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Thinking styles AND cognitive styles

Clare E McGuiness, Deborah Turnbull, Carlene Wilson, Amy Duncan, Ingrid H Flight, Ian Zajac
Men's participation in cancer screening may be influenced by their thinking style. Men's need for cognition (NFC) and faith in intuition were measured to explore whether they varied by demographic variables or predicted screening behavior. Australian males (n = 585, aged 50-74 years) completed surveys about past screening and were subsequently offered mailed fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). Demographic predictors included age, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and language spoken at home. The screening behaviors were self-reported prostate cancer screening (prostate-specific antigen testing and digital rectal examinations [DREs]), and colorectal cancer screening (self-reported FOBT participation and recorded uptake of the FOBT offer)...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Gemma Sicouri, Louise Sharpe, Jennifer L Hudson, Jo Dudeney, Adam Jaffe, Hiran Selvadurai, Sarah Lorimer, Caroline Hunt
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children with asthma yet very little is known about the cognitive and parent factors that may underpin this relationship. The present study investigated interpretation biases in children with asthma and anxiety and their parents, and whether parent-child discussions influenced children's interpretations. Eighty-nine parent-child dyads were included across four groups: children with asthma and anxiety, children with anxiety only, children with asthma only and healthy children (aged between 8 and 13 years old)...
November 10, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Mahyar Mafakheri Laleh, Mojgan Mohammadimehr, Sanaz Zargar Balaye Jame
INTRODUCTION: In the new concept of medical education, creativity development is an important goal. The aim of this research was to identify a model for developing critical thinking among students with the special focus on learning environment and learning style. METHODS: This applied and cross-sectional study was conducted among all students studying in undergraduate and professional doctorate programs in Fall Semester 2013-2014 in AJA University of Medical Sciences (N=777)...
October 2016: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
Péter Simor, Bertalan Polner
Eveningness preference (late chronotype) was previously associated with different personality dimensions and thinking styles that were linked to creativity, suggesting that evening-type individuals tend to be more creative than the morning-types. Nevertheless, empirical data on the association between chronotype and creative performance is scarce and inconclusive. Moreover, cognitive processes related to creative thinking are influenced by other factors such as sleep and the time of testing. Therefore, our aim was to examine convergent and divergent thinking abilities in late and early chronotypes, taking into consideration the influence of asynchrony (optimal versus nonoptimal testing times) and sleep quality...
October 28, 2016: Chronobiology International
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jingyang Jiang, Jinghui Ouyang, Haitao Liu
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT...
2016: PloS One
Katrina Malin, Geoffrey Owen Littlejohn
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain and high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, and altered cognition. Psychological stress can modulate these features. In this study, we examined the thinking style of rumination in women with FM to assess the effect of rumination on stress levels and other psychological variables in FM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-eight women with FM completed questionnaires to assess levels of rumination, stress, anxiety, depression, optimism, control, and coping...
December 2015: Eur J Rheumatol
Linda M Isbell, Daniel R Rovenpor, Elicia C Lair
Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014)...
October 2016: Emotion
Kate Tchanturia, Emma Larsson, James Adamson
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to evaluate group Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) inpatients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We aimed to examine the treatment response of group CRT in AN patients with high or low levels of autistic traits. METHODS: Thirty-five in patients with an AN diagnosis received group CRT intervention for 6 sessions in a national eating disorder unit. All participants completed self-report questionnaires on thinking styles and motivation before and after the intervention...
September 29, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Lydia A Shrier, Allegra Spalding
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Depressed young women are at increased risk for adverse outcomes related to sexual behavior, including unintended pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Brief sexual risk reduction interventions have not targeted depressed young women's specific needs for affect management and impulse control. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We interviewed depressed young women ages 15-23 years engaging in sexual risk behavior about a proposed intervention approach...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Lucy E Handscomb, Deborah A Hall, Gillian W Shorter, Derek J Hoare
OBJECTIVES: Researchers and clinicians consider thinking to be important in the development and maintenance of tinnitus distress, and altering thoughts or thinking style is an object of many forms of psychological therapy for tinnitus. Those working with people with tinnitus require a reliable, psychometrically robust means of measuring both positive and negative thinking related to it. The Tinnitus Cognitions Questionnaire (TCQ) was designed as such a measure and its authors showed it to be reliable, with good psychometric properties...
