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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106669/translational-studies-identify-long-term-impact-of-prior-neonatal-pain-experience
#1
Suellen M Walker
Pain sensitivity and risk of chronic pain can be influenced by past experience. Childhood stress/adversity has been associated with chronic pain, mood disorders, and altered disease vulnerability decades later. As the rate of preterm birth and survival at earlier gestational ages increases, and advances in peri-operative care and surgery allow more complex surgical interventions to be performed in neonates, evaluation of treatment 'success' must extend beyond acute morbidity and mortality to encompass effects on subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome, and also sensory, cognitive and behavioral responses to pain in later life...
January 12, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103978/-cosmetological-thinking-and-methods-in-tcm-in-the-sui-tang-dynasty
#2
Y J Wu
In the heyday of Chinese feudal society, women's status in the society of the Sui-Tang period was improved in the Tang Dynasty.The demand for female to stay young and anti-aging had attracted lots of attention in the society, thus providing a favorable social environment for the formation and development of Chinese herbal cosmetology. The important representative medical works on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were published in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, such as Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Recipes for Emergent Use Worth A Thousand Gold), Qian jin yi fang (Supplement to Recipes Worth A Thousand Gold), Wai tai mi yao (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) etc...
November 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#3
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096672/a-biopsychological-review-of-gambling-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Gabriel C Quintero
The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095334/predictors-and-mediators-of-trait-anger-across-the-psychosis-continuum-the-role-of-attachment-style-paranoia-and-social-cognition
#5
Hannah Darrell-Berry, Sandra Bucci, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Richard Emsley, Richard Drake, Katherine Berry
Anger in the context of psychosis has a significant impact on treatment outcomes and serious implications for risk management. Understanding mechanisms underlying anger will improve interventions and inform strategies for prevention. This study is the first to examine the relationships between anger and key theoretical drivers across different phases of the psychosis continuum. A battery including measures of theory of mind, attachment, hostile attribution bias, paranoia and anger was administered to 174 participants (14 ultra-high risk, 20 first-episode, 20 established psychosis, 120 non-clinical participants)...
January 4, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093012/male-coping-through-a-long-term-cancer-trajectory-secondary-outcomes-from-a-rtc-examining-the-effect-of-a-multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-program-repca-among-radiated-men-with-prostate-cancer
#6
Karin B Dieperink, Christoffer Johansen, Steinbjørn Hansen, Lis Wagner, Klaus K Andersen, Lisbeth R Minet, Olfred Hansen
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine if rehabilitation influenced self-reported male coping styles during and up to three years after treatment with radiotherapy for prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single-center oncology unit in Odense, Denmark, 161 prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy were included in a randomized controlled trial from 2010 to 2012. The trial examined the effect of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program within six months of treatment consisting of two nursing counseling sessions and two instructive sessions with a physical therapist (n = 79), or standard care (n = 82)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088658/exposure-to-chronic-early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-adipose-tissue-the-leptin-system-and-changes-the-vulnerability-to-western-style-diet-later-in-life-in-mice
#7
K Y Yam, E F G Naninck, M R Abbink, S E la Fleur, L Schipper, J C van den Beukel, A Grefhorst, A Oosting, E M van der Beek, P J Lucassen, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is associated with the ES-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we used an established chronic ES mouse model (from postnatal day (P) 2 to P9) to investigate the short- and long-term effects of ES exposure on parameters of the adipose tissue and the leptin system (i...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088057/a-systematic-review-of-adult-attachment-and-social-anxiety
#8
REVIEW
Ray P C Manning, Joanne M Dickson, Jasper Palmier-Claus, Alexandra Cunliffe, Peter J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Attachment has been implicated in the development of social anxiety. Our aim was to synthesise the extant literature exploring the role of adult attachment in these disorders. METHOD: Search terms relating to social anxiety and attachment were entered into MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using and adapted version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality assessment tool. Eligible studies employed validated social anxiety and attachment assessments in adult clinical and analogue samples...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080970/differentiating-attention-styles-and-regulatory-aspects-of-self-reported-interoceptive-sensibility
#9
REVIEW
Wolf Mehling
Based on prior research, multiple discriminable dimensions of interoception have been defined: awareness, accuracy and sensibility. Some investigators defined interoceptive awareness as metacognitive awareness of interoceptive accuracy, assessed as correspondence between subjective confidence in and objective accuracy of one's heartbeat detection. However, metacognitive awareness has been understood quite differently: 'a cognitive set in which negative thoughts/feelings are experienced as mental events, rather than as the self' or as 'error awareness'...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080967/affective-touch-and-attachment-style-modulate-pain-a-laser-evoked-potentials-study
#10
Charlotte Krahé, Marianne M Drabek, Yannis Paloyelis, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Affective touch and cutaneous pain are two sub-modalities of interoception with contrasting affective qualities (pleasantness/unpleasantness) and social meanings (care/harm), yet their direct relationship has not been investigated. In 50 women, taking into account individual attachment styles, we assessed the role of affective touch and particularly the contribution of the C tactile (CT) system in subjective and electrophysiological responses to noxious skin stimulation, namely N1 and N2-P2 laser-evoked potentials...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079497/meanings-of-waves-electroencephalography-and-society-in-mexico-city-1940-1950
#11
Nuria Valverde Pérez
