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Thinking styles AND cognitive styles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790961/relationship-of-cognitive-style-and-job-level-first-demonstration-of-cultural-differences
#1
Tetsuya Kageyama, Motoaki Sugiura
Higher-level managers are said to have a more intuitive cognitive style. To verify this hypothesis, we must consider three factors that have often been left out of account. Previous studies, related to managerial cognitive style and job level, used a unidimensional model of cognitive style, did not consider age, and have mainly been conducted in the UK. Our study replicated previous studies on a population of 1,533 Japanese fulltime workers, using a questionnaire based on a two-dimensional model of cognitive style and setting a frame by age for each job level...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771918/effects-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt-and-positive-psychological-intervention-ppi-on-female-offenders-with-psychological-distress-in-hong-kong
#2
Vivian W M Mak, Calais K Y Chan
BACKGROUND: Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. AIMS: To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately - cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) - would be more effective than 'treatment-as-usual' alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone...
August 2, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749828/therapists-metacognitive-monitoring-of-the-psychotherapeutic-process-with-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#3
Marianne E Bourke, Brin F S Grenyer
BACKGROUND: Therapy for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is challenging, in part, because of the impact of BPD on the therapeutic relationship. The therapist's metacognitive capacity within therapy may be perturbed due to the complexity of verbal and nonverbal affect and cognition in the therapeutic interchange; however, research on this issue is lacking. METHODS: Therapists (N=20 clinical psychologists) were asked to discuss the treatment process when working with their patients with BPD (N=40) and their patients with major depressive disorder (N=40)...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743295/group-cognitive-remediation-therapy-for-younger-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-feasibility-study-in-a-japanese-sample
#4
Rie Kuge, Katie Lang, Ayano Yokota, Shoko Kodama, Yuriko Morino, Michiko Nakazato, Eiji Shimizu
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) aims to increase patients' cognitive flexibility by practicing new ways of thinking as well as facilitating bigger picture thinking, supporting patients with relevant tasks and encouraging an awareness of their own thinking styles. CRT has been applied in the treatment of adult anorexia nervosa (AN), and has been shown to be effective and acceptable. In adolescents, CRT has been piloted on both individual and group format. However, no studies are published in CRT for adolescents with AN in a Japanese sample...
July 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712729/gene-by-cognition-interaction-on-stress-induced-attention-bias-for-food-effects-of-5-httlpr-and-ruminative-thinking
#5
Robbie Schepers, C Rob Markus
INTRODUCTION: Stress is often found to increase the preference and intake of high caloric foods. This effect is known as emotional eating and is influenced by cognitive as well as biological stress vulnerabilities. An S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene has been linked to decreased (brain) serotonin efficiency, leading to decreased stress resilience and increased risks for negative affect and eating related disturbances. Recently it has been proposed that a cognitive ruminative thinking style can further exacerbate the effect of this gene by prolonging the already increased stress response, thereby potentially increasing the risk of compensating by overeating high palatable foods...
July 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589632/effect-of-a-brief-cognitive-behavioural-intervention-on-criminal-thinking-and-prison-misconduct-in-male-inmates-variable-oriented-and-person-oriented-analyses
#6
Glenn D Walters
BACKGROUND: There is some consensus on the value of cognitive-behaviourally informed interventions in the criminal justice system, but uncertainty about which components are of critical value. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that change in prisoners - criminal thinking and institutional misconduct - will both follow completion of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention. METHODS: A one-group pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was used to assess change on the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles among 219 male prisoners completing a 10-week cognitive behavioural intervention, referred to as 'Lifestyle Issues'...
