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(Thinking OR cognitive OR intellectual) AND styles

Stefanie J Schmidt, Ayla Behar, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Yolanda Maroño Souto, Miriam Vázquez Campo, Francisco Díaz Llenderrozas, Marina Rodríguez Álvarez, Raimundo Mateos, Alejandro García Caballero
Background: Schizophrenia patients present deficits in social cognition (SC), emotion and social perception, theory of mind (ToM), and attributional style. This study tested the efficacy, in real clinical conditions, of a online self-training program in SC, e-Motional Training® , in comparison with treatment as usual. Method: A randomized single-blinded multicenter clinical trial was conducted with 60 schizophrenia stable outpatients. All patients (control and intervention) were treated with drug therapy, case management, and individual and group psychotherapy (not focused on SC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Adam G Horwitz, Ewa K Czyz, Johnny Berona, Cheryl A King
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for those ages 13-25 in the United States. Coping is a mediator between stressful life events and adverse outcomes, and coping skills have been incorporated into interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, safety-planning interventions) for suicidal populations. However, longitudinal research has not directly examined the prospective associations between multiple coping styles and suicide-related outcomes in high-risk samples...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Noam Schneck, Tao Tu, Christina A Michel, George A Bonanno, Paul Sajda, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Grieving individuals demonstrate attentional bias toward reminders of the deceased versus neutral stimuli. We sought to assess bias toward reminders of the deceased versus a living attachment figure and to evaluate similarities and differences in the neural correlates of deceased- and living-related attention. We also sought to identify grief process variables associated with deceased-related attentional bias. METHODS: Twenty-five subjects grieving the death of a first-degree relative or partner within 14 months performed an emotional Stroop task, using words related to a deceased or a living attachment figure, and a standard Stroop task, to identify general selective attention, during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Audrey DunnGalvin, Laura Polloni, Jennifer Le Bovidge, Antonella Muraro, Matthew Greenhawt, Steve Taylor, Joseph Baumert, Wesley Burks, Anna Trace, Gillian DunnGalvin, Lisa Forristal, Laura McGrath, Jennifer White, Marta Vasquez, Katrina Allen, Aziz Sheikh, Jonathan Hourihane, Mimi L K Tang
BACKGROUND: We have previously developed a food allergy-specific developmental model, that explained emotions and coping styles, among children aged 6 to 15years in Ireland. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the developmental model in a large multicountry data set, including any mediators of coping style, and to use the findings to generate an item pool that will form the basis for 3 age-appropriate self-report questionnaires to measure coping and emotions...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Kyung Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: An important goal of nursing education is helping students achieve core competencies efficiently. One proposed way of improving nursing education is team-based learning (TBL). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the comparative effectiveness of TBL and lecture-style classes in terms of teaching core competencies in nursing education, which include clinical competence skills, problem-solving ability, communication competencies, critical thinking ability, and self-leadership...
April 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Li-Ang Lee, Shu-Ling Wang, Yi-Ping Chao, Ming-Shao Tsai, Li-Jen Hsin, Chung-Jan Kang, Chia-Hsiang Fu, Wei-Chieh Chao, Chung-Guei Huang, Hsueh-Yu Li, Cheng-Keng Chuang
BACKGROUND: The use of mobile technology in e-learning (M-TEL) can add new levels of experience and significantly increase the attractiveness of e-learning in medical education. Whether an innovative interactive e-learning multimedia (IM) module or a conventional PowerPoint show (PPS) module using M-TEL to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders is feasible and efficient in undergraduate medical students is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the impact of a novel IM module with a conventional PPS module using M-TEL for emergent ORL-HNS disorders with regard to learning outcomes, satisfaction, and learning experience...
March 8, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
Alfredo Corell, Luisa M Regueras, Elena Verdú, María J Verdú, Juan P de Castro
OBJECTIVE: Competitive learning techniques are being successfully used in courses of different disciplines. However, there is still a significant gap in analyzing their effects in medical students competing individually. The authors conducted this study to assess the effectiveness of the use of a competitive learning tool on the academic achievement and satisfaction of medical students. METHODS: The authors collected data from a Human Immunology course in medical students (n = 285) and conducted a nonrandomized (quasi-experimental) control group pretest-posttest design...
