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Affective neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155115/transtentorial-distortion-syndrome-a-consistent-complication-following-lateral-and-fourth-ventricular-shunting-in-adults
#1
Claudia L Craven, Irene Baudracco, Simon D Thompson, Lewis Thorne, Laurence D Watkins, Ahmed K Toma
BACKGROUND: Complex hydrocephalus affecting lateral and fourth ventricles separately is occasionally managed with CSF diversion via supra- and infra-tentorial ventricular catheters. The optimal configuration to reduce complications is currently unknown in adults. We describe a consistently similar clinical presentation of patients with complex hydrocephalus and a fourth ventricle separately drained by infra-tentorial shunt insertion. METHODS: A retrospective single centre case series...
November 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145345/the-role-of-sativex-in-robotic-rehabilitation-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-rationale-study-design-and-methodology
#2
Margherita Russo, Vincenzo Dattola, Anna Lisa Logiudice, Rosella Ciurleo, Edoardo Sessa, Rosaria De Luca, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
INTRODUCTION: Currently, none of the available multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying medications has been shown to stop or reverse gait disability. Recently, the nabiximols has been tested for the treatment of spasticity and walking impairment in MS. Nabiximols (trade name Sativex) is an oromucosal spray formulation containing 1:1 fixed ratio of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol derived from cloned Cannabis sativa L. plant. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: A single-center, prospective, parallel design, single-blind trial will be conducted at the IRCCS Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" (Italy) involving MS patients affected by spasticity and undergoing a Robotic Rehabilitation training...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137960/ampa-receptor-translocation-and-phosphorylation-are-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-rats
#3
Justin Stafford, Milene L Brownlow, Anthony Qualley, Ryan Jankord
Over the last decade, the interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has continued to increase, along with consideration of how it affects neuroplasticity mechanisms in the brain. Both human and animal studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and, although its application has increased, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying tDCS' beneficial effects remain largely unknown. Recent studies have shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) increases following tDCS. In this work, we utilized a rodent model of tDCS to directly assess changes in the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, a critical protein for enhancing synaptic transmission...
November 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136104/focal-suppression-of-distractor-sounds-by-selective-attention-in-auditory-cortex
#4
Zachary P Schwartz, Stephen V David
Auditory selective attention is required for parsing crowded acoustic environments, but cortical systems mediating the influence of behavioral state on auditory perception are not well characterized. Previous neurophysiological studies suggest that attention produces a general enhancement of neural responses to important target sounds versus irrelevant distractors. However, behavioral studies suggest that in the presence of masking noise, attention provides a focal suppression of distractors that compete with targets...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130382/less-affected-hand-function-in-children-with-hemiparetic-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-a-comparison-study-with-typically-developing-peers
#5
Tonya L Rich, Jeremiah S Menk, Kyle D Rudser, Timothy Feyma, Bernadette T Gillick
BACKGROUND: Neurorehabilitation interventions in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) target motor abilities in daily life yet deficits in hand skills persist. Limitations in the less-affected hand may affect overall bimanual hand skills. OBJECTIVE: To compare hand function, by timed motor performance on the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function (JTTHF) and grip strength of children with UCP to children with typical development (CTD), aged 8 to 18 years old...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127656/altered-oscillatory-brain-dynamics-of-emotional-processing-in-young-binge-drinkers
#6
Siyuan Huang, Lee A Holcomb, Stephen M Cruz, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic drinking, also termed binge drinking, is commonly practiced by young adults. It is accompanied by a range of cognitive, affective, and social problems, but the neural dynamics underlying changes in emotional functions is poorly understood. To investigate the behavioral and brain indices of affective processing as a function of binge drinking, young, healthy participants (23.3 ± 3.3 years) were assigned to two groups (n = 32 each) based on their drinking habits. Binge drinking (BD) participants reported drinking heavily with at least five binge episodes in the last 6 months, whereas light drinkers (LD) reported no more than one binge episode in the last 6 months...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125442/long-term-outcomes-after-surgical-treatment-of-pediatric-neurogenic-thoracic-outlet-syndrome
