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Gastric mucosal protection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451983/reinforcing-mucus-barrier-properties-with-low-molar-mass-chitosans
#1
Sujit Kootala, Luimar Filho, Vaibhav Srivastava, Victoria Linderberg, Amani Moussa, Laurent David, Stéphane Trombotto, Thomas Crouzier
The mucus gel covers the wet epithelia that forms the inner lining of the body. It constitutes our first line of defense protecting the body from infections and other deleterious molecules. Failure of the mucus barrier can lead to the inflammation of the mucosa such as in inflammatory bowel diseases. Unfortunately, there are no effective strategies that reinforce the mucus barrier properties to recover or enhance its ability to protect the epithelium. Herein, we describe a mucus engineering approach that addresses this issue where we physically crosslink the mucus gel with low molar mass chitosan variants to reinforce its barrier functions...
February 16, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438780/modulation-of-central-endocannabinoid-system-results-in-gastric-mucosal-protection-in-the-rat
#2
V E Tóth, Á Fehér, J Németh, I Gyertyán, Z S Zádori, K Gyires
Previous findings showed that inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), degrading enzymes of anandamide (2-AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), reduced the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric lesions. The present study aimed to investigate: i./whether central or peripheral mechanism play a major role in the gastroprotective effect of inhibitors of FAAH, MAGL and AEA uptake, ii./which peripheral mechanism(s) may play a role in mucosal protective effect of FAAH, MAGL and uptake inhibitors...
February 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427515/injury-repair-inflammation-and-metaplasia-in-the-stomach
#3
Anne R Meyer, James R Goldenring
The development of intestinal-type gastric cancer is preceded by the emergence of metaplastic cell lineages in the gastric mucosa. In particular, intestinal metaplasia and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) have been associated with the pathological progression to intestinal-type gastric cancer. The development of SPEM represents a physiological response to damage that recruits reparative cells to sites of mucosal injury. Metaplastic cell lineages are characterized by mucus secretion, adding a protective barrier to the epithelium...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415150/kaempferol-protects-ethanol-induced-gastric-ulcers-in-mice-via-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-no
#4
Qinchen Li, Xinxin Hu, Yanhan Xuan, Jianghua Ying, Yujia Fei, Jielu Rong, Yong Zhang, Jian Zhang, Chunyan Liu, Zheng Liu
Gastric ulcers (GUs) are common pathologies that affect many people around the world. Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of GUs; however, there are still lack of effective drugs for the prevention or therapy of GUs. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects and possible mechanisms of kaempferol (KAE) against acute ethanol-induced lesions to the gastric mucosa in mice. Fasted mice were orally given vehicle (0.9% saline), omeprazole (20 mg/kg), or KAE (40, 80, or 160 mg/kg) for 1 h in different experimental sets prior to the establishment of the GU model by challenge with absolute ethanol (10 ml/kg)...
