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Affective neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431843/on-the-complex-interaction-between-mathematics-and-the-sciences-of-living-systems-comment-on-move-me-astonish-me-delight-my-eyes-and-brain-the-vienna-integrated-model-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-in-art-perception-vimap-and-corresponding-affective-evaluative
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431323/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-developmental-stuttering-relations-with-previous-neurophysiological-research-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
P Busan, P P Battaglini, M Sommer
Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography...
April 3, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424297/magnitude-and-behavior-of-cross-talk-effects-in-multi-channel-electrophysiology-experiments
#3
Matthew John Nelson, Silvana Valtcheva, Laurent Venance
Modern neurophysiological experiments frequently involve multiple channels separated by very small distances. A unique methodological concern for multiple electrode experiments is that of capacitive coupling (cross-talk) between channels. Yet the nature of the cross-talk recording circuit is not well known in the field and the extent to which it practically affects neurophysiology experiments has never been fully investigated. Here we describe a simple electrical circuit model of simultaneous recording and stimulation with two or more channels and experimentally verify the model using ex vivo brain slice and in vivo whole-brain preparations...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422706/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-an-important-target-associated-with-antidepressant-effects-of-exercise
#4
Lina Sun, Qingshan Sun, Jinshun Qi
Depression is a prevalent devastating mental disorder that affects the normal life of patients and brings a heavy burden to whole society. Although many efforts have been made to attenuate depressive/anxiety symptoms, the current clinic antidepressants have limited effects. Scientists have long been making attempts to find some new strategies that can be applied as the alternative antidepressant therapy. Exercise, a widely recognized healthy lifestyle, has been suggested as a therapy that can relieve psychiatric stress...
April 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409732/the-surgical-treatment-of-tumors-of-the-fourth-ventricle-a-single-institution-experience
#5
Sherise D Ferguson, Nicholas B Levine, Dima Suki, Andrew J Tsung, Fredrick F Lang, Raymond Sawaya, Jeffrey S Weinberg, Ian E McCutcheon
OBJECTIVE Fourth ventricle tumors are rare, and surgical series are typically small, comprising a single pathology, or focused exclusively on pediatric populations. This study investigated surgical outcome and complications following fourth ventricle tumor resection in a diverse patient population. This is the largest cohort of fourth ventricle tumors described in the literature to date. METHODS This is an 18-year (1993-2010) retrospective review of 55 cases involving patients undergoing surgery for tumors of the fourth ventricle...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404231/modulation-of-sensorimotor-circuits-during-retrieval-of-negative-autobiographical-memories-exploring-the-impact-of-personality-dimensions
#6
Ludovico Mineo, Carmen Concerto, Dhaval Patel, Tyrone Mayorga, Eileen Chusid, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eugenio Aguglia, Yasmin Sarraf, Fortunato Battaglia
Autobiographical Memory (AM) retrieval refers to recollection of experienced past events. Previous Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that presentation of emotional negative stimuli affects human motor cortex excitability resulting in larger motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Up to date no TMS studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of personal memories with negative emotional value on corticospinal excitability. In this study we hypothesized that negative AM retrieval will modulate corticomotor excitability and sensorimotor integration as determined by TMS neurophysiological parameters...
April 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402865/inhibition-versus-facilitation-of-contralesional-motor-cortices-in-stroke-deriving-a-model-to-tailor-brain-stimulation
#7
Vishwanath Sankarasubramanian, Andre G Machado, Adriana B Conforto, Kelsey A Potter-Baker, David A Cunningham, Nicole M Varnerin, Xiaofeng Wang, Ken Sakaie, Ela B Plow
OBJECTIVE: The standard approach to brain stimulation in stroke is based on the premise that ipsilesional M1 (iM1) is important for motor function of the paretic upper limb, while contralesional cortices compete with iM1. Therefore, the approach typically advocates facilitating iM1 and/or inhibiting contralesional M1 (cM1). But, this approach fails to elicit much improvement in severely affected patients, who on account of extensive damage to ipsilesional pathways, cannot rely on iM1...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400283/the-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors-in-short-and-long-term-fear-recall
#8
Eva Mikics, Mate Toth, Laszlo Biro, Biborka Bruzsik, Boglarka Nagy, Jozsef Haller
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are crucial synaptic elements in long-term memory formation, including the associative learning of fearful events. Although NMDA blockers were consistently shown to inhibit fear memory acquisition and recall, the clinical use of general NMDA blockers is hampered by their side effects. Recent studies revealed significant heterogeneity in the distribution and neurophysiological characteristics of NMDA receptors with different GluN2 (NR2) subunit composition, which may have differential role in fear learning and recall...