June 7, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502912/thinking-styles-and-quality-of-university-life-among-deaf-or-hard-of-hearing-and-hearing-students
#7
Sanyin Cheng, Li-Fang Zhang
The authors explored how thinking styles relate to quality of university life among deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and hearing university students in mainland China. The first of two studies affirmed the validity and reliability of a modified version of the Quality of University Life Measure (QULM; Sirgy, Grezskowiak, & Rahtz, 2007) among 833 university students (366 DHH, 467 hearing). The second investigated relationships between thinking styles and quality of university life; the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II (Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2007) and modified QULM were administered to 542 students (256 DHH, 286 hearing)...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355881/delineating-characteristics-of-maladaptive-repetitive-thought
#8
Lauren E Szkodny, Michelle G Newman
Worry, rumination, and obsessive thinking are theorized to differ on temporal orientation, positive perceived function, degree of intrusiveness, and discordance with one's self-concept. However, prior findings with respect to such differences may be due to method variance of the measures used and/or inclusion of items confounded by diagnostic symptoms. Accurately capturing differences between types of perseverative thought linked to psychopathology and understanding whether such aspects are common across disorders or specific to some may be important to designing effective treatments for them...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352955/the-concomitants-of-conspiracy-concerns
#9
Daniel Freeman, Richard P Bentall
PURPOSE: A conspiracy world view may be a form of mistrust that is typically corrosive to individual and societal well-being. Our aim was to establish the correlates of conspiracy thinking in an epidemiologically representative sample. METHODS: US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) data were analysed from 5645 people who had completed the item "I am convinced there is a conspiracy behind many things in the world." Results were weighted to be representative of the US adult English speaking household population...
May 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296207/understanding-the-relationship-between-suicidality-current-depressed-mood-personality-and-cognitive-factors
#10
Shri Cameron, Verity J Brown, Barbara Dritschel, Kevin Power, Malcolm Cook
OBJECTIVES: Links between suicidality and depressed mood are well established. There is, however, little information about the emotional regulation processes that underlie the relationship between suicidality and current low mood, and how these processes differ between groups of never-suicidal (NS), suicidal ideators, and suicide attempters. As suicidality and depression are heterogeneous constructs, this study aimed to conduct within- and between-group comparisons of known suicide risk factors that are associated with emotion regulation (neuroticism, trait aggression, brooding, impulsivity, and overgeneral autobiographical memories)...
March 11, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244033/young-people-s-experience-of-individual-cognitive-remediation-therapy-crt-in-an-inpatient-eating-disorder-service-a-qualitative-study
#11
Lucia Giombini, Sophie Nesbitt, Lauren Waples, Emilia Finazzi, Abigail Easter, Kate Tchanturia
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Current literature shows promising results regarding the efficacy of Cognitive Remediation Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa (AN); however, there is a paucity of studies considering the use of CRT in Young People (YP). The aim of this study was to examine YP's experiences of individual CRT in an inpatient eating disorder unit. METHOD: Seventy letters following a cycle of eight individual CRT sessions were analysed using thematic analysis, adopting an inductive approach...
February 27, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203636/i-want-to-media-multitask-and-i-want-to-do-it-now-individual-differences-in-media-multitasking-predict-delay-of-gratification-and-system-1-thinking
#12
Dan Schutten, Kirk A Stokes, Karen M Arnell
Media multitasking, the concurrent use of multiple media forms, has been shown to be related to greater self-reported impulsivity and less self-control. These measures are both hallmarks of the need for immediate gratification which has been associated with fast, intuitive 'system-1' decision making, as opposed to more deliberate and effortful 'system-2' decision making. In Study 1, we used the Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) to examine whether individuals who engage heavily in media multitasking differ from those who are light media multitaskers in their degree of system-1 versus system-2 thinking...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150989/dialectical-thinking-and-fairness-based-perspectives-of-affirmative-action
#13
Ivona Hideg, D Lance Ferris
Affirmative action (AA) policies are among the most effective means for enhancing diversity and equality in the workplace, yet are also often viewed with scorn by the wider public. Fairness-based explanations for this scorn suggest AA policies provide preferential treatment to minorities, violating procedural fairness principles of consistent treatment. In other words, to promote equality in the workplace, effective AA policies promote inequality when selecting employees, and the broader public perceives this to be procedurally unfair...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#14
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
April 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035741/does-empowerment-mediate-the-effects-of-psychological-factors-on-mental-health-well-being-and-recovery-in-young-people
#15
Annmarie Grealish, Sara Tai, Andrew Hunter, Richard Emsley, Trevor Murrells, Anthony P Morrison
OBJECTIVES: There is consensus that empowerment is key to recovery from mental health problems, enabling a person to take charge of their life and make informed choices and decisions about their life. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which empowerment affects mental health in young people. The current study involved young people aged 16-29 years and examined empowerment as a potential mediator of the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, cognition, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from personal problems...
