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Gastric mucosal protection

Zhifen Wen, Zhichao Xu, Qingfeng Zhou, Wei Li, Yunyan Wu, Yunping Du, Li Chen, Yun Zhang, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects pigs of all ages by invading villous epithelial cells of the small intestine causing severe diarrhea with high mortality rate in suckling piglets. Mucosal immunity is believed to play an important role in PEDV control and mucosal delivery of vaccines induces mucosal immunity more efficiently than parenteral vaccination. In this study, coated PEDV-loaded microspheres with the size range of 700-900 μm in diameter were developed by centrifugal granulation-fluidized bed coating and demonstrated as an effective oral delivery system to protect PEDV antigens against the complex gastrointestinal environment by detecting the live virus particles in microspheres after the simulated gastric fluid treatment and the PEDV RNA in fecal swabs collected from all weaned piglets (100%) orally inoculated with coated PEDV-loaded microspheres...
September 19, 2018: Vaccine
I Karaboğa, M A Ovalı, A Yılmaz, M Alpaslan
We investigated the gastroprotective effect of apricot kernel oil on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol and apricot kernel oil + ethanol groups. The fatty acid composition of apricot kernel oil was determined using GC-MS. A gastric ulcer index was defined as the area percentage of the gastric mucosa consisting of ulcerated tissue. Gastric tissue was investigated by TUNEL staining for apoptosis, immunohistochemical iNOS staining, measurement of gastric IL-10 and IL-6 expression by ELISA and assays of catalase, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase...
September 20, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
J F Bruxelle, N Tsapis, S Hoys, A Collignon, C Janoir, E Fattal, S Péchiné
Clostridium difficile flagellin FliC is a highly immunogenic pathogen-associated molecular pattern playing a key role in C. difficile pathogenesis and gut colonization. Here, we designed an oral vaccine against C. difficile with FliC encapsulated into pectin beads for colonic release. Bead stability and FliC retention was confirmed in vitro using simulated intestinal media (SIM), while bead degradation and FliC release was observed upon incubation in simulated colonic media (SCM). The importance of FliC encapsulation into pectin beads for protection against C...
September 25, 2018: Vaccine
Marisa Claudia Alvarez, Julien Fernandes, Valérie Michel, Eliette Touati, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: GATA factors, which constitute a family of transcription regulatory proteins, participate in gastrointestinal development. Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) plays a crucial role in mucosal defense and healing, and evidence suggests that GATA-5 mediated its regulation. Gastric cancer is a multiple-step process triggered by Helicobacter pylori and is characterized by accumulation of molecular and epigenetic alteration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori infection on the regulation of GATA-5 and TFF1 in vitro and in vivo...
August 6, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Morufu Eyitayo Balogun, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Jacinta Nkechi Obimma, Ogochukwu Sophia Mbamalu, Fankou Serges Athanase Djobissie
OBJECTIVE: Vigna subterranea is widely consumed as a traditional staple food in Nigeria and some West African countries. The ethanolic seed extract of V. subterranea (EEVS) was investigated for its gastroprotective effects on aspirin plus pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcerated rats using an in vivo assay. METHODS: Gastric mucosal ulceration was induced experimentally in Groups 2 to 5 using aspirin plus pylorus ligation. Rats in Group 1 were orally pretreated with 3% Tween 80 only as normal control...
September 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Syunji Horie, Kimihito Tashima, Kenjiro Matsumoto
 Capsaicin is a constituent of chili pepper, and induces the burning sensation on the tongue. The site of action for capsaicin has been discovered as transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) that resides on the membranes of pain- and heat-sensing primary afferent nerves. The immunohistochemical study on the stomach revealed that nerve fibers expressing TRPV1 exist along gastric glands in the mucosa, around blood vessels in the submucosa, in the myenteric plexus, and in the smooth muscle layers...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Waqas Ullah, Hafez Mohammad Ammar Abdullah, Abdul Rauf, Kaiser Saleem
Acute oesophageal necrosis (AON), also known as 'black oesophagus', is a rare condition characterised by the necrosis of the oesophagus usually involving the distal part. It has been associated with various conditions, and the pathogenesis is thought to involve hypovolaemia combined with decreased function of oesophageal protective mucosal barriers and may be compounded by the effect of gastric secretions on oesophageal mucosa. The hallmark of this condition is characteristic circumferential black discolouration of the distal oesophagus that may extend proximally...
July 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jiping Xiao, Bo Chen, Qiong Wang, Lijuan Yang, Huachun Guo
In this study, it is aimed to investigate the antioxidant mechanism of new extracts from potatoes. Four pigments, namely, Petunin, Paeonin, Malvidin and Pelargonidin, were extracted from potatoes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our results showed that the cellular morphology and cell viability were significantly altered in gastric mucosal epithelial cells (GES-1) treated with different hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) concentrations over time (P < 0.05). Paeonin presented the strongest anti-oxidative effects on H2 O2 -treated cells, in both a dose- and time-dependent manner, determined by ARE-luciferase activity and HO-1 mRNA expression...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carolina Vieira de Almeida, Antonio Taddei, Amedeo Amedei
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex and widespread disease, currently ranked as the third most frequent cancer worldwide. It is well known that the gut microbiota has an essential role in the initiation and promotion of different cancer types, particularly gastrointestinal tumors. In fact, bacteria can trigger chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosal, which can induce irreversible changes to intestinal epithelial cells, thus predisposing individuals to cancer. Some bacterial strains, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus bovis, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium septicum and Fusobacterium spp...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Modinat A Adefisayo, Rufus O Akomolafe, Olumide S Akinsomisoye, Quadri K Alabi, Laofe Ogundipe, Joseph G Omole, Kehinde P Olamilosoye
This study investigated the quantitative polyphenolic constituents and gastroprotective effects of methanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaf (MEVA) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Ulceration was induced by 3 days' oral administration of aspirin (150 mg/kg body weight). Wistar rats were pretreated with cimetidine (reference drug) at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight and MEVA at 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight once daily for 28 days prior to ulcer induction. At the end of the experiment, gastric secretions, antioxidant status, and histopathological alteration were evaluated...
