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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926539/the-immunology-of-the-allergy-epidemic-and-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#1
Bart N Lambrecht, Hamida Hammad
The immunology of the hygiene hypothesis of allergy is complex and involves the loss of cellular and humoral immunoregulatory pathways as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle and the disappearance of chronic infectious diseases. The influence of diet and reduced microbiome diversity now forms the foundation of scientific thinking on how the allergy epidemic occurred, although clear mechanistic insights into the process in humans are still lacking. Here we propose that barrier epithelial cells are heavily influenced by environmental factors and by microbiome-derived danger signals and metabolites, and thus act as important rheostats for immunoregulation, particularly during early postnatal development...
September 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918863/more-haste-less-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-thinking-latencies-during-planning-in-people-with-psychosis
#2
REVIEW
Andrew J Watson, Eileen M Joyce, Andrew J B Fugard, Verity C Leeson, Thomas R E Barnes, Vyv Huddy
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis, with slowed processing speed thought to be a prominent impairment in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. However, findings from the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) planning task suggest changes in processing speed associated with the illness may include faster responses in early stages of planning, though findings are inconsistent. This review uses meta-analytic methods to assess thinking times in psychosis across the available literature. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar...
September 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914472/imitation-inspiration-and-creation-cognitive-process-of-creative-drawing-by-copying-others-artworks
#3
Takeshi Okada, Kentaro Ishibashi
To investigate the cognitive processes underlying creative inspiration, we tested the extent to which viewing or copying prior examples impacted creative output in art. In Experiment 1, undergraduates made drawings under three conditions: (a) copying an artist's drawing, then producing an original drawing; (b) producing an original drawing without having seen another's work; and (c) copying another artist's work, then reproducing that artist's style independently. We discovered that through copying unfamiliar abstract drawings, participants were able to produce creative drawings qualitatively different from the model drawings...
September 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885041/developmental-origins-of-rumination-in-middle-childhood-the-roles-of-early-temperament-and-positive-parenting
#4
Tina H Schweizer, Thomas M Olino, Margaret W Dyson, Rebecca S Laptook, Daniel N Klein
Rumination, a thinking style characterized by a repetitive inward focus on negative cognitions, has been linked to internalizing disorders, particularly depression. Moreover, research suggests that rumination may be a cognitive vulnerability that predisposes individuals to psychopathology. Surprisingly little is known, however, about the etiology and development of rumination. The present study examined the role of specific components of child temperamental negative emotionality (sadness, fear, anger) and effortful control (inhibition), as well as parenting behaviors during early childhood on the development of rumination in middle childhood...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879495/a-quantum-theory-account-of-order-effects-and-conjunction-fallacies-in-political-judgments
#5
James M Yearsley, Jennifer S Trueblood
Are our everyday judgments about the world around us normative? Decades of research in the judgment and decision-making literature suggest the answer is no. If people's judgments do not follow normative rules, then what rules if any do they follow? Quantum probability theory is a promising new approach to modeling human behavior that is at odds with normative, classical rules. One key advantage of using quantum theory is that it explains multiple types of judgment errors using the same basic machinery, unifying what have previously been thought of as disparate phenomena...
September 6, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875975/-autobiographical-memory-in-depressive-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Paulina Żuchowicz, Justyna Jasionowska, Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail...
August 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840895/the-evaluation-of-a-continuing-professional-development-package-for-primary-care-dentists-designed-to-reduce-stress-build-resilience-and-improve-clinical-decision-making
#7
H R Chapman, S Y Chipchase, R Bretherton
Introduction Stress and burnout are widely accepted as a problem for primary care dental practitioners. Previous programmes to address this issue have met with some success. Burnout is associated with poor coping skills and emotion regulation, and increased rates of clinical errors. Anxiety is associated with poor decision-making and is thought to be associated with poor clinical decision-making. Attempts to improve decision-making use increasing meta-awareness and review of thinking processes. Bibliotherapy is an effective method of delivering cognitive behavioural therapy as self-help or guided self-help (with some therapist input) formats...