February 3, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399134/increased-expression-of-tight-junction-protein-occludin-is-associated-with-the-protective-effect-of-mosapride-against-aspirin-induced-gastric-injury
#5
Chenchen Liu, Zhaotao Duan, Yue Guan, Hailu Wu, Kewei Hu, Xin Gao, Fangcen Yuan, Zongdan Jiang, Ye Fan, Bangshun He, Shukui Wang, Zhenyu Zhang
Mosapride is known to affect gastric motility, however whether mosapride has anti-ulcergenic effects in gastric mucosal injury is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mosapride on aspirin-induced gastric injuries. GES-1 cells were cultured and divided into 5 groups: Control group, aspirin injury group (treated with 18.2 mmol/l aspirin) and mosapride pretreatment groups (treated with 0.4, 0.5, or 0.6 µmol/l mosapride). Cell proliferation was evaluated via MTT assay and cell apoptosis was investigated via flow cytometry...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392836/nod1-is-required-for-helicobacter-pylori-induction-of-il-33-responses-in-gastric-epithelial-cells
#6
Le Son Tran, Darren Tran, Amanda De Paoli, Kimberley D'Costa, Sarah J Creed, Garrett Z Ng, Lena Le, Philip Sutton, J Silke, U Nachbur, Richard L Ferrero
Helicobacter pylori causes chronic inflammation which is a key precursor to gastric carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that H. pylori may limit this immunopathology by inducing the production of IL-33 in gastric epithelial cells, thus promoting T helper 2 immune responses. The molecular mechanism underlying IL-33 production in response to H. pylori infection, however, remains unknown. In the current study, we demonstrate that H. pylori activates signalling via the pathogen recognition molecule NOD1 and its adaptor protein RIPK2, to promote production of both full-length and processed IL-33 in gastric epithelial cells...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386430/-development-of-patient-friendly-formulations-to-counter-the-side-effects-of-cancer-chemotherapy
#7
Takehisa Hanawa, Yayoi Kawano, Mitsutoshi Satoh
 Anticancer drug-induced stomatitis develops in 30% to 40% of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, medications for this condition are not commercially available in Japan. The "hospital formulation" is a customized medicine which hospital pharmacists prepare when doctors cannot carry out the medical therapy most suitable for a patient using commercial medicines. However, as the duties of pharmacists increase, use of the "hospital fomulation" decreases. Therefore, development of "hospital fomulations" based on individual evidence has a limit...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378910/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-augment-immunopathology-and-gastritis-in-chronic-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#8
Criselle D'Souza, Troi Pediongco, Huimeng Wang, Jean-Pierre Y Scheerlinck, Lyudmila Kostenko, Robyn Esterbauer, Andrew W Stent, Sidonia B G Eckle, Bronwyn S Meehan, Richard A Strugnell, Hanwei Cao, Ligong Liu, Jeffrey Y W Mak, George Lovrecz, Louis Lu, David P Fairlie, Jamie Rossjohn, James McCluskey, Alison L Every, Zhenjun Chen, Alexandra J Corbett
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells produce inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic granzymes in response to by-products of microbial riboflavin synthesis. Although MAIT cells are protective against some pathogens, we reasoned that they might contribute to pathology in chronic bacterial infection. We observed MAIT cells in proximity to Helicobacter pylori bacteria in human gastric tissue, and so, using MR1-tetramers, we examined whether MAIT cells contribute to chronic gastritis in a mouse H. pylori SS1 infection model...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361672/gastroprotective-effects-of-sulphated-polysaccharides-from-the-alga-caulerpa-mexicana-reducing-ethanol-induced-gastric-damage
#9
José Gerardo Carneiro, Ticiana de Brito Lima Holanda, Ana Luíza Gomes Quinderé, Annyta Fernandes Frota, Vitória Virgínia Magalhães Soares, Rayane Siqueira de Sousa, Manuela Araújo Carneiro, Dainesy Santos Martins, Antoniella Souza Gomes Duarte, Norma Maria Barros Benevides
The development of the gastric lesion is complex and the result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors, involving the generation of free radicals and disturbance in nitric oxide (NO) production. Sulphated polysaccharides (SP), from marine algae, are widely used in biotechnological and pharmaceutical areas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SP from the green marine alga Caulerpa mexicana (Cm-SP) in ethanol-induced gastric damage models in mice. Cm-SP (2, 20, or 200 mg/kg), administered p...
January 20, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360501/emerging-role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-regulation-of-cellular-pathways-and-in-the-maintenance-of-gastric-mucosal-integrity
#10
REVIEW
Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the degradation of toxic free heme to the equimolar amounts of biliverdin, Fe2+ and concurrently releases of carbon monoxide (CO). CO is nowadays increasingly recognized as an important signaling molecule throughout the body that is involved in many physiological processes and shows multidirectional biological activity. Recent evidence indicates that CO exhibits the anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-apoptotic, anti-aggregatory and vasodilatory properties. The cellular mechanisms underlying the activity of CO involve stimulation of cGMP-dependent signaling pathway and large conductance calcium activated K+ channels, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and the nuclear factor k-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells transcription factor pathway...