Argument This paper focuses on the uses of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in Mexico during their introductory decade from 1940 to 1950. Following Borck (2006), I argue that EEGs adapted to fit local circumstances and that this adjustment led to the consolidation of different ways of making science and the emergence of new objects of study and social types. I also maintain that the way EEGs were introduced into the institutional networks of Mexico entangled them in discussions about the objective and juridical definitions of social groups, thereby preempting concerns about their technical and epistemic limitations...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076528/the-brief-life-of-norplant%C3%A2-in-brazil-controversies-and-reassemblages-between-science-society-and-state
#12
Ana Cristina de Lima Pimentel, Cláudia Bonan Jannotti, Paula Gaudenzi, Luiz Antonio da Silva Teixeira
Norplant® is the brand name of the world's first registered subdermal hormonal contraceptive implant, developed by the laboratories of the Population Council, an international organisation working in the area of fertility and population growth. The article revisits the trajectory of this contraceptive in Brazil from its arrival through clinical trials to its eventual ban in 1986 by the Brazilian regulatory agency responsible for approving medications at the time. Its circulation generated controversies related to research practices, side effects and political uses of the drug as a birth control method...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051935/adjusting-to-chronic-health-conditions
#13
Vicki S Helgeson, Melissa Zajdel
Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043015/comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-two-styles-of-case-based-learning-implemented-in-lectures-for-developing-nursing-students-critical-thinking-ability-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Shaohua Hong, Ping Yu
PURPOSE: To explore and compare the effectiveness of two styles of case-based learning methods, unfolding nursing case and usual nursing case, implemented in lectures for developing nursing students' critical thinking ability. METHODS: 122 undergraduate nursing students in four classes were taught the subject of medical nursing for one year. Two classes were randomly assigned as the experimental group and the other two the control group. The experimental group received the lectures presenting unfolding nursing cases and the control group was taught the usual cases...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040671/decisional-impulsivity-and-the-associative-limbic-subthalamic-nucleus-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-stimulation-and-connectivity
#15
Valerie Voon, Fabien Droux, Laurel Morris, Stephan Chabardes, Thierry Bougerol, Olivier David, Paul Krack, Mircea Polosan
Why do we make hasty decisions for short-term gain? Rapid decision-making with limited accumulation of evidence and delay discounting are forms of decisional impulsivity. The subthalamic nucleus is implicated in inhibitory function but its role in decisional impulsivity is less well-understood. Here we assess decisional impulsivity in subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder who have undergone deep brain stimulation of the limbic and associative subthalamic nucleus. We show that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is causally implicated in increasing decisional impulsivity with less accumulation of evidence during probabilistic uncertainty and in enhancing delay discounting...
December 31, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035741/does-empowerment-mediate-the-effects-of-psychological-factors-on-mental-health-well-being-and-recovery-in-young-people
#16
Annmarie Grealish, Sara Tai, Andrew Hunter, Richard Emsley, Trevor Murrells, Anthony P Morrison
OBJECTIVES: There is consensus that empowerment is key to recovery from mental health problems, enabling a person to take charge of their life and make informed choices and decisions about their life. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which empowerment affects mental health in young people. The current study involved young people aged 16-29 years and examined empowerment as a potential mediator of the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, cognition, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from personal problems...
December 30, 2016: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032776/-people-both-high-and-low-on-religious-fundamentalism-are-prejudiced-toward-dissimilar-groups-correction-to-brandt-and-van-tongeren-2015
#17
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "People Both High and Low on Religious Fundamentalism Are Prejudiced Toward Dissimilar Groups" by Mark J. Brandt and Daryl R. Van Tongeren (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Nov 2, 2015, np). In the article, the sample size of N = 5,806 in the abstract is incorrect. The correct sample size is N = 6,047. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-49839-001.) Research linking religion to prejudice suggests that highly religious individuals, and religious fundamentalists specifically, may be especially susceptible to expressing prejudice toward dissimilar others, whereas people who are less religious and fundamentalist do not show the same effect...
January 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018213/cognitive-change-during-the-life-course-and-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-late-middle-aged-men
#18
Lene Rask, Laila Bendix, Maria Harbo, Birgitte Fagerlund, Erik L Mortensen, Martin J Lauritzen, Merete Osler
Importance: Cognitive skills are known to decline through the lifespan with large individual differences. The molecular mechanisms for this decline are incompletely understood. Although leukocyte telomere length provides an index of cellular age that predicts the incidence of age-related diseases, it is unclear whether there is an association between cognitive decline and leukocyte telomere length. Objective: To examine the association between changes in cognitive function during adult life and leukocyte telomere length after adjusting for confounding factors such as education, mental health and life style...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017848/testing-the-predictions-of-coping-styles-theory-in-threespined-sticklebacks
#19
Miles K Bensky, Ryan Paitz, Laura Pereira, Alison M Bell
Coping styles theory provides a framework for understanding individual variation in how animals respond to environmental change, and predicts how individual differences in stress responsiveness and behavior might relate to cognitive differences. According to coping styles theory, proactive individuals are bolder, less reactive to stressors, and more routinized than their reactive counterparts. A key tenet of coping styles theory is that variation in coping styles is maintained by tradeoffs with behavioral flexibility: proactive individuals excel in stable environments while more flexible, reactive individuals perform better in variable environments...
December 23, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006677/the-alienation-of-affection-toward-parents-and-influential-factors-in-chinese-left-behind-children
#20
Q Dai, G Yang, C Hu, L Wang, K Liu, Y Guang, R Zhang, S Xu, B Liu, Y Yang, Z Feng
OBJECTIVE: Although alienation toward parents is important for children (for current mental health status or later interpersonal relationships in adulthood), it is undervalued and even lacks a standardized tool of assessment. Moreover, the large number of left-behind children in China is a cause of public concern. However, their experienced alienation toward their parents remains unclear, which may be important for early detection or intervention for behavioral problems in this population...
December 19, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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