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Thinking styles AND cognitive styles

L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jingyang Jiang, Jinghui Ouyang, Haitao Liu
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT...
2016: PloS One
Katrina Malin, Geoffrey Owen Littlejohn
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain and high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, and altered cognition. Psychological stress can modulate these features. In this study, we examined the thinking style of rumination in women with FM to assess the effect of rumination on stress levels and other psychological variables in FM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-eight women with FM completed questionnaires to assess levels of rumination, stress, anxiety, depression, optimism, control, and coping...
December 2015: Eur J Rheumatol
Linda M Isbell, Daniel R Rovenpor, Elicia C Lair
Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014)...
October 2016: Emotion
Kate Tchanturia, Emma Larsson, James Adamson
BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to evaluate group Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) inpatients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). We aimed to examine the treatment response of group CRT in AN patients with high or low levels of autistic traits. METHODS: Thirty-five in patients with an AN diagnosis received group CRT intervention for 6 sessions in a national eating disorder unit. All participants completed self-report questionnaires on thinking styles and motivation before and after the intervention...
September 29, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Lydia A Shrier, Allegra Spalding
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Depressed young women are at increased risk for adverse outcomes related to sexual behavior, including unintended pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Brief sexual risk reduction interventions have not targeted depressed young women's specific needs for affect management and impulse control. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We interviewed depressed young women ages 15-23 years engaging in sexual risk behavior about a proposed intervention approach...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Lucy E Handscomb, Deborah A Hall, Gillian W Shorter, Derek J Hoare
OBJECTIVES: Researchers and clinicians consider thinking to be important in the development and maintenance of tinnitus distress, and altering thoughts or thinking style is an object of many forms of psychological therapy for tinnitus. Those working with people with tinnitus require a reliable, psychometrically robust means of measuring both positive and negative thinking related to it. The Tinnitus Cognitions Questionnaire (TCQ) was designed as such a measure and its authors showed it to be reliable, with good psychometric properties...
August 23, 2016: Ear and Hearing
Katerina Rnic, David J A Dozois, Rod A Martin
Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms...
August 2016: Europe's journal of psychology
Michael Hock, Jan H Peters, Heinz Walter Krohne
Using a paradigm that allows a quasi-continuous tracking of memory performance over time, two experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that (a) persons with a cognitively avoidant style of coping with threat manifest a dissociation between (intact) short-term and (reduced) long-term retrieval of aversive information and (b) persons with a vigilant coping style recall aversive information particularly well after long retention intervals, provided they are free to think about aversive events. Study 1 (N = 75) showed that avoiders manifest a poor memory for aversive pictures after long retention intervals only...
August 17, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Betteke Maria van Noort, Judith Memering, Ernst Pfeiffer, Ulrike Lehmkuhl, Viola Kappel
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a relatively new therapy for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). There is an increased demand to include the patient view during the evaluation of treatment programs. So far, there is no structured evaluation of the subjective view of adolescents with AN on CRT available. METHODS: 20 patients with AN between the ages of 12 and 18 years completed 10 CRT sessions. 19 patients (age: 15.6±1.3; BMI-percentile: 2.4±3...
August 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
N Lesuis, A A den Broeder, R F van Vollenhoven, J E Vriezekolk, Mejl Hulscher
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between antinuclear antibody (ANA) overuse and rheumatologist-related factors before and after an intervention aimed at reducing ANA overuse. METHOD: In this mixed methods study we performed surveys among rheumatologists (n = 20) before and after the ANA intervention (education and feedback). We identified clinician-related determinants of ANA overuse (demographic characteristics, cognitive bias, numeracy, personality, thinking styles, and knowledge) by multivariate analysis...
July 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Simona Giuri, Gabriele Caselli, Chiara Manfredi, Daniela Rebecchi, Antonio Granata, Giovanni Maria Ruggiero, Guido Veronese
Erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) are two forms of male sexual disorder with both psychological and physical features. While their cognitive, attentional, and affective components have been investigated separately, there is a lack of knowledge about the role played by cognitive attentional syndrome in their onset and maintenance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible contribution of perseverative thinking styles and thought control strategies to the development and maintenance of ED and PE...