January 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273436/gastro-protective-effect-of-edible-plant-artemisia-argyi-in-ethanol-induced-rats-via-normalizing-inflammatory-responses-and-oxidative-stress
#11
Shuang Li, Shaobo Zhou, Wei Yang, Dali Meng
PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Artemisia argyi, a kind of ethnic drug, has a long-term use on gastric diseases and syndromes. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study is to validate the traditional uses of A. argyi scientifically and to discover more efficient nature derived gastro-protective ethnomedicine and further elucidate the possible mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into control, model (ethanol-induced), reference (omeprazole-treated) and A...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243969/low-molecular-weight-oligonol-a-polyphenol-derived-from-lychee-fruit-attenuates-experimental-reflux-esophagitis-and-hcl-ethanol-induced-gastric-ulcer
#12
Seong-Soo Roh, Mi-Rae Shin, Sung Ho Shin, Joo Young Lee, Yeong Ok Song, Minji Woo, Kap-Seop Jeong, Jeong Sook Noh
Oligonol, a polyphenol derived from lychee fruit, is produced by an oligomerization process that converts high-molecular-weight polyphenol polymers into low-molecular-weight oligomers. Evidence suggests that oligonol exerts its beneficial effects based on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was the first to investigate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of oligonol on gastroesophageal inflammatory models: surgically induced acute reflux esophagitis (RE) and gastric ulcer (GU) induced by HCl/ethanol...
December 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230642/a-case-of-a-protruded-lesion-formed-by-a-poorly-differentiated-intramucosal-adenocarcinoma-of-the-stomach-an-immunohistochemical-analysis
#13
Keiichiro Nakajo, Yasuhiro Oono, Takeshi Kuwata, Tomonori Yano
A 70-year-old woman underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and was found to have a 25-mm protruded lesion in the gastric body. A biopsy revealed malignant cells. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Histopathologically, the tumor was mainly composed of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PDA), while moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed on its superficial layer. The tumor was located within the mucosal layer. PDAs rarely form a protruded lesion. Here, the presence of a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma element in the superficial layer of the tumor might have protected the tumor cells from erosion, and solid proliferation of the PDA also contributed to its outward growth...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226586/protective-effect-of-gentiopicroside-from-gentiana-macrophylla-pall-in-ethanol-induced-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-mice
#14
Yang Yang, Ziye Wang, Li Zhang, Bing Yin, Le Lv, Jiao He, Ziyang Chen, Xin Wen, Boling Qiao, Wenji Sun, Minfeng Fang, Yongmin Zhang
Gentiopicroside isolated from gentiana macrophylla Pall. belongs to iridoid glycosides. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of gentiopicroside against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. Mice were proactively administrated with gentiopicroside by intragastric administration once a day for 3 consecutive days. On the 3rd day, gastric ulcer in mice was induced with 70% ethanol after the last intragastric administration. The stomach tissues were submitted for evaluation of the severity of gastric mucosal alterations...
December 11, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223540/protective-effect-of-coptisine-free-base-on-indomethacin-induced-gastric-ulcers-in-rats-characterization-of-potential-molecular-mechanisms
#15
Chaodan Luo, Hanbin Chen, Yongfu Wang, Guosheng Lin, Cailan Li, Lihua Tan, Ziren Su, Xiaoping Lai, Jianhui Xie, Huifang Zeng
AIMS: The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the potential gastroprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of coptisine free base (CFB, 8-hydroxy-7, 8-dihydrocoptisine), berberine and lansoprazole against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CFB (10, 20 and 40mg/kg), berberine (20mg/kg) and lansoprazole (30mg/kg) were orally administrated to rats prior to indometacin ingestion, and gastric lesions were evaluated macroscopically and histologically, and further analyzed by ELISA, qRT-PCR and Western blot...
