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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144995/content-analysis-of-homeless-smokers-perspectives-on-established-and-alternative-smoking-interventions
#1
Susan E Collins, Victoria E Orfaly, Teresa Wu, Sunny Chang, Robert V Hardy, Amia Nash, Matthew B Jones, Leslie Mares, Emily M Taylor, Lonnie A Nelson, Seema L Clifasefi
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is 5 times more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Homeless smokers report interest in changing their smoking behavior; however, established smoking cessation interventions are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. The aim of this study was to document homeless smokers' perceptions of established smoking interventions as well as self-generated, alternative smoking interventions to elucidate points for intervention enhancement...
November 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140417/fasting-plasma-glucose-in-young-adults-free-of-diabetes-is-associated-with-cognitive-function-in-midlife
#2
Irit Cohen-Manheim, Ronit Sinnreich, Glen M Doniger, Ely S Simon, Ronit Pinchas-Mizrachi, Jeremy D Kark
Background: Evidence for an association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with cognitive function in adults free of diabetes is scarce and based on middle-aged and older adults. We examined the association of FPG, measured at age 30, and of change in FPG from age 30 to 43, with cognitive function at age 50. Methods: 505 nondiabetic participants of the population-based Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic (LRC) cohort study had baseline FPG, 2-h post-oral challenge plasma glucose (OGTT) and insulin determined at ages 28-32, and FPG and OGTT again at ages 41-46...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136750/-a-perspective-cohort-study-on-influence-factors-of-survival-outcome-among-the-elderly-aged-%C3%A2-80-years-old-from-longevity-areas-in-china
#3
Y B Lyu, J Zhang, J S Luo, W H Shi, Z X Yin, L Q Su, J L Fang, J N Wang, X M Shi
Objective: To investigate the influence factors of survival outcome among elderly aged ≥80 years old. Methods: In baseline survey in 2009, 930 participants aged ≥80 years old were enrolled from 7 longevity areas, to collect the information of socioeconomic factors, life style, cognitive function, activities of daily living and diseases, as well as physical examination to test biomarkers of blood and urine. The survival status was followed up at 2012 and 2014 survey. Stepwise Cox proportional hazards models were used to screen influence factors of 5-year survival...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136749/-relationship-between-the-successful-aging-and-survival-status-among-the-elderly-from-longevity-areas-in-china
#4
W H Shi, Y B Lyu, J S Luo, Z X Yin, X M Shi
Objective: To explore the relationship between successful aging (SA) index and the survival status among elderly from longevity areas of China. Methods: A total of 2 296 old people aged ≥65 years old from 8 longevity areas were enrolled in our baseline survey in 2012. The information of demographics characteristic, life style, self-assessed health and mood or emotional state, cognitive function, abilities of daily living and physical activity were collected by questionnaire. There were 891 SA people in total, whose SA score was 4-5...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136747/-association-between-biomarkers-and-activities-of-daily-living-in-the-elderly-%C3%A2-65-years-old-from-longevity-areas-in-china
#5
J S Luo, Y B Lyu, Z X Yin, W H Shi, J Zhang, L Q Su, J L Fang, X M Shi
Objective: To explore the association between biomarkers and activities of daily living (ADL) in the elderly over 65 years old from longevity areas in China. Methods: A total of 2 439 people from 8 longevity areas were included in our baseline survey in 2012. Using questionnaires, body measurements, and blood biochemical examinations, information on demographics characteristic, life style, ADL, blood pressure and biomarkers were collected. Based on these six items of ADL (bathing, dressing, indoor activities, toileting, eating, bowel and bladder control), we constructed a dichotomous indicator for ADL...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122005/memories-of-paternal-relations-are-associated-with-coping-and-defense-mechanisms-in-breast-cancer-patients-an-observational-study
#6
Chiara Renzi, Giada Perinel, Paola Arnaboldi, Sara Gandini, Valeria Vadilonga, Nicole Rotmensz, Angela Tagini, Florence Didier, Gabriella Pravettoni
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood...
November 9, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121840/role-of-irrational-beliefs-and-anger-rumination-on-nurses-anger-expression-styles
#7
Eun-Mi Ham, Mi-Jin You
The aim of this study was to identify whether certain cognitive factors, such as irrational beliefs and anger rumination, affect nurses' anger expression styles. A total of 335 nurses employed at four tertiary hospitals in Korea completed surveys between July 29 and September 25, 2015. The surveys included Shortened General Attitude and Belief Scale, the Korean Version of the Anger Rumination Scale, and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Korean version. Results revealed that higher levels of irrational beliefs and anger rumination were associated with more anger-in and anger-out, and less anger-control expressions...