April 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399932/guideline-recommendations-for-diagnosis-and-clinical-management-of-ring14-syndrome-first-report-of-an-ad-hoc-task-force
#9
REVIEW
Berardo Rinaldi, Alessandro Vaisfeld, Sergio Amarri, Chiara Baldo, Giuseppe Gobbi, Pamela Magini, Erto Melli, Giovanni Neri, Francesca Novara, Tommaso Pippucci, Romana Rizzi, Annarosa Soresina, Laura Zampini, Orsetta Zuffardi, Marco Crimi
BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by early onset refractory epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and a number of diverse health issues. RESULTS: The aim of this work is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and management of persons affected by ring chromosome 14 syndrome based on evidence from literature and experience of health professionals from different medical backgrounds who have followed for several years subjects affected by ring chromosome 14 syndrome...
April 11, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390003/modifying-motor-unit-territory-placement-in-the-fuglevand-model
#10
Jason W Robertson, Jamie A Johnston
The Fuglevand model is often used to address challenging questions in neurophysiology; however, there are elements of the neuromuscular system unaccounted for in the model. For instance, in some muscles, slow and fast motor units (MUs) tend to reside deep and superficially in the muscle, respectively, necessarily altering the development of surface electromyogram (EMG) power during activation. Thus, the objective of this study was to replace the randomized MU territory (MUT) placement algorithm in the Fuglevand model with an optimized method capable of reflecting these observations...
April 8, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385535/tms-measures-of-motor-cortex-function-after-stroke-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Michelle N McDonnell, Cathy M Stinear
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is commonly used to measure the effects of stroke on corticomotor excitability, intracortical function, and interhemispheric interactions. The interhemispheric inhibition model posits that recovery of motor function after stroke is linked to rebalancing of asymmetric interhemispheric inhibition and corticomotor excitability. This model forms the rationale for using neuromodulation techniques to suppress unaffected motor cortex excitability, and facilitate affected motor cortex excitability...
March 23, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382749/feline-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-review-of-the-experimental-literature
#12
REVIEW
S Kitz, J G Thalhammer, U Glantschnigg, M Wrzosek, A Klang, P Halasz, M N Shouse, A Pakozdy
Accumulating evidence suggests that epileptic seizures originating from the temporal lobe (TL) occur in cats. Typically, affected animals have clinically focal seizures with orofacial automatisms including salivation, facial twitching, lip smacking, chewing, licking, and swallowing. Motor arrest and autonomic and behavioral signs also may occur. Many affected cats have magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes within the hippocampus or histopathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis or necrosis. From the 1950s to the 1980s, cats frequently were used as animal models for neurophysiological experiments and electrophysiological studies, from which important basic knowledge about epilepsy originated, but which has been rarely cited in clinical veterinary studies...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377228/sexually-dimorphic-changes-of-hypocretin-orexin-in-depression
#13
Jing Lu, Juan Zhao, Rawien Balesar, Rolf Fronczek, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Xue-Yan Wu, Shao-Hua Hu, Ai-Min Bao, Dick F Swaab
BACKGROUND: Neurophysiological and behavioral processes regulated by hypocretin (orexin) are severely affected in depression. However, alterations in hypocretin have so far not been studied in the human brain. We explored the hypocretin system changes in the hypothalamus and cortex in depression from male and female subjects. METHODS: We quantified the differences between depression patients and well-matched controls, in terms of hypothalamic hypocretin-1 immunoreactivity (ir) and hypocretin receptors (Hcrtr-receptors)-mRNA in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
March 31, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377039/novel-presentation-of-rosai-dorfman-histiocytosis-with-a-prolonged-course-of-cranial-and-peripheral-neuropathies
#14
Richa Tripathi, Fatema Serajee, Huiyuan Jiang, A H M Mahbubul Huq
BACKGROUND: Rosai-Dorfman disease is a form of histiocytosis affecting the systemic lymph nodes. Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman disease is rare and presents with extra-parenchymal or intraparenchymal proliferative mass lesions. Cranial neuropathy has not been reported in Rosai-Dorfman disease except when caused by mass effect by an adjacent lesion. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a girl with Rosai-Dorfman disease who presented with peripheral and multiple cranial neuropathies...