#7
Jennifer Hong, Jared M Pisapia, Zarina S Ali, Austin J Heuer, Erin Alexander, Gregory G Heuer, Eric L Zager
OBJECTIVE Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is an uncommon compression syndrome of the brachial plexus that presents with pain, sensory changes, and motor weakness in the affected limb. The authors reviewed the clinical presentations and outcomes in their series of pediatric patients with surgically treated nTOS over a 6-year period. METHODS Cases of nTOS in patients age 18 years or younger were extracted for analysis from a prospective database of peripheral nerve operations. Baseline patient characteristics, imaging and neurophysiological data, operative findings, and outcomes and complications were assessed...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118736/perception-of-upright-multisensory-convergence-and-the-role-of-temporo-parietal-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Amir Kheradmand, Ariel Winnick
We inherently maintain a stable perception of the world despite frequent changes in the head, eye, and body positions. Such "orientation constancy" is a prerequisite for coherent spatial perception and sensorimotor planning. As a multimodal sensory reference, perception of upright represents neural processes that subserve orientation constancy through integration of sensory information encoding the eye, head, and body positions. Although perception of upright is distinct from perception of body orientation, they share similar neural substrates within the cerebral cortical networks involved in perception of spatial orientation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111113/understanding-the-relationship-between-brain-and-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-motor-impairments-a-multimodal-approach
#9
Maya Weinstein, Dido Green, Julian Rudisch, Ingar M Zielinski, Marta Benthem-Muñiz, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Verity McClelland, Bert Steenbergen, Shelly Shiran, Dafna Ben Bashat, Gareth J Barker
Atypical brain development and early brain injury have profound and long lasting impact on the development, skill acquisition, and subsequent independence of a child. Heterogeneity is present at the brain level and at the motor level; particularly with respect to phenomena of bilateral activation and mirrored movements (MMs). In this multiple case study we consider the feasibility of using several modalities to explore the relationship between brain structure and/or activity and hand function: Electroencephalography (EEG), both structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Electromyography (EMG) and hand function assessments...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108841/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-unintended-prolonged-opioid-use
#10
W Michael Hooten, Chad M Brummett, Mark D Sullivan, Jenna Goesling, Jon C Tilburt, Jessica S Merlin, Jennifer L St Sauver, Ajay D Wasan, Daniel J Clauw, David O Warner
An urgent need exists to better understand the transition from short-term opioid use to unintended prolonged opioid use (UPOU). The purpose of this work is to propose a conceptual framework for understanding UPOU that posits the influence of 3 principal domains that include the characteristics of (1) individual patients, (2) the practice environment, and (3) opioid prescribers. Although no standardized method exists for developing a conceptual framework, the process often involves identifying corroborative evidence, leveraging expert opinion to identify factors for inclusion in the framework, and developing a graphic depiction of the relationships between the various factors and the clinical problem of interest...
November 3, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107239/mini-review-gustatory-reception-of-chemicals-affecting-host-feeding-in-aedine-mosquitoes
#11
REVIEW
Jackson T Sparks, Joseph C Dickens
Mosquitoes vector dangerous human diseases during blood feeding. Gustatory (taste) receptor neurons in the mosquito provide important chemical information including the nature and suitability of a potential host. Here we discuss the behavior, neurophysiology and molecular mechanisms associated with feeding in aedine mosquitoes, important vectors of emerging diseases including Zika fever, chikungunya and dengue fever. We describe how interactions between feeding stimulation and deterrency at the peripheral neural receptor level provide input to higher order neural processing centers affecting decisions to feed...
October 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102646/the-importance-of-controlling-in-vitro-oxygen-tension-to-accurately-model-in-vivo-neurophysiology
#12
REVIEW
Evan A Bordt
The majority of in vitro studies modeling in vivo conditions are performed on the lab bench in atmospheric air. However, the oxygen tension (pO2) present in atmospheric air (160mm Hg, ∼21% O2) is in great excess to the pO2 that permeates tissues within the brain (5-45mm Hg, ∼1-6% O2). This review will discuss the differentiation between pO2 in the in vivo environment and the pO2 commonly used during in vitro experiments, and how this could affect assay outcomes. Also highlighted are studies linking changes in pO2 to changes in cellular function, particularly the role of pO2 in mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species production, and cellular growth and differentiation...
