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Gastric mucosal protection

Predrag Sikiric, Rudolf Rucman, Branko Turkovic, Marko Sever, Robert Klicek, Bozo Radic, Domagoj Drmic, Mirjana Stupnisek, Marija Misic, Lovorka Batelja Vuletic, Katarina Horvat Pavlov, Ivan Barisic, Antonio Kokot, Marina Peklic, Sanja Strbe, Alenka Boban Blagaic, Ante Tvrdeic, Dinko Stancic Rokotov, Hrvoje Vrcic, Mario Staresinic, Sven Seiwerth
Years ago, we revealed a novel cytoprotective mediator, stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, particular anti-ulcer peptide that heals different organs lesions when given as a therapy, native in human gastric juice while maintaining GI- tract mucosal integrity, already tested in trials (ulcerative colitis and now multiple sclerosis). The stomach cytoprotection is the most fundamental concept, stomach cell protection and endothelium protection are largely elaborated, but so far cell, protection and endothelium protection outside of the stomach were not implemented in the therapy...
June 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xing Pan, Hong Ke, Xiaojuan Niu, Shan Li, Jun Lv, Longrui Pan
Vaccination is an increasingly important alternative approach to control Helicobacter pylori infection, since H. pylori resistance to previously efficacious antibiotic regimens is increased, and H. pylori eradication treatment for upper gastrointestinal diseases is becoming less successful. Fortunately, an efficient oral monovalent H. pylori vaccine has been developed. However, compared with monovalent vaccines, multivalent vaccines have the potential to induce more effective and comprehensive protection against H...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jackline Namulema, Miriam Nansunga, Charles Drago Kato, Muhammudu Kalange, Samuel Babafemi Olaleye
Background: Gastric ulcers are mucosal discontinuities that may extend into the mucosa, submucosa or even deeper. They result from an imbalance between mucosal aggressors and protective mechanisms that include the mucus bicarbonate layer. Thyroid hormones have been shown to accelerate gastric ulcer healing in part by increasing the adherent mucus levels. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on goblet cell numbers and expression of neutral and acidic mucins during ulcer healing have not been investigated...
2018: Thyroid Research
Ki-Nam Shim, Jin Il Kim, Nayoung Kim, Sang Gyun Kim, Yun Ju Jo, Su Jin Hong, Jeong Eun Shin, Gwang Ha Kim, Kyung Sik Park, Suck Chei Choi, Joong Goo Kwon, Jie-Hyun Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Ji Won Kim
Background/Aims: Irsogladine maleate, an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors, has demonstrated its efficacy for various gastric mucosal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of irsogladine for prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or aspirin-induced peptic ulcer and gastritis. Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, exploratory clinical trial, 100 patients over 50 years of age who needed continuous NSAIDs or aspirin for more than 8 weeks were randomly assigned to either test group (irsogladine maleate 2 mg, twice daily, 39 patients for full analysis) or placebo group (37 patients for full analysis)...
June 1, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Hajime Isomoto
Based on the risks of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in a large series with early gastric cancer (EGC) who underwent surgery, the expanded criteria for the endoscopic resection of differentiated-type EGC was settled as follows: mucosal cancer without ulcer findings irrespective of tumor size; mucosal cancer with ulcer findings less than 3 cm in diameter; and minute (<500 μm from the muscularis mucosae) submucosal invasive cancer less than 3 cm in size due to their nominal risks of LNM1 . Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows precise histological assessment of the resected one-piece specimens to guide further management and to stratify a patient's risk for developing metastasis including LNM...
May 28, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Gaetano Iaquinto
4-MP is a potent competitive inhibitor of ADH activity with an affinity about a 1000 times more than toxic alcohols. 4-MP was shown to reduce the formation of toxic metabolites in lethal methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning in animal models and in methanol poisoning in humans. 4-MP has long-lasting gastroprotective effect against ethanol and other chemically induced acute gastric mucosa lesions in rats. We showed, for the first time, that 4-MP also provides significant protection of the human stomach against alcohol induced acute mucosal injury...
May 28, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Toru Aoyama, Mari S Oba, Takaki Yoshikawa, Chu Matsuda, Yoshinori Munemoto, Nobuhiro Takiguchi, Kazuaki Tanabe, Naoki Nagata, Motohiro Imano, Mitsuru Oshiro, Ryoji Fukushima, Masato Kataoka, Satoshi Morita, Akira Tsuburaya, Hideyuki Mishima, Toru Kono, Junichi Sakamoto
Background : The current pooled analysis evaluated the efficacy of Hangeshashinto (TJ-14) in the prevention and/or treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (COM) in gastric cancer and colorectal cancer using two prospective, multi-institutional, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trials. Patients and Methods : HANGESHA-G and HANGESHA-C randomly assigned patients with gastric cancer or colorectal cancer who developed moderate to severe COM (grade ≥1) during any cycle of chemotherapy to receive either TJ-14 or a placebo as a double-blind trial...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Tiantian Cai, Chengzhe Zhang, Ziming Zhao, Siyi Li, Haobin Cai, Xiaodong Chen, Dake Cai, Wei Liu, Yan Yan, Kaifeng Xie, Huafeng Pan, Xiaohui Zeng
Gastric Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. And the occurrence of gastric carcinoma is an evolutionary histopathological stage. As a result, further research of GPL, which is a borderline of gastric cancer, is indispensable for preventing the formation and development of gastric carcinoma. Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between the expression of autophagy, apoptosis and Gastric cancer (GC). However, the effects of autophagy and apoptosis on human gastric cancer progression, particularly on gastric precancerous lesions (GPL), have not totally been investigated...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Catarina Pereira-Leite, Cláudia Nunes, Débora Grahl, José C Bozelli, Shirley Schreier, Christina S Kamma-Lorger, Iolanda M Cuccovia, Salette Reis
Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is a major drawback of the chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The NSAIDs topical actions on the protective phospholipid layers of the GI mucosa seem to be a central toxicity mechanism of these pharmaceuticals. This work describes the interactions of acemetacin, a commercialized NSAID, with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayers at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.4. This pH range was chosen to mimic the pH gradient found in the gastric mucosa, and to ultimately gain insights into the mechanisms underlying the acemetacin-induced gastric toxicity...
