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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531760/the-relationship-between-processing-style-trauma-memory-processes-and-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Anna McKinnon, Neil Brewer, Kate Cameron, Reginald D V Nixon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data-driven processing, peri-event fear, and trauma memory characteristics are hypothesised to play a core role in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We assessed the relationships between these characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms in a sample of youth. METHODS: Study 1 (N = 36, 7-16 years), involved a sample of children who had undergone a stressful orthopaedic procedure. One week later they answered a series of probed recall questions about the trauma (assessed for accuracy by comparison to a video) and reported on their PTS symptoms...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529300/yi-kwang-su-s-love-and-history-records-of-modern-hospital-under-the-japanese-colonial-period
#2
Byoung Hoon Lee
This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su's novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523937/attentional-set-shifting-and-social-abilities-in-children-with-schizotypal-and-comorbid-autism-spectrum-disorders
#3
Ahmad Abu-Akel, Renee R Testa, Harvey P Jones, Nola Ross, Efstratios Skafidas, Bruce Tonge, Christos Pantelis
OBJECTIVE: While diagnostically independent, autism and schizotypal disorders can co-occur. Their concurrent impact on outcomes and phenotypes has not been investigated. We investigated the impact of comorbid autism and schizotypal disorders in children on executive functioning and socio-pragmatic skills - core features of both disorders. METHOD: Executive functioning (assessed with the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and socio-pragmatic skills (assessed using the Melbourne Assessment of Schizotypy in Kids) were investigated in a total of 67 (6-12 year old) children with autism ( n = 15; M/F = 10/5), schizotypal disorder ( n = 8; M/F = 5/3) and comorbid autism and schizotypal disorder ( n = 12; M/F = 5/7) and typically developing children ( n = 32; M/F = 17/15)...
May 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521554/social-factors-predictive-of-social-integration-for-adults-with-brain-injury
#4
Elisabeth Batchos, Amanda Easton, Christopher Haak, Nicole Ditchman
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) may not only struggle with physical and cognitive impairments, but may also face challenges reintegrating into the community socially. Research has demonstrated that following ABI, individuals' social networks tend to dwindle, support may decline, and isolation increases. This study examined factors impacting social integration in a community-based sample of 102 individuals with ABI. METHODS: Potential predictors included emotional support, instrumental support, problem solving confidence, and approach-avoidance style (AAS) of problem solving, while controlling for age, gender, education, and time since injury...
May 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517041/modifying-illness-beliefs-in-recent-onset-psychosis-carers-evaluating-the-impact-of-a-cognitively-focused-brief-group-intervention-in-a-routine-service
#5
Juliana Onwumere, Naomi Glover, Sarah Whittaker, Shireen Rahim, Lai Chu Man, Gareth James, Sanna Khan, Roya Afsharzadegan, Saal Seneviratne, Raythe Harvey, Anna Georgiades, David Raune
AIMS: At first-episode psychosis (FEP), many patients will be routed within familial networks and supported by informal carers who are predominately close family members such as parents. Carer burden, distress and poorer coping styles are associated with different illness beliefs. The current study sought to examine the impact and acceptability of a 3 session, cognitively informed, group intervention targeting illness beliefs previously linked to distress and poorer caregiving experiences in FEP carers...
May 18, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515866/effect-of-different-display-types-on-vection-and-its-interaction-with-motion-direction-and-field-dependence
#6
Behrang Keshavarz, Martina Speck, Bruce Haycock, Stefan Berti
Illusory self-motion (vection) can be generated by visual stimulation. The purpose of the present study was to compare behavioral vection measures including intensity ratings, duration, and onset time across different visual display types. Participants were exposed to a pattern of alternating black-and-white horizontal or vertical bars that moved either in vertical or horizontal direction, respectively. Stimuli were presented on four types of displays in randomized order: (a) large field of view dome projection, (b) combination of three computer screens, (c) single computer screen, (d) large field of view flat projection screen...
May 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514983/adverse-effects-of-consuming-high-fat-sugar-diets-on-cognition-implications-for-understanding-obesity
#7
Martin R Yeomans
There is increasing evidence for important roles of key cognitive processes, including attention, memory and learning, in the short-term decision making about eating. There is parallel evidence that people who are overweight or obese tend to perform worse on a variety of cognitive tasks. In this review, the evidence for these two ideas is summarised and then the idea that overconsumption of Western-style high-fat (HF)-high-sugar diets may underlie the association between obesity and poorer cognitive performance is explored...
