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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818636/east-west-paths-to-unconventional-computing
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Adamatzky, Selim Akl, Mark Burgin, Cristian S Calude, José Félix Costa, Mohammad Mahdi Dehshibi, Yukio-Pegio Gunji, Zoran Konkoli, Bruce MacLennan, Bruno Marchal, Maurice Margenstern, Genaro J Martínez, Richard Mayne, Kenichi Morita, Andrew Schumann, Yaroslav D Sergeyev, Georgios Ch Sirakoulis, Susan Stepney, Karl Svozil, Hector Zenil
Unconventional computing is about breaking boundaries in thinking, acting and computing. Typical topics of this non-typical field include, but are not limited to physics of computation, non-classical logics, new complexity measures, novel hardware, mechanical, chemical and quantum computing. Unconventional computing encourages a new style of thinking while practical applications are obtained from uncovering and exploiting principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of, physical, chemical and living systems; in particular, efficient algorithms are developed, (almost) optimal architectures are designed and working prototypes of future computing devices are manufactured...
August 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813276/fathers-fathering-and-child-psychopathology
#2
REVIEW
Beth Barker, Jane E Iles, Paul G Ramchandani
The last few years have seen a steady increase in research addressing the potential influence of fathers on their children's development. There has also been a clearer acknowledgement of the need to study families as a complex system, rather than just focusing on individual aspects of functioning in one or other parent. Increased father involvement and more engaged styles of father-infant interactions are associated with more positive outcomes for children. Studies of paternal depression and other psychopathology have begun to elucidate some of the key mechanisms by which fathers can influence their children's development...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806325/parents-reactions-to-the-diagnosis-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-associations-between-resolution-family-functioning-and-child-behavior-problems
#3
Roberto Baiocco, Paola Castelli Gattinara, Giorgia Cioccetti, Salvatore Ioverno
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent inherited form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. DMD is a severe and progressive disease. Children initially have no symptoms, but the diagnosis is often delayed until the child is about 5 years old. PURPOSE: Although few studies have addressed parent reactions to DMD, parental reactions to other serious childhood conditions have been documented. This study aims to understand the resolution styles that parents use in the context of their children with DMD...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790961/relationship-of-cognitive-style-and-job-level-first-demonstration-of-cultural-differences
#4
Tetsuya Kageyama, Motoaki Sugiura
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771918/effects-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt-and-positive-psychological-intervention-ppi-on-female-offenders-with-psychological-distress-in-hong-kong
#5
Vivian W M Mak, Calais K Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. AIMS: To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately - cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) - would be more effective than 'treatment-as-usual' alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone...
August 2, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760685/-leadership-and-management-courses-for-clinicians
#6
Daniel Wichelhaus, Peter Fischer
AIM: The study evaluates the benefit of Leadership and Management Courses for clinicians. We want to examine which specific leadership and management contents are beneficial for a clinicians daily work, and if these contents support their individual career. METHOD: All 543 medical doctors working ant the University Hospital at Hanover, Germany, who had taken part in a leadership and management course between June 2005 and June 2015 were invited via email to participate in this study...
July 28, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754425/thoroughness-of-community-pharmacists-assessment-and-communication-using-the-patient-care-process
#7
Mohammad B Nusair, Lisa M Guirguis
BACKGROUND: The patient care process (PCP) was adopted to move community pharmacy practice from the traditional dispensing role to a more professional level of patient care. However, research has not yet empirically characterized how pharmacists conduct the PCP in community pharmacies. OBJECTIVES: This study characterizes how pharmacists employ the PCP when evaluating medication appropriateness in a simulated community pharmacy setting. METHODS: A mixed methods analysis was employed to analyze simulated patient-pharmacist interactions (i...