September 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982507/cognitive-processing-in-the-aftermath-of-relationship-dissolution-associations-with-concurrent-and-prospective-distress-and-posttraumatic-growth
#16
Adriana Del Palacio-González, David A Clark, Lucia F O'Sullivan
Non-marital romantic relationship dissolution is amongst the most stressful life events experienced by young adults. Yet, some individuals experience posttraumatic growth following relationship dissolution. Little is known about the specific and differential contribution of trait-like and event-specific cognitive processing styles to each of these outcomes. A longitudinal design was employed in which trait-like (brooding and reflection) and dissolution-specific (intrusive and deliberate) cognitive processing was examined as predictors of growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and distress (Breakup Distress Scale) following a recent relationship dissolution...
December 16, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955643/mindsurf-a-pilot-study-to-assess-the-usability-and-acceptability-of-a-smartphone-app-designed-to-promote-contentment-wellbeing-and-goal-achievement
#17
Timothy A Carey, Jennifer Haviland, Sara J Tai, Thea Vanags, Warren Mansell
BACKGROUND: The Method of Levels (MOL) is a transdiagnostic cognitive therapy that promotes contentment, wellbeing, and goal achievement through the resolution of internal conflicts underlying psychological distress. MOL, based on Perceptual Control Theory (PCT), was developed in routine clinical practice and has been used effectively across different health services by different practitioners. Access to MOL-style questions through a smartphone app could, potentially, help both the general public maintain robust mental health, and also be a useful adjunct to therapy for clinical populations...
December 12, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936880/-everyday-suspicion-our-life-is-delusional
#18
Zoltán Janka
Suspicious thinking in given situations can be useful and helps the adaptation as events occurring in the world also corroborate this. Factors participating in the development of paranoia can be listed as psychodynamic (projection), salience attributional, neurobiological (dopamine), impaired perceptual (hearing loss), sociocultural (minority, pseudocommunity), self-esteem (worrying, depression, mania), and cognitive (jump-to-conclusion) mechanisms. Along the spectrum of thinking, from the mild to the severe, enhanced worrying, salience attribution, overvalued concepts, suspicion/mistrust, paranoid ideations, and crystallized delusions may occur with different contents...
December 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923966/thinking-style-as-a-predictor-of-men-s-participation-in-cancer-screening
#19
Clare E McGuiness, Deborah Turnbull, Carlene Wilson, Amy Duncan, Ingrid H Flight, Ian Zajac
Men's participation in cancer screening may be influenced by their thinking style. Men's need for cognition (NFC) and faith in intuition were measured to explore whether they varied by demographic variables or predicted screening behavior. Australian males (n = 585, aged 50-74 years) completed surveys about past screening and were subsequently offered mailed fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). Demographic predictors included age, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and language spoken at home. The screening behaviors were self-reported prostate cancer screening (prostate-specific antigen testing and digital rectal examinations [DREs]), and colorectal cancer screening (self-reported FOBT participation and recorded uptake of the FOBT offer)...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846417/threat-interpretation-and-parental-influences-for-children-with-asthma-and-anxiety
#20
Gemma Sicouri, Louise Sharpe, Jennifer L Hudson, Jo Dudeney, Adam Jaffe, Hiran Selvadurai, Sarah Lorimer, Caroline Hunt
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children with asthma yet very little is known about the cognitive and parent factors that may underpin this relationship. The present study investigated interpretation biases in children with asthma and anxiety and their parents, and whether parent-child discussions influenced children's interpretations. Eighty-nine parent-child dyads were included across four groups: children with asthma and anxiety, children with anxiety only, children with asthma only and healthy children (aged between 8 and 13 years old)...
February 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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