July 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Hai Liu, Wei Liu, Zhoulin Tan, Zhiqin Zeng, Huimin Yang, Shuanghui Luo, Linlin Wang, Tao Xi, Yingying Xing
The immunogenicity of oral subunit vaccines is poor partly as a result of the harsh milieu of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For some pathogens that restrictedly inhabit the GI tract, a vaccine that works in situ may provide more potent protection than vaccines that operate parenterally. Yet, no appropriate delivery system is available for oral subunit vaccines. In this study, we designed HP55/poly( n-butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles (NPs) to carry Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) subunit vaccine CCF for oral administration in a prophylactic mice model...
August 6, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Elena Romano, Megi Vllahu, Valentina Bizzarro, Raffaella Belvedere, Roberta Esposito, Antonello Petrella, Alessandra Tosco
Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) is a small secreted protein expressed in the gastrointestinal tract where, together with the other two members of its family, it plays an essential role in mucosal protection and repair against injury. The molecular mechanisms involved in the protective function of all three TFF proteins are not fully elucidated. In this paper, we investigated the role of TFF1 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) events. The effects of TFF1 on cellular models in normoxia and/or hypoxia were evaluated by western blot, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and trans-well invasion assays...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hideki Kobara, Hirohito Mori, Tsutomu Masaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Mohammed Safwan Ali Khan, Syeda Umme Kulsoom Khundmiri, Syeda Rukhaiya Khundmiri, Mohammad M Al-Sanea, Pooi Ling Mok
Ulceration in the stomach develops in peptic ulcer disease when there is a loss of protective mucosal layers, particularly in Helicobacter pylori infection. Antibiotic therapy has failed to eradicate and impede the colonization of H. pylori . Despite given treatment, recurrent bleeding can occur and lead to death in the affected individual. The disease progression is also related to the non-steroidal inflammatory drug and stress. There are extensive research efforts to identify the gastroprotective property from various alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins compounds from plants and marine...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Saki Tsujimoto, Sho Mokuda, Kenichiro Matoba, Akihiro Yamada, Kazuo Jouyama, Yosuke Murata, Yoshio Ozaki, Tomoki Ito, Shosaku Nomura, Yasuaki Okuda
OBJECTIVES: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients often take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids as supportive drugs. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of endoscopic gastric damage and their prescribed medications under an actual clinical condition. METHODS: We collected the data of 1704 RA patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal fiberscopy. Gastric mucosal erosion and ulcer were classified using modified LANZA score...
2018: PloS One
J Bazelle, A Threlfall, N Whitley
Diverse drugs with presumed cytoprotective effect have been used therapeutically in small animal veterinary practice for various gastro-intestinal conditions such as oesophagitis, gastric ulceration, gastritis or chronic gastro-enteropathies. Their efficacy has been doubted in human medicine, raising similar questions in the veterinary field. The aim of this review was to assess the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of these drugs in dogs and cats. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 37 articles on the use of misoprostol, sucralfate and other gastroprotectants in dogs and cats...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Li Kao, Te-Hua Liu, Tsung-Yu Tsai, Tzu-Ming Pan
BACKGROUND: Gastric mucosal integrity is maintained through achieving a balance between potentially detrimental and protective factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Vigiis 101 powder, a product consisting of dried Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101 bacteria, on intestinal bacterial flora and acute damage to the gastric mucosa induced by pylorus ligation. METHOD: Acute gastric injury were induced by pylorus ligation. Rats were orally treated with the vehicle or 0...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Mariamichela Lanzilli, Giuliana Donadio, Francesca Anna Fusco, Carmen Sarcinelli, Danila Limauro, Ezio Ricca, Rachele Isticato
Bacterial spores displaying heterologous proteins have been proposed as a safe and efficient method for delivery of antigens and enzymes to animal mucosal surfaces. Initial studies have been performed using Bacillus subtilis spores, but other spore forming organisms have also been considered. B. megaterium spores have been shown capable of displaying large amounts of a model heterologous protein (Discosoma red fluorescent protein mRFP) that in part crossed the exosporium to localize in the space between the outer coat layer and the exosporium...
November 25, 2018: New Biotechnology
Koji Takeuchi, Kikuko Amagase
Endogenous prostaglandins (PGs), produced from arachidonic acid by the two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX), play a pivotal role in maintaining mucosal integrity by modulating various functions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and PGE2 is most effective in these actions. The PGE2 receptor is classified into 4 specific G-protein coupled subtypes, EP1-EP4, and their distribution accounts for the multiple effects of this prostanoid. PGE2 prevents acid-reflux esophagitis and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions through EP1 receptors, while endogenous PGs protect the stomach against cold restraint stress mediated by mainly PGI2/IP receptors and partly EP4 receptors...
June 28, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Shimaa M Elshazly, Dalia M Abd El Motteleb, Islam A A E-H Ibrahim
Stress induced gastric ulcer is a serious health problem in diabetic patients. Some studies reported that hesperidin (HDN), a citrus bioflavonoid, can bind to and stimulate peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) which may mediate its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. This work aims to study the possible protective effect of HDN against stress induced gastric ulcer in diabetic rats as well as the possible involvement of PPARγ in this effect. Type 2 diabetes was induced using streptozotocin and nicotinamide...
August 1, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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