July 15, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749828/therapists-metacognitive-monitoring-of-the-psychotherapeutic-process-with-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#8
Marianne E Bourke, Brin F S Grenyer
BACKGROUND: Therapy for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is challenging, in part, because of the impact of BPD on the therapeutic relationship. The therapist's metacognitive capacity within therapy may be perturbed due to the complexity of verbal and nonverbal affect and cognition in the therapeutic interchange; however, research on this issue is lacking. METHODS: Therapists (N=20 clinical psychologists) were asked to discuss the treatment process when working with their patients with BPD (N=40) and their patients with major depressive disorder (N=40)...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743295/group-cognitive-remediation-therapy-for-younger-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-feasibility-study-in-a-japanese-sample
#9
Rie Kuge, Katie Lang, Ayano Yokota, Shoko Kodama, Yuriko Morino, Michiko Nakazato, Eiji Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) aims to increase patients' cognitive flexibility by practicing new ways of thinking as well as facilitating bigger picture thinking, supporting patients with relevant tasks and encouraging an awareness of their own thinking styles. CRT has been applied in the treatment of adult anorexia nervosa (AN), and has been shown to be effective and acceptable. In adolescents, CRT has been piloted on both individual and group format. However, no studies are published in CRT for adolescents with AN in a Japanese sample...
July 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713107/study-on-personality-types-of-dentists-in-different-disciplines-of-dentistry
#10
Yousef H Al-Dlaigan, Albatool S Alahmari, Sara H Almubarak, Sahar A Alateeq, Sukumaran Anil
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the most common personality type among dentists in seven selected clinical dentistry specialties using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and to compare between these different types of personalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey containing the MBTI and demographic and practice questions was used to assess the personality styles of 243 dental specialists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712987/the-tailored-study-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-improve-surrogate-decision-making
#11
Daniel P Sulmasy, Mark T Hughes, Gayane Yenokyan, Joan Kub, Peter B Terry, Alan B Astrow, Julie A Johnson, Grace Ho, Marie T Nolan
CONTEXT: Patients with terminal illnesses often require surrogate decision makers. Prior research has demonstrated high surrogate stress, and that despite standards promoting substituted judgment, most patients do not want their surrogates to make pure substituted judgments for them. It is not known how best to help loved ones fulfill the surrogate role. OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of an intervention to help surrogate decision makers. METHODS: 166 patients (41% with ALS and 59% with gastrointestinal cancers) and their surrogates at 2 university medical centers were randomized to an intensive nurse-directed discussion of the end of life Decision Control Preferences of the patient (TAILORED) or a discussion of nutrition (CONTROL); 163 completed baseline interviews and underwent the intervention...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712729/gene-by-cognition-interaction-on-stress-induced-attention-bias-for-food-effects-of-5-httlpr-and-ruminative-thinking
#12
Robbie Schepers, C Rob Markus
INTRODUCTION: Stress is often found to increase the preference and intake of high caloric foods. This effect is known as emotional eating and is influenced by cognitive as well as biological stress vulnerabilities. An S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene has been linked to decreased (brain) serotonin efficiency, leading to decreased stress resilience and increased risks for negative affect and eating related disturbances. Recently it has been proposed that a cognitive ruminative thinking style can further exacerbate the effect of this gene by prolonging the already increased stress response, thereby potentially increasing the risk of compensating by overeating high palatable foods...