March 8, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375605/raman-spectroscopic-signature-markers-of-dopamine-human-dopamine-transporter-interaction-in-living-cells
#15
Achut Prasad Silwal, Rajeev Yadav, Jon E Sprague, H Peter Lu
Dopamine (DA) controls many psychological and behavioral activities in the central nervous system (CNS) through interactions with the human dopamine transporter (hDAT) and dopamine receptors. The roles of DA in the function of the CNS are affected by the targeted binding of drugs to hDAT; thus, hDAT plays a critical role in neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology. An effective experimental method is necessary to study the DA-hDAT interaction and effects of variety of drugs like psychostimulants and anti-depressants that are dependent on this interaction...
April 4, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374019/cntnap1-mutations-cause-cns-hypomyelination-and-neuropathy-with-or-without-arthrogryposis
#16
Holger Hengel, Alex Magee, Muhammad Mahanjah, Jean-Michel Vallat, Robert Ouvrier, Mohammad Abu-Rashid, Jamal Mahamid, Rebecca Schüle, Martin Schulze, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Peter Bauer, Stephan Züchner, Rajech Sharkia, Ludger Schöls
OBJECTIVE: To explore the phenotypic spectrum and pathophysiology of human disease deriving from mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene. METHODS: In a field study on consanguineous Palestinian families, we identified 3 patients carrying homozygous mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene using whole-exome sequencing. An unrelated Irish family was detected by screening the GENESIS database for further CNTNAP1 mutations. Neurophysiology, MRI, and nerve biopsy including electron microscopy were performed for deep phenotyping...
April 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369363/noninvasive-stimulation-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-enhances-pleasant-scene-processing
#17
Markus Junghofer, Constantin Winker, Maimu A Rehbein, Dean Sabatinelli
Depressive patients typically show biased attention towards unpleasant and away from pleasant emotional material. Imaging studies suggest that dysfunctions in a distributed neural network, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), are associated with this processing bias. Accordingly, changes in vmPFC activation should mediate changes in processing of emotional stimuli. Here, we investigated the effect of inhibitory and excitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the vmPFC on emotional scene processing in two within-subject experiments using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352216/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rett-syndrome-implications-for-mitochondria-targeted-therapies
#18
REVIEW
Natalya Shulyakova, Ana C Andreazza, Linda R Mills, James H Eubanks
First described over 50 years ago, Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by mutations of the X-linked MECP2 gene. RTT affects predominantly females, and has a prevalence of roughly 1 in every 10,000 female births. Prior to the discovery that mutations of MECP2 are the leading cause of RTT, there were suggestions that RTT could be a mitochondrial disease. In fact, several reports documented altered mitochondrial structure, and deficiencies in mitochondrial enzyme activity in different cells or tissues derived from RTT patients...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349876/location-versus-task-relevance-the-impact-of-differing-internal-focus-of-attention-instructions-on-motor-performance
#19
Valerie Pelleck, Steven R Passmore
Impaired performance while executing a motor task is attributed to a disruption of normal automatic processes when an internal focus of attention is used. What remains unclear is whether the specificity of internally focused task instructions may impact task performance. The present study assessed the implications of changing the attentional focus of novice and skilled golfers by measuring behavioural, neurophysiological and kinematic changes during a golf putting task. Over six blocks of ten putting trials each, attention was directed either externally (towards the target) or internally in one of two ways: 1) proximal (keeping the elbows extended and the hands gripping the putter); or 2) distal (keeping the weight evenly distributed between both legs) to the critical elements of the task...
March 24, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347673/move-me-astonish-me%C3%A2-delight-my-eyes-and-brain-the-vienna-integrated-model-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-in-art-perception-vimap-and-corresponding-affective-evaluative-and-neurophysiological-correlates
#20
REVIEW
Matthew Pelowski, Patrick S Markey, Michael Forster, Gernot Gerger, Helmut Leder
This paper has a rather audacious purpose: to present a comprehensive theory explaining, and further providing hypotheses for the empirical study of, the multiple ways by which people respond to art. Despite common agreement that interaction with art can be based on a compelling, and occasionally profound, psychological experience, the nature of these interactions is still under debate. We propose a model, The Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception (VIMAP), with the goal of resolving the multifarious processes that can occur when we perceive and interact with visual art...
February 27, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
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