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Affective neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937807/use-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-poststroke-neglect-promising-neuropsychological-and-neurophysiological-findings-from-a-case-study
#1
Rosaria De Luca, Viviana Lo Buono, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Bianca Aragona, Simona Leonardi, Antonio Buda, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
After experiencing a stroke in the right hemisphere, almost 50% of patients show unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Virtual Reality technologies offer impressive opportunities for both the rehabilitation and assessment of different cognitive deficits, including USN. A 57-year-old woman, affected by subarachnoid hemorrhage presented a severe left hemiparesis with severe cognitive and behavioral alterations, including temporal and spatial disorientation, reduction of attention and memory process, slowing ideation, USN, and depression of mood...
September 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930822/five-years-experience-on-3-4-diaminopyridine-phosphate-in-lambert-eaton-syndrome-case-reports
#2
Simona Portaro, Teresa Brizzi, Stefano Sinicropi, Alberto Cacciola, Maria Cristina De Cola, Alessia Bramanti, Demetrio Milardi, Antonino Lupica, Placido Bramanti, Antonio Toscano, Carmelo Rodolico
RATIONALE: To report our experience on 7 patients (4 males and 3 females), affected by nonparaneoplastic Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, treated with 3,4-diaminopyridine phosphate (3,4-DAPP) either alone or in combination with other immunosuppressants or steroids. PATIENT CONCERNS: Patients have been evaluated at specific timepoints (ie, baseline and last 5 year follow-up), with neurological examination, autoantibodies against presynaptic voltage-gated Cav2.1 (P/Q type) calcium ion channel (VGCC) dosage, neurophysiological evaluation focusing on the increased amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (cMAP) after maximum voluntary effort, quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) and activities of daily living scales, and autonomic nervous system involvement evaluation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920040/parasympathetic-cholinergic-and-neuropeptide-mechanisms-of-migraine
#3
REVIEW
Nikita Mikhailov, Oleg V Mamontov, Alexei A Kamshilin, Rashid Giniatullin
CONTEXT: Migraine mechanisms remain largely uncovered for various reasons including a very high complexity of the neurophysiological mechanisms implicated in this disorder and a plethora of endogenous biologically active compounds involved in the pathological process. The functional role of parasympathetic innervation of meninges and cholinergic mechanisms of migraine are among little explored issues despite multiple evidence indirectly indicating the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and its analogues in migraine and other types of headache...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917666/hippocampal-neurophysiology-is-modified-by-a-disease-associated-c-terminal-fragment-of-tau-protein
#4
Francesco Tamagnini, Darren A Walsh, Jon T Brown, Marie K Bondulich, Diane P Hanger, Andrew D Randall
The accumulation of cleaved tau fragments in the brain is associated with several tauopathies. For this reason, we recently developed a transgenic mouse that selectively accumulates a C-Terminal 35 kDa human tau fragment (Tau35). These animals develop progressive motor and spatial memory impairment, paralleled by increased hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase 3β activity. In this neurophysiological study, we focused on the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, a brain area involved in memory encoding. The accumulation of Tau35 results in a significant increase of short-term facilitation of the synaptic response in the theta frequency range (10 Hz), without affecting basal synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity...
July 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917007/specific-properties-of-the-si-and-sii-somatosensory-areas-and-their-effects-on-motor-control-a-system-neurophysiological-study
#5
Julia Friedrich, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste
Sensorimotor integration is essential for successful motor control and the somatosensory modality has been shown to have strong effects on the execution of motor plans. The primary (SI) and the secondary somatosensory (SII) cortices are known to differ in their neuroanatomical connections to prefrontal areas, as well as in their involvement to encode cognitive aspects of tactile processing. Here, we ask whether the area-specific processing architecture or the structural neuroanatomical connections with prefrontal areas determine the efficacy of sensorimotor integration processes for motor control...