December 6, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222687/chrysophyllum-cainito-apple-star-a-fruit-with-gastroprotective-activity-in-experimental-ulcer-models
#16
Roseane Leandra da Rosa, Camila Leandra de Almeida, Lincon Bordigon Somensi, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Clarissa de Medeiros Amorim Krueger, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
The gastroprotective potential of the methanolic extracts from peels (MEPe), seeds (MESe) and pulp (MEPu) of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae) fruits was evaluated in mice using ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced ulcer, as well as the antiulcer effect of the juice and flour from this fruit. The lowest oral gastroprotective dose of MEPe, MESe and MEPu against ethanol/HCl was 3, 3 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, all extracts increased mucin secretion at 176, 198 and 193%. Intraperitoneal administration of MEPe (0...
December 8, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210057/a-functional-polymorphism-in-tff1-promoter-is-associated-with-the-risk-and-prognosis-of-gastric-cancer
#17
Weizhi Wang, Zheng Li, Jiwei Wang, Mulong Du, Bowen Li, Lei Zhang, Qing Li, Jianghao Xu, Linjun Wang, Fengyuan Li, Diancai Zhang, Hao Xu, Li Yang, Weida Gong, Fulin Qiang, Zhengdong Zhang, Zekuan Xu
Trefoil Factor 1 (TFF1, also named pS2), which serves as the gastrointestinal mucosal protector, is known as gastric-specific tumor suppressor gene. However, the genetic variants of TFF1 are still not well studied. In this study, we aim to explore the effects of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) of TFF1 on risk and prognosis of gastric cancer. Seven tagSNPs of TFF1 gene were first analyzed in the test set, which was consisted of 753 cases and 950 cancer-free controls. Then, the validation set (940 cases and 1,042 controls) was used for further evaluation...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201579/overtube-assisted-foreign-body-removal-a-review-of-endoscopic-management-and-case-illustration
#18
Andrew Ofosu, Daryl Ramai, Madhavi Reddy
The ingestion of foreign bodies is a common medical emergency seen in both adults and children. In children, the most commonly ingested foreign bodies include coins, toys, magnets, and batteries. In adults, food bolus impaction represents the most common cause of foreign body ingestion. The majority of foreign bodies pass spontaneously. Sharp or pointed objects increase the risk of perforation. Emergent endoscopic intervention is indicated in cases of esophageal obstruction, ingestion of disk batteries, and sharp pointed objects in the esophagus...
September 29, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192375/efficacy-of-rebamipide-in-organic-and-functional-dyspepsia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Mohamed Hasif Jaafar, Sher Zaman Safi, Maw-Pin Tan, Sanjay Rampal, Sanjiv Mahadeva
OBJECTIVE: The role of gastritis in dyspepsia remains controversial. We aimed to examine the efficacy of rebamipide, a gastric mucosal protective agent, in both organic and functional dyspepsia. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. The following databases were searched using the keywords ("rebamipide" OR "gastroprotective agent*" OR "mucosta") AND ("dyspepsia" OR "indigestion" OR "gastrointestinal symptoms"): PubMed, Wed of Science, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Clinical Trials Register...
December 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188801/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-evidence-for-developing-an-oral-formulation-of-octreotide-against-gastric-mucosal-injury
#20
Xi-Nuo Li, Tai Rao, Yang-Fan Xu, Kang-Rui Hu, Zhang-Pei Zhu, Hao-Feng Li, Dian Kang, Yu-Hao Shao, Bo-Yu Shen, Xiao-Xi Yin, Lin Xie, Guang-Ji Wang, Yan Liang
Among the somatostatin analogues, octreotide (OCT) is the most commonly used in clinic via intravenous or subcutaneous injection to treat various diseases caused by increased secretion of growth hormone, gastrin or insulin. In order to assesse the feasibility of developing oral formulations of OCT, we conducted systematical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of OCT in several animal models. The pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that intragastric administration of OCT had extremely low bioavailability (<0...
November 30, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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