July 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690561/interparental-conflict-relative-to-suicidal-ideation-in-chinese-adolescents-the-roles-of-coping-strategies-and-meaning-in-life
#13
Rongwei Zhang, Dan Li, Fei Chen, Béatrice M Ewalds-Kvist, Shihong Liu
The aim of this study was to explore the paths between interparental conflict and Chinese adolescents' suicidal ideation. Altogether 931 adolescents (Mage = 17.84, SD = 0.77, females = 531) completed the Dyadic Consensus Scale, Self-Report Coping Scale, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, and Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation questionnaires. Mediation analyses were conducted, focusing on the relations between interparental conflict and suicidal ideation along with coping styles and a sense of meaning in life...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675197/james-parkinson-s-chimera-syndrome-or-disease
#14
P A Kempster, B Hurwitz, A J Lees
It is 200 years since James Parkinson published An Essay on the Shaking Palsy. While his monograph continues to be acclaimed for its precedence and clarity of description, what is often overlooked is the originality of Parkinson's ideas. Here we show that he appreciated the weakness of the systematic 18th century nosologies, which presupposed that medical species, the building blocks of these Linnaean taxonomic schemes, were as distinct as plant and animal species; and that Parkinson made a conceptual leap about combinations of clinical phenomena in recurring patterns, now recognised to be one of the germs of neurological thinking about syndromes...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646731/the-adaptive-decision-making-risky-decision-and-decision-making-style-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#15
C-H Ko, P-W Wang, T-L Liu, C-S Chen, C-F Yen, J-Y Yen
BACKGROUND: Persistent gaming, despite acknowledgment of its negative consequences, is a major criterion for individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study evaluated the adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of individuals with IGD. METHODS: We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 without IGD (matched controls). All participants underwent an interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) diagnostic criteria for IGD and completed an adaptive decision-making task; the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation Scale, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Barratt Impulsivity Scale were also assessed on the basis of the information from the diagnostic interviews...
May 25, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635480/leadership-styles-in-nursing
#16
Vicki Cope, Melanie Murray
Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care...
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618314/the-metacognitions-about-self-critical-rumination-questionnaire
#17
Daniel C Kolubinski, Ana V Nikčević, Jacqueline A Lawrence, Marcantonio M Spada
BACKGROUND: Self-criticism refers to a series of persistent and negative self-judgements, often involuntary, that an individual makes about themselves. Recent research has explored the possibility that self-criticism can lead to a more perseverative style of thinking called self-critical rumination. There is evidence that self-critical rumination may be a separate construct from other forms of rumination, such as depressive rumination and post-event processing. Research has indicated that metacognitions, beliefs that individuals have about their internal experiences and how to control them, may play a role in self-critical rumination...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606490/illuminating-the-clinical-significance-of-alexithymia-subtypes-a-cluster-analysis-of-alexithymic-traits-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#18
J Kajanoja, N M Scheinin, L Karlsson, H Karlsson, M Karukivi
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a personality construct involving difficulties identifying and verbalizing feelings, and an externally oriented thinking style. There is preliminary evidence for alexithymia subtypes that may carry different risk profiles for psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to gain support for the existence of alexithymia subtypes and further characterize their clinical relevance. METHODS: To identify possible subtypes, a cluster analysis was conducted for individuals with high alexithymic traits (N=113)...
June 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594211/how-well-do-juvenile-risk-assessments-measure-factors-to-target-in-treatment-examining-construct-validity
#19
Jennifer L Skeem, Patrick J Kennealy, Joseph R Tatar, Isaias R Hernandez, Felicia A Keith
There has been a surge of interest in using 1 type of risk assessment instrument to tailor treatment to juveniles to reduce recidivism. Unlike prediction-oriented instruments, these reduction-oriented instruments explicitly measure variable risk factors as "needs" to be addressed in treatment. There is little evidence, however, that the instruments accurately measure specific risk factors. Based on a sample of 237 serious juvenile offenders (Mage = 18, SD = 1.6), we tested whether California Youth Assessment Inventory (CA-YASI) scores validly assess the risk factors they purport to assess...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589632/effect-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-intervention-on-criminal-thinking-and-prison-misconduct-in-male-inmates-variable-oriented-and-person-oriented-analyses
#20
Glenn D Walters
BACKGROUND: There is some consensus on the value of cognitive-behaviourally informed interventions in the criminal justice system, but uncertainty about which components are of critical value. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that change in prisoners - criminal thinking and institutional misconduct - will both follow completion of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention. METHODS: A one-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was used to assess change on the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles among 219 male prisoners completing a 10-week cognitive behavioural intervention, referred to as 'Lifestyle Issues'...
June 7, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
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