May 18, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514923/object-spatial-imagery-and-verbal-cognitive-styles-in-high-school-students
#8
Erhan Selcuk Haciomeroglu, Mark LaVenia
The present study investigated object-spatial imagery and verbal cognitive styles in high school students. We analyzed the relationships between cognitive styles, object imagery ability, spatial visualization ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and preferred modes of processing math information. Data were collected from 348 students at six high schools in two school districts. Spatial imagery style was not correlated with object imagery style and was negatively correlated with verbal style. Object imagery style did not correlate significantly with any cognitive ability measure, whereas spatial imagery style significantly correlated with object imagery ability, spatial visualization ability, and verbal-logical reasoning ability...
June 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508303/the-effect-of-anger-expression-style-on-cardiovascular-responses-to-lateralized-cognitive-stressors
#9
David E Cox, Benjamin B DeVore, Patti Kelly Harrison, David W Harrison
To determine the effects of self-reported anger expression style on cerebrally lateralized physiological responses to neuropsychological stressors, changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were examined in response to a verbal fluency task and a figural fluency task among individuals reporting either "anger in" or "anger out" expression styles. Significant group by trial interaction effects was found for systolic blood pressure following administration of verbal fluency [F(1,54) = 5.86, p < 0...
May 15, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502912/thinking-styles-and-quality-of-university-life-among-deaf-or-hard-of-hearing-and-hearing-students
#10
Sanyin Cheng, Li-Fang Zhang
The authors explored how thinking styles relate to quality of university life among deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and hearing university students in mainland China. The first of two studies affirmed the validity and reliability of a modified version of the Quality of University Life Measure (QULM; Sirgy, Grezskowiak, & Rahtz, 2007) among 833 university students (366 DHH, 467 hearing). The second investigated relationships between thinking styles and quality of university life; the Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II (Sternberg, Wagner, & Zhang, 2007) and modified QULM were administered to 542 students (256 DHH, 286 hearing)...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502406/steering-the-conversation-a-linguistic-exploration-of-natural-language-interactions-with-a-digital-assistant-during-simulated-driving
#11
David R Large, Leigh Clark, Annie Quandt, Gary Burnett, Lee Skrypchuk
Given the proliferation of 'intelligent' and 'socially-aware' digital assistants embodying everyday mobile technology - and the undeniable logic that utilising voice-activated controls and interfaces in cars reduces the visual and manual distraction of interacting with in-vehicle devices - it appears inevitable that next generation vehicles will be embodied by digital assistants and utilise spoken language as a method of interaction. From a design perspective, defining the language and interaction style that a digital driving assistant should adopt is contingent on the role that they play within the social fabric and context in which they are situated...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499257/distinguishing-the-cognitive-processes-of-mindfulness-developing-a-standardised-mindfulness-technique-for-use-in-longitudinal-randomised-control-trials
#12
REVIEW
Ben Isbel, Mathew J Summers
A capacity model of mindfulness is adopted to differentiate the cognitive faculty of mindfulness from the metacognitive processes required to cultivate this faculty in mindfulness training. The model provides an explanatory framework incorporating both the developmental progression from focussed attention to open monitoring styles of mindfulness practice, along with the development of equanimity and insight. A standardised technique for activating these processes without the addition of secondary components is then introduced...
May 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497892/echoes-of-others-a-path-analytic-examination-of-an-interpersonal-cognitive-model-of-voice-related-distress
#13
Esther R Cole, Clara Strauss, Chris Fife-Schaw, Simon McCarthy-Jones
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models propose that levels of distress associated with auditory verbal hallucinations ('voices') are influenced by the hearers' beliefs about their voices (perceived malevolence and omnipotence), their negative beliefs about themselves and others and their attachment style. This study aims to test a comprehensive model of the relationship between these variables in order to identify distal and proximal interpersonal and cognitive factors contributing to voice-related distress...
