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(Thinking OR cognitive OR intellectual) AND styles

Daniel Joel Shaw, Kristína Czekóová, Michaela Porubanová
Accurate distinction between self and other representations is fundamental to a range of social cognitive capacities, and understanding individual differences in this ability is an important aim for psychological research. This demands accurate measures of self-other distinction (SOD). The present study examined an experimental paradigm employed frequently to measure SOD in the action domain; specifically, we evaluated the rotated finger-action stimuli used increasingly to measure automatic imitation (AI). To assess the suitability of these stimuli, we compared AI elicited by different action stimuli to the performance on a perspective-taking task believed to measure SOD in the perception domain...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Research
Michael J Constantino, Holly B Laws, Alice E Coyne, Roger P Greenberg, Daniel N Klein, Rachel Manber, Barbara O Rothbaum, Bruce A Arnow
Objective: Theories posit that chronically depressed individuals have hostile and submissive interpersonal styles that undermine their interpersonal effectiveness and contribute to the cause and maintenance of their depression. Recent findings support this theory and demonstrate that chronically depressed patients' interpersonal impacts on their therapist become more adaptive (i.e., less hostile and submissive, and more friendly and assertive) during a targeted chronic depression treatment: cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Sarah Tully, Adrian Wells, Melissa Pyle, Jemma Hudson, Andrew Gumley, David Kingdon, Matthias Schwannauer, Douglas Turkington, Anthony P Morrison
Responses to psychotic experiences are central to cognitive models of psychosis. The current study aimed to develop and validate a self-report measure of common responses to the experience of psychosis. This measure is needed as cognitive and behavioural responses are implicated in the maintenance of psychosis, but there is currently no measure that comprehensively assesses these maintaining factors. The Measure of Common Responses to psychosis (MCR) was developed and utilised in a sample of 487 participants who met criteria for treatment-resistant schizophrenia...
October 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
M-N Babinet, C Rigard, É Peyroux, A-R Dragomir, I Plotton, H Lejeune, C Demily
INTRODUCTION: The Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic condition characterized by an X supernumerary sex chromosome in males. The syndrome is frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Indeed, the different areas of the executive sphere can be affected such as inhibition, cognitive flexibility but also attentional and visual-spatial domain. Social cognition disorders, predominantly on emotional recognition processes, have also been documented. In addition, the syndrome may be associated with psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Jingyang Jiang, Jinghui Ouyang, Haitao Liu
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT...
2016: PloS One
E M Wachelder, V R M P Moulaert, C van Heugten, T Gorgels, D T Wade, J A Verbunt
BACKGROUND: Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have cognitive and emotional problems. As a cardiac arrest is also an obvious life-threatening event, other psychological sequelae associated with surviving such as spirituality may also affect quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between spirituality, coping and quality of life in cardiac patients both with and without a cardiac arrest. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, participants received a questionnaire by post...
October 10, 2016: Resuscitation
Kinga Morsanyi, Eileen O'Mahony, Teresa McCormack
Recent evidence has highlighted the important role that number ordering skills play in arithmetic abilities (e.g., Lyons & Beilock, 2011). In fact, Lyons et al. (2014) demonstrated that although at the start of formal mathematics education number comparison skills are the best predictors of arithmetic performance, from around the age of 10, number ordering skills become the strongest numerical predictors of arithmetic abilities. In the current study, we demonstrated that number comparison and ordering skills were both significantly related to arithmetic performance in adults, and the effect size was greater in the case of ordering skills...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Niels Chr Hansen, Peter Vuust, Marcus Pearce
Musical expertise entails meticulous stylistic specialisation and enculturation. Even so, research on musical training effects has focused on generalised comparisons between musicians and non-musicians, and cross-cultural work addressing specialised expertise has traded cultural specificity and sensitivity for other methodological limitations. This study aimed to experimentally dissociate the effects of specialised stylistic training and general musical expertise on the perception of melodies. Non-musicians and professional musicians specialising in classical music or jazz listened to sampled renditions of saxophone solos improvised by Charlie Parker in the bebop style...
2016: PloS One
Zvi Liza, Elaad Eitan
The contribution of the Big-Five personality dimensions and locus of control to examinees' physiological responses in the Concealed Information polygraph Test (CIT) was examined for the first time. One hundred and twenty undergraduate students who completed Big Five personality and locus of control questionnaires were instructed to commit a mock theft. They were subsequently tested in the Guilty Actions polygraph Test, a modified version of the CIT. Each of the six sets of items (questions) was repeated twice...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Katrina Malin, Geoffrey Owen Littlejohn
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain and high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, and altered cognition. Psychological stress can modulate these features. In this study, we examined the thinking style of rumination in women with FM to assess the effect of rumination on stress levels and other psychological variables in FM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-eight women with FM completed questionnaires to assess levels of rumination, stress, anxiety, depression, optimism, control, and coping...