November 1, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101797/blocking-nocturnal-blue-light-for-insomnia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Ari Shechter, Elijah Wookhyun Kim, Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Andrew J Westwood
The use of light-emitting electronic devices before bedtime may contribute to or exacerbate sleep problems. Exposure to blue-wavelength light in particular from these devices may affect sleep by suppressing melatonin and causing neurophysiologic arousal. We aimed to determine if wearing amber-tinted blue light-blocking lenses before bedtime improves sleep in individuals with insomnia. Fourteen individuals (n = 8 females; age ± SD 46.6 ± 11.5 y) with insomnia symptoms wore blue light-blocking amber lenses or clear placebo lenses in lightweight wraparound frames for 2 h immediately preceding bedtime for 7 consecutive nights in a randomized crossover trial (4-wk washout)...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093740/differences-in-neurochemical-profiles-of-two-gadid-species-under-ocean-warming-and-acidification
#14
Matthias Schmidt, Heidrun Sigrid Windisch, Kai-Uwe Ludwichowski, Sean Lando Levin Seegert, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Daniela Storch, Christian Bock
Background: Exposure to future ocean acidification scenarios may alter the behaviour of marine teleosts through interference with neuroreceptor functioning. So far, most studies investigated effects of ocean acidification on the behaviour of fish, either isolated or in combination with environmental temperature. However, only few physiological studies on this issue were conducted despite the putative neurophysiological origin of the CO2-induced behavioural changes. Here, we present the metabolic consequences of long-term exposure to projected ocean acidification (396-548 μatm PCO2 under control and 915-1272 μatm under treatment conditions) and parallel warming in the brain of two related fish species, polar cod (Boreogadus saida, exposed to 0 °C, 3 °C, 6 °C and 8 °C) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, exposed to 3 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C and 16 °C)...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091318/early-electrophysiological-findings-in-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyradiculoneuropathy-variant-of-guillain-barre-syndrome-in-the-pakistani-population-a-comparison-with-global-data
#15
Ahmed Wali, Sara Khan
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) are the most common variants of Guillian Barre syndrome documented in the Asian population. However the variability of early neurophysiologic findings in the Asian population compared to western data has not been documented. Eighty seven cases of AIDP were retrospectively reviewed for their demographic, clinical, electrophysiological and laboratory data. Mean age of subjects was 31 ± 8 years with males more commonly affected...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061491/neural-mechanisms-of-mental-fatigue-elicited-by-sustained-auditory-processing
#16
Travis M Moore, Alexandra P Key, Antonia Thelen, Benjamin W Y Hornsby
Despite growing evidence that prolonged episodes of effortful listening can lead to mental fatigue, little work has been done to examine the patterns of brain activation associated with listening over time. In order to gain a better understanding of the nature of listening-related mental fatigue, this study characterized the effects of sustained auditory processing on brain activation in 19 adults with normal hearing. A 50-min, auditory choice paradigm served as the fatiguing task. Mental fatigue was quantified using subjective (self-report) and behavioral (response time and accuracy) measures, as well as event-related potential (ERP) measures indexing motivation (error-related negativity; ERN) and general arousal (N1)...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060764/how-the-workload-impacts-on-cognitive-cooperation-a-pilot-study
#17
Nicolina Sciaraffa, Gianluca Borghini, Pietro Arico, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Jlenia Toppi, Alfredo Colosimo, Anastatios Bezerianos, Nitish V Thakor, Fabio Babiloni
Cooperation degradation can be seen as one of the main causes of human errors. Poor cooperation could arise from aberrant mental processes, such as mental overload, that negatively affect the user's performance. Using different levels of difficulty in a cooperative task, we combined behavioural, subjective and neurophysiological data with the aim to i) quantify the mental workload under which the crew was operating, ii) evaluate the degree of their cooperation, and iii) assess the impact of the workload demands on the cooperation levels...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060411/influence-of-trans-spinal-magnetic-stimulation-in-electrophysiological-recordings-for-closed-loop-rehabilitative-systems
#18
Ainhoa Insausti-Delgado, Eduardo Lopez-Larraz, Carlos Bibian, Yukio Nishimura, Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos-Murguialday
Recent studies have shown the feasibility of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for motor rehabilitation. Currently, there is an increasing interest in developing closed-loop systems employing SCS for lower-limb recovery. These closed-loop systems are based on the use of neurophysiological signals to modulate the stimulation. It is known that electromagnetic stimulation can introduce undesirable noise to the electrophysiological recordings. However, there is little evidence about how electroencephalographic (EEG) or electromyographic (EMG) activities are corrupted when a trans-spinal magnetic stimulation is applied...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060209/prediction-of-temperature-induced-office-worker-s-performance-during-typing-task-using-eeg
#19
Tapsya Nayak, Tinghe Zhang, Zijing Mao, Xiaojing Xu, Daniel J Pack, Bing Dong, Yufei Huang
Understanding how indoor environment affects office worker's performance and developing methods to predict human performance in changing indoor environment have become highly important research topic bearing significant economic and sociological impact. While past research groups have attempted to find predictors for performance they do not provide satisfactory predictions. We conduct in this paper a study to predict human performance by developing a regression model using neurophysiological signals collected from electroencephalogram (EEG), during simulated office-work tasks under different indoor room temperatures (22°C and 30°C)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057628/apraxia-review-and-update
#20
REVIEW
Jung E Park
Praxis, the ability to perform skilled or learned movements is essential for daily living. Inability to perform such praxis movements is defined as apraxia. Apraxia can be further classified into subtypes such as ideomotor, ideational and limb-kinetic apraxia. Relevant brain regions have been found to include the motor, premotor, temporal and parietal cortices. Apraxia is found in a variety of highly prevalent neurological disorders including dementia, stroke and Parkinsonism. Furthermore, apraxia has been shown to negatively affect quality of life...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
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