2018: PloS One
Anna Zdolska-Wawrzkiewicz, Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś, Mariola Bidzan
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates the connections in pregnant women between their mother attachment style and their self-image as a mother, the image of their mother as a mother, and their bond with the unborn child. BACKGROUND: The relationship with one's mother plays a crucial role in the process of becoming a mother. It influences what a pregnant woman thinks about herself as a mother. This relationship is a predictor of the bond with the child during the pregnancy...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Melanie A Blair, George Nitzburg, Pamela DeRosse, Katherine H Karlsgodt
Psychotic like experiences (PLE's) are common in the general population, particularly during adolescence, which has generated interest in how PLE's emerge, and the extent to which they reflect either risk for, or resilience to, psychosis. The "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) model is one effort to model the effect of risk factors on PLEs. The ADC model proposes attachment insecurity as an early environmental insult that can contribute to altered neurodevelopment, increasing the likelihood of PLE's and psychosis...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
D Paolini, C Leonardi, E Visani, G Rodofili
OBJECTIVE: In this study we present data from a research carried out on a population of people with gambling disorder (GD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research investigated the representation of family styles for subjects with gambling disorder, using the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES-IV), their cognitive distortions through Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-I), and the relation between these two dimensions. RESULTS: People with GD represent families with emotional detachment, while in the area of management of relational rules and roles, they reveal a perception of disorganization...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Michael Lyvers, Susan M Kohlsdorf, Mark S Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg
The present study explored relationships between alexithymia-a trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings and an external thinking style-and negative moods, negative mood regulation expectancies, facial recognition of emotions, emotional empathy, and alcohol consumption. The sample consisted of 102 university (primarily psychology) students (13 men, 89 women) aged 18 to 50 years (M = 22.18 years). Participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMRS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
April 2017: American Journal of Psychology
Mariëlle W A van Rijsbergen, Ruth E Mark, Willem J Kop, Paul L M de Kort, Margriet M Sitskoorn
Subjective Cognitive Complaints (SCC) are common after stroke and adversely affect quality of life. In the present study, we determined the associations of depression, anxiety, perceived stress and fatigue with post-stroke SCC, and whether these associations were independent of objective cognitive functioning, stroke characteristics and individual differences in personality traits and coping styles. Using a cross-sectional design, SCC and psychological measures were obtained in 208 patients (mean 3.3 ± 0...
March 4, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Jennifer A Whitaker, Caroline M Poland, Thomas J Beckman, John B Bundrick, Rajeev Chaudhry, Diane E Grill, Andrew J Halvorsen, Jill M Huber, Mary J Kasten, Karen F Mauck, Ramila A Mehta, Timothy Olson, Kris G Thomas, Matthew R Thomas, Abinash Virk, Majken T Wingo, Gregory A Poland
PURPOSE: The aims of this study are to evaluate the impact of a novel immunization curriculum based on the Preferred Cognitive Styles and Decision Making Model (PCSDM) on internal medicine (IM) resident continuity clinic patient panel immunization rates, as well as resident immunization knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP). METHODS: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was performed among 143 IM residents at Mayo Clinic to evaluate the PCSDM curriculum plus fact-based immunization curriculum (intervention) compared to fact-based immunization curriculum alone (control) on the outcomes of resident continuity clinic patient panel immunization rates for influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus, pertussis, and zoster vaccines...
February 26, 2018: Vaccine
Kayla D Ten Eycke, Ulrich Müller
Little is known about the relation between cognitive processes and imagination and whether this relation differs between neurotypically developing children and children with autism. To address this issue, we administered a cognitive task battery and Karmiloff-Smith's drawing task, which requires children to draw imaginative people and houses. For children with autism, executive function significantly predicted imaginative drawing. In neurotypically developing controls, executive function and cognitive-perceptual processing style predicted imaginative drawing, but these associations were moderated by mental age...
February 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Stephen P Hinshaw, Jill Waterman
Presents an obituary for Barbara Henker, who died January 24, 2017, at the age of 81. Henker was professor emerita and a pioneering female faculty member in the Psychology Department at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Arriving in 1965, she served on the faculty in the clinical and developmental psychology areas at UCLA as the first woman faculty member hired by the department. Henker also worked in the areas of health-related behaviors, attributional styles, cognitive-behavioral interventions, and early use of electronic diaries to monitor the behavior and emotions of youth and parents...
February 2018: American Psychologist
Sabine Pirchio, Ylenia Passiatore, Angelo Panno, Fridanna Maricchiolo, Giuseppe Carrus
The increasing flow of immigrants in many European countries and the growing presence of children from immigrant families in schools makes it relevant to study the development of prejudice in children. Parents play an important role in shaping children's values and their attitudes toward members of other ethnic groups; an intergenerational transmission of prejudice has been found in a number of studies targeting adolescents. The present study aims to investigate the intergenerational transmission of ethnic prejudice in 3- to 9- year-old children and its relations to parenting styles...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Shirley B Wang, Ashley Borders
Negative affect and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies are associated with eating-disorder (ED) psychopathology. Depressive rumination is a maladaptive cognitive style associated with the onset, maintenance, and severity of ED psychopathology among both clinical and nonclinical samples. However, although anger is also strongly associated with ED behaviors, the associations between angry rumination and ED psychopathology, as well as mechanisms of the relationships between rumination and ED psychopathology, remain largely unknown...
February 17, 2018: Eating Behaviors
K K Davison, C E Blake, A Kachurak, J C Lumeng, D L Coffman, A L Miller, S O Hughes, T G Power, A F Vaughn, R E Blaine, N Younginer, J O Fisher
Snacking makes significant contributions to children's dietary intake but is poorly understood from a parenting perspective. This research was designed to develop and evaluate the psychometrics of a theoretically grounded, empirically-informed measure of snack parenting. The Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ) was developed using a conceptual model derived from current theory and mixed-methods research to include 20 hypothesized snack parenting practices along 4 parenting dimensions (autonomy support, structure, coercive control and permissiveness)...
February 20, 2018: Appetite
K L Austin, M Hunter, E Gallagher, L E Campbell
BACKGROUND: The transition to adulthood is a major developmental milestone; a time of self-discovery and increased independence. For young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities (ID), however, this period is especially challenging. The increased incidence of mental health disorders in this population, such as depression and anxiety, make this transition even more difficult, increasing caregiver burden at a time when the young adult would traditionally be gaining independence. It is not clear, however, why YA with ID are more susceptible and what factors may predict mental health symptoms...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
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