August 25, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818636/east-west-paths-to-unconventional-computing
#8
REVIEW
Andrew Adamatzky, Selim Akl, Mark Burgin, Cristian S Calude, José Félix Costa, Mohammad Mahdi Dehshibi, Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Zoran Konkoli, Bruce MacLennan, Bruno Marchal, Maurice Margenstern, Genaro J Martínez, Richard Mayne, Kenichi Morita, Andrew Schumann, Yaroslav D Sergeyev, Georgios Ch Sirakoulis, Susan Stepney, Karl Svozil, Hector Zenil
Unconventional computing is about breaking boundaries in thinking, acting and computing. Typical topics of this non-typical field include, but are not limited to physics of computation, non-classical logics, new complexity measures, novel hardware, mechanical, chemical and quantum computing. Unconventional computing encourages a new style of thinking while practical applications are obtained from uncovering and exploiting principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of, physical, chemical and living systems; in particular, efficient algorithms are developed, (almost) optimal architectures are designed and working prototypes of future computing devices are manufactured...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813276/fathers-fathering-and-child-psychopathology
#9
REVIEW
Beth Barker, Jane E Iles, Paul G Ramchandani
The last few years have seen a steady increase in research addressing the potential influence of fathers on their children's development. There has also been a clearer acknowledgement of the need to study families as a complex system, rather than just focusing on individual aspects of functioning in one or other parent. Increased father involvement and more engaged styles of father-infant interactions are associated with more positive outcomes for children. Studies of paternal depression and other psychopathology have begun to elucidate some of the key mechanisms by which fathers can influence their children's development...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806325/parents-reactions-to-the-diagnosis-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-associations-between-resolution-family-functioning-and-child-behavior-problems
#10
Roberto Baiocco, Paola Castelli Gattinara, Giorgia Cioccetti, Salvatore Ioverno
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent inherited form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. DMD is a severe and progressive disease. Children initially have no symptoms, but the diagnosis is often delayed until the child is about 5 years old. PURPOSE: Although few studies have addressed parent reactions to DMD, parental reactions to other serious childhood conditions have been documented. This study aims to understand the resolution styles that parents use in the context of their children with DMD...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790961/relationship-of-cognitive-style-and-job-level-first-demonstration-of-cultural-differences
#11
Tetsuya Kageyama, Motoaki Sugiura
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771918/effects-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt-and-positive-psychological-intervention-ppi-on-female-offenders-with-psychological-distress-in-hong-kong
#12
Vivian W M Mak, Calais K Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. AIMS: To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately - cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) - would be more effective than 'treatment-as-usual' alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone...
August 2, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760685/-leadership-and-management-courses-for-clinicians
#13
Daniel Wichelhaus, Peter Fischer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the benefit of Leadership and Management Courses for clinicians, specifically which leadership and management contents are beneficial to their daily clinical work and whether these contents support their individual career. METHOD: E-mail invitations to participate in the study were sent to all 543 medical doctors of the University Hospital Hanover, Germany, who had taken part in one of the leadership and management courses offered between June 2005 and June 2015...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754425/thoroughness-of-community-pharmacists-assessment-and-communication-using-the-patient-care-process
#14
Mohammad B Nusair, Lisa M Guirguis
BACKGROUND: The patient care process (PCP) was adopted to move community pharmacy practice from the traditional dispensing role to a more professional level of patient care. However, research has not yet empirically characterized how pharmacists conduct the PCP in community pharmacies. OBJECTIVES: This study characterizes how pharmacists employ the PCP when evaluating medication appropriateness in a simulated community pharmacy setting. METHODS: A mixed methods analysis was employed to analyze simulated patient-pharmacist interactions (i...