May 12, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493364/explicating-the-role-of-empathic-processes-in-substance-use-disorders-a-conceptual-framework-and-research-agenda
#14
Suena H Massey, Rebecca L Newmark, Lauren S Wakschlag
ISSUES: Elucidating the role of empathic processes in developmental pathways to substance use disorders could have important implications for prevention. APPROACH: We searched the biomedical and social sciences literature to determine what is known about empathy and psychopathological manifestations of severe lack of empathy in the initiation, development and maintenance of psychoactive substance use. Thirty-seven empirical studies were identified and formally reviewed...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491269/curve-appeal-exploring-individual-differences-in-preference-for-curved-versus-angular-objects
#15
Katherine N Cotter, Paul J Silvia, Marco Bertamini, Letizia Palumbo, Oshin Vartanian
A preference for smooth curvature, as opposed to angularity, is a well-established finding for lines, two-dimensional shapes, and complex objects, but little is known about individual differences. We used two-dimensional black-and-white shapes-randomly generated irregular polygons, and arrays of circles and hexagons-and measured many individual differences, including artistic expertise, personality, and cognitive style. As expected, people preferred curved over angular stimuli, and people's degree of curvature preference correlated across the two sets of shapes...
March 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482683/problem-solving-styles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-development-of-higher-cognitive-functions
#16
Paul A Constable, Melanie Ring, Sebastian B Gaigg, Dermot M Bowler
The Vygotsky Blocks Test assesses problem-solving styles within a theoretical framework for the development of higher mental processes devised by Vygotsky. Because both the theory and the associated test situate cognitive development within the child's social and linguistic context, they address conceptual issues around the developmental relation between language and thought that are pertinent to development in autism. Our aim was to document the performance of adults with autism spectrum disorder on the Vygotsky Blocks Test, and our results showed that they made more errors than the typically developing participants and that these errors correlated with performance IQ...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481559/self-reported-interpersonal-problems-and-impact-messages-as-perceived-by-significant-others-are-differentially-associated-with-the-process-and-outcome-of-depression-therapy
#17
David Altenstein-Yamanaka, Johannes Zimmermann, Tobias Krieger, Nadja Dörig, Martin Grosse Holtforth
Interpersonal factors play a major role in causing and maintaining depression. This study sought to investigate how patients' self-perceived interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are interrelated, change over therapy, and differentially predict process and outcome in psychotherapy of depression. For the present study, we used data from 144 outpatients suffering from major depression that were treated within a psychotherapy study. Interpersonal variables were assessed pre- and posttherapy with the self-report Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scale (IIP-32; Thomas, Brähler, & Strauss, 2011) and with the informant-based Impact Message Inventory (Caspar, Berger, Fingerle, & Werner, 2016)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479982/logic-passion-and-the-problem-of-convergence
#18
Daniel W McShea
Our estimate of the likelihood of convergence on human-style intelligence depends on how we understand our various mental capacities. Here I revive David Hume's theory of motivation and action to argue that the most common understanding of the two conventionally recognized components of intelligence-reason and emotion-is confused. We say things like, 'Reason can overcome emotion', but to make this statement meaningful, we are forced to treat reason as a compound notion, as a forced and unhappy mixture of concepts that are incommensurate...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459260/investigating-the-cognitive-structure-of-stereotypes-generic-beliefs-about-groups-predict-social-judgments-better-than-statistical-beliefs
#19
Matthew D Hammond, Andrei Cimpian
Stereotypes are typically defined as beliefs about groups, but this definition is underspecified. Beliefs about groups can be generic or statistical. Generic beliefs attribute features to entire groups (e.g., men are strong), whereas statistical beliefs encode the perceived prevalence of features (e.g., how common it is for men to be strong). In the present research, we sought to determine which beliefs-generic or statistical-are more central to the cognitive structure of stereotypes. Specifically, we tested whether generic or statistical beliefs are more influential in people's social judgments, on the assumption that greater functional importance indicates greater centrality in stereotype structure...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453890/less-is-more-patient-level-meta-analysis-reveals-paradoxical-dose-response-effects-of-a-computer-based-social-anxiety-intervention-targeting-attentional-bias
#20
REVIEW
Rebecca B Price, Jennie M Kuckertz, Nader Amir, Yair Bar-Haim, Per Carlbring, Meredith L Wallace
BACKGROUND: The past decade of research has seen considerable interest in computer-based approaches designed to directly target cognitive mechanisms of anxiety, such as attention bias modification (ABM). METHODS: By pooling patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of ABM that utilized a dot-probe training procedure, we assessed the impact of training "dose" on relevant outcomes among a pooled sample of 693 socially anxious adults. RESULTS: A paradoxical effect of the number of training trials administered was observed for both posttraining social anxiety symptoms and behavioral attentional bias (AB) toward threat (the target mechanism of ABM)...
April 28, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
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