September 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912703/the-influence-of-external-forces-on-wrist-proprioception
#6
Francesca Marini, Sara Contu, Chris W Antuvan, Pietro Morasso, Lorenzo Masia
Proprioception combines information from cutaneous, joint, tendon, and muscle receptors for maintaining a reliable internal body image. However, it is still a matter of debate, in both neurophysiology and psychology, to what extent such body image is modified or distorted by a changing haptic environment. In particular, what is worth investigating is the contribution of external forces on our perception of body and joint configuration. The proprioceptive acuity of fifteen young participants was tested with a Joint Position Matching (JPM) task, performed with the dominant wrist under five different external forces, in order to understand to what extent they affect proprioceptive acuity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911857/new-mouse-model-for-inducing-and-evaluating-unilateral-vestibular-deafferentation-syndrome
#7
R Cassel, P Bordiga, D Pericat, C Hautefort, B Tighilet, C Chabbert
BACKGROUND: Unilateral vestibular deafferentation syndrome (uVDS) holds a particular place in the vestibular pathology domain. Due to its suddenness, the violence of its symptoms that often result in emergency hospitalization, and its associated original neurophysiological properties, this syndrome is a major source of questioning for the otoneurology community. Also, its putative pathogenic causes remain to be determined. There is currently a strong medical need for the development of targeted and effective countermeasures to improve the therapeutic management of uVDS...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899650/micropatterned-surface-electrode-for-massive-selective-stimulation-of-intraepidermal-nociceptive-fibres
#8
REVIEW
Massimo Leandri, Lucio Marinelli, Antonio Siri, Luca Pellegrino
BACKGROUND: No satisfactory neurophysiological test for nociceptive afferents is available to date. Laser stimuli present risks of skin damage, whilst electrical stimulation through specially designed electrodes is not selective enough. NEW METHOD: We present a new electrode designed according to critical issues identified in preliminary computer simulations concerning electric field gradient through the skin. To provide selective stimulation the activating electric field must be limited to intraepidermal free nerve endings...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890181/hostility-and-cognitive-control-evidence-of-increased-cardiovascular-reactivity-as-a-function-of-exposure-to-affective-stress-using-a-dichotic-listening-paradigm
#9
Alissa K Holland, Gina A Mitchell, Angela Steele, Jessica Bunting, David W Harrison
Indices of cognitive control were examined in men with high and low levels of trait hostility as a function of exposure to affective and cognitive stress. A dual concurrent task paradigm was used whereby participants intentionally directed focus to the left or right ear under dichotic listening conditions before and after exposure to angry infant vocalizations. Analysis of the behavioral data supports the prediction of reduced right frontal regulatory control in men with high levels of hostility as indicated by diminished capacity to suppress report of phonemes presented to the language dominant left hemisphere (right ear) in the Focus Left condition...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887785/bioplausible-multiscale-filtering-in-retino-cortical-processing-as-a-mechanism-in-perceptual-grouping
#10
Nasim Nematzadeh, David M W Powers, Trent W Lewis
Why does our visual system fail to reconstruct reality, when we look at certain patterns? Where do Geometrical illusions start to emerge in the visual pathway? How far should we take computational models of vision with the same visual ability to detect illusions as we do? This study addresses these questions, by focusing on a specific underlying neural mechanism involved in our visual experiences that affects our final perception. Among many types of visual illusion, 'Geometrical' and, in particular, 'Tilt Illusions' are rather important, being characterized by misperception of geometric patterns involving lines and tiles in combination with contrasting orientation, size or position...
September 8, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884806/neurophysiological-mechanisms-and-functional-impact-of-mirror-movements-in-children-with-unilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#11
REVIEW
Hsing-Ching Kuo, Kathleen M Friel, Andrew M Gordon
Children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) often have mirror movements, i.e. involuntary imitations of unilateral voluntary movements of the contralateral upper extremity. The pathophysiology of mirror movements has been investigated in small and heterogeneous cohorts in the literature. Specific pathophysiology of mirror movements and their impact on upper extremity function require systematic investigation in larger and homogeneous cohorts of children with unilateral spastic CP. Here we review two possible neurophysiological mechanisms underlying mirror movements in children with CP and those with typical development: (1) an ipsilateral corticospinal tract projecting from the contralesional motor cortex (M1) to both upper extremities; (2) insufficient interhemispheric inhibition between the two M1s...
September 8, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879007/investigating-the-impact-of-feedback-update-interval-on-the-efficacy-of-restorative-brain-computer-interfaces
#12
Sam Darvishi, Michael C Ridding, Brenton Hordacre, Derek Abbott, Mathias Baumert
Restorative brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed to enhance stroke rehabilitation. Restorative BCIs are able to close the sensorimotor loop by rewarding motor imagery (MI) with sensory feedback. Despite the promising results from early studies, reaching clinically significant outcomes in a timely fashion is yet to be achieved. This lack of efficacy may be due to suboptimal feedback provision. To the best of our knowledge, the optimal feedback update interval (FUI) during MI remains unexplored...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875353/does-shape-affect-function-articulatory-skills-in-babbling-of-infants-with-deformational-plagiocephaly
#13
Christian Linz, Tilmann Schweitzer, Lisa C Brenner, Felix Kunz, Philipp Meyer-Marcotty, Kathleen Wermke
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyse pre-speech/early language skills in healthy full-term infants with moderate or severe deformational plagiocephaly (DP) and in infants without any skull asymmetry. METHODS: At 6 and 12 months, 51 children with DP (41 moderate, 10 severe cases) were studied, along with 15 infants serving as control. Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) was objectively determined based on cranial vault asymmetry (CVA) using 3D stereophotogrammetry (3dMDhead System® and Analytics 4...