June 8, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Ada Wai Tung Fung, Linda Chiu Wa Lam
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that the prevalence of late life anxiety disorders varies between 3.2% and 15.3%. Despite its high prevalence, anxiety disorders are still under-recognized in old age. This study evaluated the association among health, psychosocial factors, lifestyle choices, cognitive function and anxiety disorders in the older population in Hong Kong. METHODS: Six hundred and thirteen volunteer participants aged 60 years or above were interviewed for their socio-demographic background, physical and mental health statuses, social network, cognitive function and their activity engagement style...
June 9, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Johanna B Folk, David J Disabato, Jordan M Daylor, June P Tangney, Sharen Barboza, John S Wilson, Lynda Bonieskie, James Holwager
The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i...
August 2016: Psychological Services
Nicholas R Forand, Daniel R Strunk, Robert J DeRubeis
"Extreme responding" is the tendency to endorse extreme responses on self-report measures (e.g., 1s and 7s on a 7-point scale). It has been linked to depressive relapse after cognitive therapy (CT), but the mechanisms are unknown. Moreover, findings of positive extreme responding (PER) predicting depressive relapse do not support the original hypothesis of "extreme" negative thinking leading to extreme negative emotional reactions. We assessed the relationships between post-treatment PER on the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) and these constructs: coping skills, in-session performance of cognitive therapy skills, age, and estimated IQ...
August 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Torben Schubert, Philipp Süssenbach, Sarina J Schäfer, Frank Euteneuer
Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond objective measures of social status. Both objective and subjective measures of social status are strongly related with depression. Cognitive mechanisms such as depressive cognitions, rumination, and a negative cognitive style are seen as both concomitant and antecedent to depression. This experiment examined the causal role of SSS in developing depressive thinking. Participants were randomly assigned to a low and a high status group and followed a manipulation procedure targeting their SSS...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Carole Fantini, Philippe de Timary
Alexithymia is a multifaceted personality trait that involves difficulties in identifying and describing feelings to others, a poor fantasy life and an externally oriented cognitive style. Alexithymia has been described as a vulnerability factor for mental and physical diseases. We investigated in a group of 158 alcohol-dependent patients (103 men, 55 women) the association between depression and craving for alcohol when these patients were starting a detoxification program, and the moderating impact of gender and alexithymia on this relation...
May 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Adam C Mills, DeMond M Grant, Matt R Judah, Evan J White, Danielle L Taylor, Kristen E Frosio
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been implicated in several disorders (e.g., Clark (2005)). However, little research has examined how RNT influences other risk factors of psychopathology, such as attentional control. This study used prospective methodology to determine if relationships among various RNT styles and symptoms of psychological disorders are indirectly influenced by facets of attentional control. The sample included 376 participants who completed measures of RNT (worry, rumination, anticipatory processing, obsessions, intrusive thoughts and panic cognitions), psychopathology (generalized anxiety disorder, depression, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder), and attentional control at two time points...
April 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Graham C L Davey, F Meeten
This paper reviews the cognitive, affective and attentional factors that contribute to individual perseverative worry bouts. We describe how automatic biases in attentional and interpretational processes contribute to threat detection and to the inclusion of negative intrusive thoughts into the worry stream typical of the "what if …?" thinking style of pathological worriers. The review also describes processes occurring downstream from these perceptual biases that also facilitate perseveration, including cognitive biases in beliefs about the nature of the worry process, the automatic deployment of strict goal-directed responses for dealing with the threat, the role of negative mood in facilitating effortful forms of information processing (i...
April 11, 2016: Biological Psychology
Carol Opdebeeck, Catherine Quinn, Sharon M Nelis, Linda Clare
Key components of cognitive lifestyle are educational attainment, occupational complexity and engagement in cognitively stimulating leisure activities. Each of these factors is associated with experiencing fewer depressive symptoms in later life, but no study to date has examined the relationship between overall cognitive lifestyle and depressive symptoms. This task is made more complex because relatively few older participants in cross-sectional studies will be currently experiencing depression. However, many more will show evidence of a depressive thinking style that predisposes them towards depression...
2016: European Journal of Ageing
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