August 23, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Katerina Rnic, David J A Dozois, Rod A Martin
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms...
August 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
Michael Hock, Jan H Peters, Heinz Walter Krohne
Using a paradigm that allows a quasi-continuous tracking of memory performance over time, two experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that (a) persons with a cognitively avoidant style of coping with threat manifest a dissociation between (intact) short-term and (reduced) long-term retrieval of aversive information and (b) persons with a vigilant coping style recall aversive information particularly well after long retention intervals, provided they are free to think about aversive events. Study 1 (N = 75) showed that avoiders manifest a poor memory for aversive pictures after long retention intervals only...
August 17, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Betteke Maria van Noort, Judith Memering, Ernst Pfeiffer, Ulrike Lehmkuhl, Viola Kappel
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a relatively new therapy for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is an increased demand to include the patient view during the evaluation of treatment programs. So far, there is no structured evaluation of the subjective view of adolescents with AN on CRT available. METHODS: 20 patients with AN between the ages of 12 and 18 years completed 10 CRT sessions. 19 patients (age: 15.6±1.3; BMI-percentile: 2.4±3...
August 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
N Lesuis, A A den Broeder, R F van Vollenhoven, J E Vriezekolk, Mejl Hulscher
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between antinuclear antibody (ANA) overuse and rheumatologist-related factors before and after an intervention aimed at reducing ANA overuse. METHOD: In this mixed methods study we performed surveys among rheumatologists (n = 20) before and after the ANA intervention (education and feedback). We identified clinician-related determinants of ANA overuse (demographic characteristics, cognitive bias, numeracy, personality, thinking styles, and knowledge) by multivariate analysis...
July 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Simona Giuri, Gabriele Caselli, Chiara Manfredi, Daniela Rebecchi, Antonio Granata, Giovanni Maria Ruggiero, Guido Veronese
Erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) are two forms of male sexual disorder with both psychological and physical features. While their cognitive, attentional, and affective components have been investigated separately, there is a lack of knowledge about the role played by cognitive attentional syndrome in their onset and maintenance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible contribution of perseverative thinking styles and thought control strategies to the development and maintenance of ED and PE...
June 8, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Ada Wai Tung Fung, Linda Chiu Wa Lam
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that the prevalence of late life anxiety disorders varies between 3.2% and 15.3%. Despite its high prevalence, anxiety disorders are still under-recognized in old age. This study evaluated the association among health, psychosocial factors, lifestyle choices, cognitive function and anxiety disorders in the older population in Hong Kong. METHODS: Six hundred and thirteen volunteer participants aged 60 years or above were interviewed for their socio-demographic background, physical and mental health statuses, social network, cognitive function and their activity engagement style...
June 9, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Johanna B Folk, David J Disabato, Jordan M Daylor, June P Tangney, Sharen Barboza, John S Wilson, Lynda Bonieskie, James Holwager
The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i...
August 2016: Psychological Services
Nicholas R Forand, Daniel R Strunk, Robert J DeRubeis
"Extreme responding" is the tendency to endorse extreme responses on self-report measures (e.g., 1s and 7s on a 7-point scale). It has been linked to depressive relapse after cognitive therapy (CT), but the mechanisms are unknown. Moreover, findings of positive extreme responding (PER) predicting depressive relapse do not support the original hypothesis of "extreme" negative thinking leading to extreme negative emotional reactions. We assessed the relationships between post-treatment PER on the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and these constructs: coping skills, in-session performance of cognitive therapy skills, age, and estimated IQ...
August 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Torben Schubert, Philipp Süssenbach, Sarina J Schäfer, Frank Euteneuer
Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond objective measures of social status. Both objective and subjective measures of social status are strongly related with depression. Cognitive mechanisms such as depressive cognitions, rumination, and a negative cognitive style are seen as both concomitant and antecedent to depression. This experiment examined the causal role of SSS in developing depressive thinking. Participants were randomly assigned to a low and a high status group and followed a manipulation procedure targeting their SSS...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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