May 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
K Gyires, Sz B László, B Lázár, Z S Zádori
Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal integrity is based on the balance of aggressive and protective mechanisms. Mucosal damage may occur when the injurious factors become dominant or the mucosal defensive processes are impaired. The main target of the therapy against GI mucosal injury is the reduction of aggressive factors, however, the therapeutic possibilities for stimulation of mucosal defensive process are rather limited. This overview focuses on the gastric and intestinal mucosal protective mechanisms and discusses the main targets that increase protective process and increase the mucosal resistance to injurious stimuli at pre-epithelial, epithelial and sub-epithelial levels...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ebru Tastekin, Suleyman Ayvaz, Ufuk Usta, Nurettin Aydogdu, Ekrem Cancilar, Fulya Oz Puyan
Introduction: Indomethacin is an anti-inflammatory drug with clearly known side effects on gastric mucosa. New treatment and side effect prevention methods are being studied. Donkey milk, as a nutritional support, has recently come into the spotlight with its anti-oxidant features, high antibody content and low allergenic properties. In this study, we investigated donkey milk's possible protective effect against acute gastric mucosal damage by indomethacin. Material and methods: Four groups, each composed of 8 rats, were created...
April 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Shiqian Liu, Nannan Wu, Mingkai Chen, Xi Zeng, Fang Wang, Qian She
RATIONALE: Spinal cord embolism is a rare complication of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 56-year-old man who presented neurological symptoms and spinal cord embolism caused by EIS on esophageal varices. Clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and related treatment supported its diagnosis. DIAGNOSES:: spinal cord embolism. INTERVENTIONS: We stopped the hemostatic and anti-coagulation treatment, and switched to nerve nutrition, microcirculation, and hormone therapy, along with administering gastric mucosal protective agents...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dahee Yeo, Su Jung Hwang, Woo Jean Kim, Hyun-Joo Youn, Hyo-Jong Lee
Artemisia capillaris, also called "InJin" in Korean, has been used as traditional oriental medicine in Korea because of its various pharmacological activities. These include hepatoprotective, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The present study was designed to validate the beneficial effects of the aqueous extract of A. capillaris (AEAC) against acute gastric mucosal injury and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The pharmacological efficacy of AEAC was evaluated using the gastric ulcer index and histological examination...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
M Bianchetti, S Peralta, R Nicita, S E Aragona, G Ciprandi
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as a “disease that develops when the reflux of stomach contents induces troublesome symptoms and/or complications”. From a therapeutic point of view, many options have been proposed, including proton pump inhibitors (PPI), antihistamines (H2- receptor antagonists), antacid chemical compounds, antireflux barrier (using alginates), prokinetics, inhibitors of gastric sphincters, protection of mucosal tissue, neuromodulators, nociceptor antagonists, lifestyle modification, and surgery...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
V C Divya, B Saravanakarthikeyan
Current lifestyle trends encouraging the rise in use of liquid nitrogen in food and beverages may eventually increase the episodes of injuries reported as well. Here, we report the first case of intraoral frostbite as a result of direct injury to the tissues due to ingestion of liquid nitrogen. The mechanism of injury to the oral mucosa in the absence of any injury to the gastric mucosa is explained correlating it to the Leidenfrost phenomenon. Awareness and proper regulations for the use of liquid nitrogen are unavailable and must be created in order to avoid any potential mortality...
April 21, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
Stephanie Abiola Tijani, Samuel B Olaleye, Ebenezer O Farombi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and free radical-mediated processes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. This study investigated the ability of the methanol extract of Chasmanthera dependens to protect the gastric mucosal from oxidative damage induced by oral administration of indomethacin in rats. METHODS: The C. dependens stems were chopped into pieces, air-dried, and pulverized into powder. One kilogram of the powder was macerated in 1 L of methanol for 72 h...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Ketan Vinayakrao Hatware, Sanjay Sharma, Kiran Patil, Meghanath Shete, Sravani Karri, Gaurav Gupta
The Cordia dichotoma (CD) is having anticancer and other pharmacological effects as it contains mainly flavonoids. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the gastroprotective effect of methanolic extract of CD leaves (MECD) obtained using Soxhlet extractor. In this study the qualitative phytochemical analysis of MECD revealed the presence of bioflavonoids and determination of quercetin was confirmed by HPLC analysis. The MECD was administered orally at doses 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg against indomethacin induced gastric ulceration and stress-induced gastric ulceration in Wistar rats...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yoshiyasu Kono, Hiroyuki Sakae, Hiroyuki Okada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Minka Hristova, Maria Tzaneva, Ganka Bekyarova, Dariya Chivchibashi, Nadezhda Stefanova, Yoana Kiselova-Kaneva
Melatonin, a basic secretory pineal gland product, is a nontoxic, multifunctional molecule. It has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities and protects tissues from injury. The objective of the present study was to determine the molecular mechanism of melatonin anti-apoptotic effect on gastric injury in a rat burn model. We hypothesized that melatonin gastric protection may be related to the activation of transcription erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Using a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) rat burn model, melatonin (10 mg/kg, i...
March 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Qiang Zhang, Zhen Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
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