September 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868196/novel-approach-to-continuous-neurophysiological-monitoring-during-surgery-of-peripheral-nerve-tumors
#14
Ángel Saponaro-González, Pedro Javier Pérez-Lorensu
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) with nerve action potential (NAP) can be useful during peripheral nerve surgery. However, current methodologies are not optimized for continuous recording of the NAP. The use of newer electrodes may make it possible to more conveniently obtain continuous recordings of the NAP during surgery. METHODS: After localizing the nerve of interest and dissecting it from the adjacent soft tissue, two APS(®) (Automatic Periodic Stimulation) electrodes, originally designed for stimulation of the vagus nerve during thyroid surgery, are placed on the nerve on either sides of the tumor for stimulation and recording using two subdermal electroencephalogram (EEG) needles as anode and reference, respectively...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857583/neurophysiological-traces-of-interpersonal-pain-how-emotional-autobiographical-memories-affect-event-related-potentials
#15
Kristina B Rohde, Franz Caspar, Thomas Koenig, Antonio Pascual-Leone, Maria Stein
The automatic, involuntary reactivation of disturbing emotional memories, for example, of interpersonal pain, causes psychological discomfort and is central to many psychopathologies. This study aimed at elucidating the automatic brain processes underlying emotional autobiographical memories by investigating the neurophysiological dynamics within the first second after memory reactivation. Pictures of different individualized familiar faces served as cues for different specific emotional autobiographical memories, for example, for memories of interpersonal pain and grievances or for memories of appreciation in interpersonal relationships...
August 31, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842233/pattern-of-corticospinal-projections-defined-by-brain-mapping-during-resective-epilepsy-surgery-in-a-patient-with-congenital-hemiparesis-and-intractable-epilepsy
#16
Chen-Ya Yang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Chien Chen, Jan-Wei Chiu, Chen-Liang Chou, Tsui-Fen Yang
BACKGROUND: Congenital or early acquired brain structural lesions often cause contralateral hemiparesis as well as cognitive deficits, developmental delays, and seizures. Among them, seizure is the most debilitating condition, as it greatly impairs the quality of life in both the affected individuals and their caregivers and prevents them from active social participation. CASE DESCRIPTION: Here, we present a 34-year-old man with hemiparesis and early-onset seizures since childhood owing to a congenital brain lesion...
August 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840271/observing-painful-events-in-others-leads-to-a-temporally-extended-general-response-facilitation-in-the-self
#17
Carl Michael Galang, Katherine R Naish, Keon Arbabi, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Excitability in the motor cortex is modulated when we observe other people receiving a painful stimulus (Avenanti et al., Nat Neurosci 8(7):955-960, 2005). However, the task dependency of this modulation is not well understood, as different paradigms have yielded seemingly different results. Previous neurophysiological work employing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggests that watching another person's hand being pierced by a needle leads to a muscle specific inhibition, assessed via motor evoked potentials...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813297/creating-relationships-that-foster-resilience-in-emotionally-focused-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Stephanie A Wiebe, Susan M Johnson
Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples (EFT) is an evidence-based couple therapy based in attachment theory. Research has amassed over the past three decades pointing to the role of relationships in health and and well-being. Affective neuroscience suggests that secure relationships appear to foster adaptive stress co-regulation. The effectiveness of EFT has been demonstrated in couples facing high levels of stress, and has been shown to reduce depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Furthermore, EFT has been shown to help couples regulate their neurophysiological stress response...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811254/parsing-the-neural-signatures-of-reduced-error-detection-in-older-age
#19
Siobhán Harty, Peter R Murphy, Ian H Robertson, Redmond G O'Connell
Recent work has demonstrated that explicit error detection relies on a neural evidence accumulation process that can be traced in the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Here, we sought to establish the impact of natural aging on this process by recording EEG from young (18-35 years) and older adults (65-88 years) during the performance of a Go/No-Go paradigm in which participants were required to overtly signal their errors. Despite performing the task with equivalent accuracy, older adults reported substantially fewer errors, and the timing of their reports were both slower and more variable...
August 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810241/molecular-epidemiology-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-in-northern-ostrobothnia-finland-a-population-based-study
#20
Maria Marttila, Laura Kytövuori, Seppo Helisalmi, Mika Kallio, Marjo Laitinen, Mikko Hiltunen, Mikko Kärppä, Kari Majamaa
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorder with a population prevalence of 9.7-82.3/100,000. In this study, we have estimated the prevalence of CMT and its subtypes in Finland and examined the frequency of molecular etiologies. METHODS: A population-based survey included adult patients with peripheral neuropathy from the province of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Secondary causes of peripheral polyneuropathy were excluded and patients with clinical and neurophysiological features pertinent with CMT were included...
August 16, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
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