November 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120666/like-grandparents-like-parents-empirical-evidence-and-psychoanalytic-thinking-on-the-transmission-of-parenting-styles
#8
Pietro De Carli, Angela Tagini, Diego Sarracino, Alessandra Santona, Valentina Bonalda, Paola Elena Cesari, Laura Parolin
The authors discuss the issue of intergenerational transmission of parenting from an empirical and psychoanalytic perspective. After presenting a framework to explain their conception of parenting, they describe intergenerational transmission of parenting as a key to interpreting and eventually changing parenting behaviors. Then they present (1) the empirical approach aimed at determining if there is actually a stability across generations that contributes to harsh parenting and eventually maltreatment and (2) the psychoanalytic thinking that seeks to explain the continuity in terms of representations and clinical phenomena...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120260/physiotherapists-encounters-with-obese-patients-exploring-how-embodied-approaches-gain-significance
#9
Karen Synne Groven, Kristin Heggen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is regarded as a modern lifestyle problem, causing illness, stigma, discrimination, and psychological problems. To help patients avoid these problems, physiotherapists increasingly engage in lifestyle programs specialized in weight loss. OBJECTIVE: To explore how physiotherapists' encounters with patients diagnosed as "obese" acquire significance for their development as clinicians. METHOD: The material draws on semi-structured interviews with eight physiotherapists...
November 9, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118434/supernatural-belief-is-not-modulated-by-intuitive-thinking-style-or-cognitive-inhibition
#10
Miguel Farias, Valerie van Mulukom, Guy Kahane, Ute Kreplin, Anna Joyce, Pedro Soares, Lluis Oviedo, Mathilde Hernu, Karolina Rokita, Julian Savulescu, Riikka Möttönen
According to the Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, supernatural belief relies heavily on intuitive thinking-and decreases when analytic thinking is engaged. After pointing out various limitations in prior attempts to support this Intuitive Belief Hypothesis, we test it across three new studies using a variety of paradigms, ranging from a pilgrimage field study to a neurostimulation experiment. In all three studies, we found no relationship between intuitive or analytical thinking and supernatural belief. We conclude that it is premature to explain belief in gods as 'intuitive', and that other factors, such as socio-cultural upbringing, are likely to play a greater role in the emergence and maintenance of supernatural belief than cognitive style...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117047/the-keys-for-success-leadership-core-competencies
#11
Kristopher Pidgeon
Providing leaders with skills resulting in positive behaviors, specifically increasing quality performance improvement projects and leadership style, ultimately may deliver an increase in professional development. Consisting of the topic leadership, this article consists of core competencies specifically targeted for learning leadership skills. The purpose of this article is to assist the leader with developing leadership skills, which promotes professional development. This article reviews leadership skills and describes in detail the elements of some core competencies that can enable the leader to develop skills, including strategic thinking, organizational skills, time management, decision-making, leadership skills, conflict resolution, and strategies to enhance performance improvement...
November 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112973/reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#12
Marie Devaine, Aurore San-Galli, Cinzia Trapanese, Giulia Bardino, Christelle Hano, Michel Saint Jalme, Sebastien Bouret, Shelly Masi, Jean Daunizeau
Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111359/role-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-explicit-and-implicit-aspects-of-cognitive-flexibility-under-socially-conflicting-situations-a-resting-state-fmri-study-using-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations
#13
Junya Fujino, Shisei Tei, Kathryn F Jankowski, Ryosaku Kawada, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
We are constantly exposed to socially conflicting situations in everyday life, and cognitive flexibility is essential for adaptively coping with such difficulties. Flexible goal choice and pursuit are not exclusively conscious, and therefore cognitive flexibility involves both explicit and implicit forms of processing. However, it is unclear how individual differences in explicit and implicit aspects of flexibility are associated with neural activity in a resting state. Here, we measured intrinsic fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) as an indicator of regional brain spontaneous activity, together with explicit and implicit aspects of cognitive flexibility using the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS) and Implicit Association Test (IAT)...
