in-high-ruminators-an-fnirs-study
#15
David Rosenbaum, Mara Thomas, Paula Hilsendegen, Florian G Metzger, Florian B Haeussinger, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Andreas J Fallgatter, Vanessa Nieratschker, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Repetitive thinking styles such as rumination are considered to be a key factor in the development and maintenance of mental disorders. Different situational triggers (e.g., social stressors) have been shown to elicit rumination in subjects exhibiting such habitual thinking styles. At the same time, the process of rumination influences the adaption to stressful situations. The study at hand aims to investigate the effect of trait rumination on neuronal activation patterns during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) as well as the physiological and affective adaptation to this high-stress situation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546821/-asperger-syndrome-and-or-clinical-high-risk-of-psychosis-a-differential-diagnostic-challenge
#16
Stefanie J Schmidt, Ayla Behar, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529405/attentional-bias-to-reminders-of-the-deceased-as-compared-with-a-living-attachment-in-grieving
#17
Noam Schneck, Tao Tu, Christina A Michel, George A Bonanno, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Grieving individuals demonstrate attentional bias toward reminders of the deceased versus neutral stimuli. We sought to assess bias toward reminders of the deceased versus a living attachment figure and to evaluate similarities and differences in the neural correlates of deceased- and living-related attention. We also sought to identify grief process variables associated with deceased-related attentional bias. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects grieving the death of a first-degree relative or partner within 14 months performed an emotional Stroop task, using words related to a deceased or a living attachment figure, and a standard Stroop task, to identify general selective attention, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521887/effects-of-team-based-learning-on-the-core-competencies-of-nursing-students-a-quasi-experimental-study
#18
Kyung Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: An important goal of nursing education is helping students achieve core competencies efficiently. One proposed way of improving nursing education is team-based learning (TBL). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the comparative effectiveness of TBL and lecture-style classes in terms of teaching core competencies in nursing education, which include clinical competence skills, problem-solving ability, communication competencies, critical thinking ability, and self-leadership...
April 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517298/maternal-attachment-style-during-pregnancy-and-becoming-a-mother-in-poland
#19
Anna Zdolska-Wawrzkiewicz, Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś, Mariola Bidzan
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates the connections in pregnant women between their mother attachment style and their self-image as a mother, the image of their mother as a mother, and their bond with the unborn child. BACKGROUND: The relationship with one's mother plays a crucial role in the process of becoming a mother. It influences what a pregnant woman thinks about herself as a mother. This relationship is a predictor of the bond with the child during the pregnancy...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508959/alexithymia-and-mood-recognition-of-emotion-in-self-and-others
#20
Michael Lyvers, Susan M Kohlsdorf, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
The present study explored relationships between alexithymia-a trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings and an external thinking style-and negative moods, negative mood regulation expectancies, facial recognition of emotions, emotional empathy, and alcohol consumption. The sample consisted of 102 university (primarily psychology) students (13 men, 89 women) aged 18 to 50 years (M = 22.18 years). Participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMRS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
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