July 15, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749828/therapists-metacognitive-monitoring-of-the-psychotherapeutic-process-with-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#15
Marianne E Bourke, Brin F S Grenyer
BACKGROUND: Therapy for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is challenging, in part, because of the impact of BPD on the therapeutic relationship. The therapist's metacognitive capacity within therapy may be perturbed due to the complexity of verbal and nonverbal affect and cognition in the therapeutic interchange; however, research on this issue is lacking. METHODS: Therapists (N=20 clinical psychologists) were asked to discuss the treatment process when working with their patients with BPD (N=40) and their patients with major depressive disorder (N=40)...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743295/group-cognitive-remediation-therapy-for-younger-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-feasibility-study-in-a-japanese-sample
#16
Rie Kuge, Katie Lang, Ayano Yokota, Shoko Kodama, Yuriko Morino, Michiko Nakazato, Eiji Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) aims to increase patients' cognitive flexibility by practicing new ways of thinking as well as facilitating bigger picture thinking, supporting patients with relevant tasks and encouraging an awareness of their own thinking styles. CRT has been applied in the treatment of adult anorexia nervosa (AN), and has been shown to be effective and acceptable. In adolescents, CRT has been piloted on both individual and group format. However, no studies are published in CRT for adolescents with AN in a Japanese sample...
July 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713107/study-on-personality-types-of-dentists-in-different-disciplines-of-dentistry
#17
Yousef H Al-Dlaigan, Albatool S Alahmari, Sara H Almubarak, Sahar A Alateeq, Sukumaran Anil
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the most common personality type among dentists in seven selected clinical dentistry specialties using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and to compare between these different types of personalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey containing the MBTI and demographic and practice questions was used to assess the personality styles of 243 dental specialists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712987/the-tailored-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-improve-surrogate-decision-making
#18
Daniel P Sulmasy, Mark T Hughes, Gayane Yenokyan, Joan Kub, Peter B Terry, Alan B Astrow, Julie A Johnson, Grace Ho, Marie T Nolan
CONTEXT: Patients with terminal illnesses often require surrogate decision makers. Prior research has demonstrated high surrogate stress, and that despite standards promoting substituted judgment, most patients do not want their surrogates to make pure substituted judgments for them. It is not known how best to help loved ones fulfill the surrogate role. OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of an intervention to help surrogate decision makers. METHODS: 166 patients (41% with ALS and 59% with gastrointestinal cancers) and their surrogates at 2 university medical centers were randomized to an intensive nurse-directed discussion of the end of life Decision Control Preferences of the patient (TAILORED) or a discussion of nutrition (CONTROL); 163 completed baseline interviews and underwent the intervention...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712729/gene-by-cognition-interaction-on-stress-induced-attention-bias-for-food-effects-of-5-httlpr-and-ruminative-thinking
#19
Robbie Schepers, C Rob Markus
INTRODUCTION: Stress is often found to increase the preference and intake of high caloric foods. This effect is known as emotional eating and is influenced by cognitive as well as biological stress vulnerabilities. An S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene has been linked to decreased (brain) serotonin efficiency, leading to decreased stress resilience and increased risks for negative affect and eating related disturbances. Recently it has been proposed that a cognitive ruminative thinking style can further exacerbate the effect of this gene by prolonging the already increased stress response, thereby potentially increasing the risk of compensating by overeating high palatable foods...
September 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690561/interparental-conflict-relative-to-suicidal-ideation-in-chinese-adolescents-the-roles-of-coping-strategies-and-meaning-in-life
#20
Rongwei Zhang, Dan Li, Fei Chen, Béatrice M Ewalds-Kvist, Shihong Liu
The aim of this study was to explore the paths between interparental conflict and Chinese adolescents' suicidal ideation. Altogether 931 adolescents (Mage = 17.84, SD = 0.77, females = 531) completed the Dyadic Consensus Scale, Self-Report Coping Scale, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted, focusing on the relations between interparental conflict and suicidal ideation along with coping styles and a sense of meaning in life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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