October 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110263/long-term-meditation-the-relationship-between-cognitive-processes-thinking-styles-and-mindfulness
#14
Rosa Angela Fabio, Giulia Emma Towey
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between meditation and cognitive functions. More in depth the purpose is to demonstrate that long-term meditation practice improves attention skills and cognitive flexibility. Eighteen long-term meditation practitioners were compared to a matched control group, who never practiced meditation. Each subject was tested, using computerized software (Presentation Software 9.90), which measured: attention, visual search abilities, working memory and Stroop's interference tasks...
November 7, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104558/cognitive-engagement-mediates-the-relationship-between-positive-life-events-and-positive-emotionality
#15
Alexander Strobel, Kristin Anacker, Anja Strobel
Need for Cognition (NFC) is conceptualized as an individuals' tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activity and, thus, captures one's cognitive engagement. It plays a well-established role in information processing in experimental or academic contexts. However, so far comparably little is known about its consequences for other than purely cognitive or academic outcomes. Indeed, NFC is positively associated with personality traits pertaining to Positive Emotionality (PE) and negatively to traits related to Negative Emotionality (NE)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099477/parents-reactions-to-the-diagnosis-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-associations-between-resolution-family-functioning-and-child-behavior-problems
#16
Roberto Baiocco, Paola Castelli Gattinara, Giorgia Cioccetti, Salvatore Ioverno
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent inherited form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. DMD is a severe and progressive disease. Children initially have no symptoms, but the diagnosis is often delayed until the child is about 5 years old. PURPOSE: Although few studies have addressed parent reactions to DMD, parental reactions to other serious childhood conditions have been documented. This study aims to understand the resolution styles that parents use in the context of their children with DMD...
December 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096681/slowmo-a-digital-therapy-targeting-reasoning-in-paranoia-versus-treatment-as-usual-in-the-treatment-of-people-who-fear-harm-from-others-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Philippa A Garety, Thomas Ward, Daniel Freeman, David Fowler, Richard Emsley, Graham Dunn, Elizabeth Kuipers, Paul Bebbington, Helen Waller, Kathryn Greenwood, Mar Rus-Calafell, Alison McGourty, Amy Hardy
BACKGROUND: Paranoia is one of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and is associated with significant distress and disruption to the person's life. Developing more effective and accessible psychological interventions for paranoia is a clinical priority. Our research team has approached this challenge in two main ways: firstly, by adopting an interventionist causal approach to increase effectiveness and secondly, by incorporating user-centred inclusive design methods to enhance accessibility and usability...
November 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096131/winter-birth-urbanicity-and-immigrant-status-predict-psychometric-schizotypy-dimensions-in-adolescents
#18
D Mimarakis, T Roumeliotaki, P Roussos, S G Giakoumaki, P Bitsios
BACKGROUND: Urbanicity, immigration and winter-birth are stable epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia, but their relationship to schizotypy is unknown. This is a first examination of the association of these epidemiological risk factors with positive schizotypy, in nonclinical adolescents, controlling for a range of potential and known confounders. METHODS: We collected socio-demographics, life-style, family and school circumstances, positive schizotypy dimensions and other personality traits from 445 high school pupils (192 males, 158 immigrants) from 9 municipalities in Athens and Heraklion, Greece, which covered a range of host population and migrant densities...
September 18, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096130/impaired-self-agency-inferences-in-schizophrenia-the-role-of-cognitive-capacity-and-causal-reasoning-style
#19
M Prikken, A van der Weiden, R S Kahn, H Aarts, N E M van Haren
BACKGROUND: The sense of self-agency, i.e., experiencing oneself as the cause of one's own actions, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Normally, inferences of self-agency are enhanced when actual outcomes match with pre-activated outcome information, where this pre-activation can result from explicitly set goals (i.e., goal-based route) or implicitly primed outcome information (i.e., prime-based route). Previous research suggests that patients show specific impairments in the prime-based route, implicating that they do not rely on matches between implicitly available outcome information and actual action-outcomes when inferring self-agency...
September 20, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094975/a-longitudinal-integration-of-identity-styles-and-educational-identity-processes-in-adolescence
#20
Oana Negru-Subtirica, Eleonora Ioana Pop, Elisabetta Crocetti
Identity formation is a main adolescent psychosocial developmental task. The complex interconnection between different processes that are at the basis of one's identity is a research and applied intervention priority. In this context, the identity style model focuses on social-cognitive strategies (i.e., informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant) that individuals can use to deal with identity formation. The 3-factor identity dimensional model examines the interplay between identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment in different life domains...
November 2017: Developmental Psychology
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