December 2015: Eur J Rheumatol
Isis F F M Elzakkers, Unna N Danner, Hans W Hoek, Annemarie A van Elburg
BACKGROUND: Mental capacity to consent to treatment in anorexia nervosa is a neglected area in clinical decision-making. AIMS: To examine clinical and neuropsychological parameters associated with diminished mental capacity in anorexia nervosa. METHOD: An explorative study was conducted in 70 adult female patients with severe anorexia nervosa. Mental capacity to consent to treatment was assessed by experienced psychiatrists. Further measurements included the MacCAT-T (to assess mental capacity status), a range of clinical measures (body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity) and neuropsychological tests assessing decision-making, central coherence and set-shifting capacity...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Susan Ellis Weismer, Eileen Haebig, Jan Edwards, Jenny Saffran, Courtney E Venker
This study investigated whether vocabulary delays in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be explained by a cognitive style that prioritizes processing of detailed, local features of input over global contextual integration-as claimed by the weak central coherence (WCC) theory. Thirty toddlers with ASD and 30 younger, cognition-matched typical controls participated in a looking-while-listening task that assessed whether perceptual or semantic similarities among named images disrupted word recognition relative to a neutral condition...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Robert M Ross, Bjoern Hartig, Ryan McKay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been proposed that delusional beliefs are attempts to explain anomalous experiences. Why, then, do anomalous experiences induce delusions in some people but not in others? One possibility is that people with delusions have reasoning biases that result in them failing to reject implausible candidate explanations for anomalous experiences. We examine this hypothesis by studying paranormal interpretations of anomalous experiences. METHODS: We examined whether analytic cognitive style (i...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Øyvind L Martinsen, Adrian Furnham, Thorvald Hærem
The present study on insight is based on an integration of Kaplan and Simon's (1990) information processing theory of insight, a cognitive style theory, and achievement motivation theory. The style theory is the Assimilator (rule oriented, familiarity seeking)-Explorer (novelty seeking, explorative) styles (Kaufmann, 1979). Our hypothesis is that the effectiveness of 2 types of search constraints (prior experience and solution hints) for solving insight problems is moderated by both cognitive style and achievement needs, and depending on optimal levels of achievement motivation for different task conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Kelvin L Walls, Mikael Boulic, John W D Boddy
The United Nations "25 × 25 Strategy" of decreasing non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases, by 25% by 2025 does not appear to take into account all causes of NCDs. Its focus is on a few diseases, which are often linked with life-style factors with "voluntary" "modifiable behavioral risk factors" causes tending towards an over-simplification of the issues. We propose to add some aspects of our built environment related to hazardous building materials, and detailed form of the construction of infrastructure and buildings, which we think are some of the missing causes of NCDs...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hwanseok Song, Jonathon P Schuldt
Although alternative forms of statistical and verbal information are routinely used to convey species' extinction risk to policymakers and the public, little is known about their effects on audience information processing and risk perceptions. To address this gap in literature, we report on an experiment that was designed to explore how perceptions of extinction risk differ as a function of five different assessment benchmarks (Criteria A-E) used by scientists to classify species within IUCN Red List risk levels (e...
September 30, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Jean-Pierre Michel
Already in the 90s, Khachaturian stated that postponing dementia onset by five years would decrease the prevalence of the late onset dementia by 50%. After two decades of lack of success in dementia drug discovery and development, and knowing that worldwide, currently 36 million patients have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, a number that will double by 2030 and triple by 2050, the World Health Organization and the Alzheimer's Disease International declared that prevention of cognitive decline was a 'public health priority...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
August 12, 2016: Neurocase
Linda M Isbell, Daniel R Rovenpor, Elicia C Lair
Research suggests that anger promotes global, abstract processing whereas sadness and fear promote local, concrete processing (see Schwarz & Clore, 2007 for a review). Contrary to a large and influential body of work suggesting that specific affective experiences are tethered to specific cognitive outcomes, the affect-as-cognitive-feedback account maintains that affective experiences confer positive or negative value on currently dominant processing styles, and thus can lead to either global or local processing (Huntsinger, Isbell, & Clore, 2014)...
October 2016: Emotion
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