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Affective neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095964/f-wave-duration-parameters-as-a-specific-and-sensitive-tool-for-diagnosis-of-restless-legs-syndrome
#1
Patrizia Congiu, Maria Livia Fantini, Giulia Milioli, Paolo Tacconi, Michela Figorilli, Gioia Gioi, Bruno Pereira, Francesco Marrosu, Liborio Parrino, Monica Puligheddu
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Restless legs syndrome, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), is a frequent condition, though its pathophysiology is not completely understood. The diagnosis of RLS/WED relies on clinical criteria, and the only instrumental tool, the suggested immobilization test, may lead to equivocal results. Recently, neurophysiological parameters related to F-wave duration have been proposed as a diagnostic aid. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the diagnostic values of these parameters in diagnosis of RLS/WED...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089759/using-pupil-size-and-heart-rate-to-infer-affective-states-during-behavioral-neurophysiology-and-neuropsychology-experiments
#2
Andrew R Mitz, Ravi V Chacko, Philip T Putnam, Peter H Rudebeck, Elisabeth A Murray
BACKGROUND: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. NEW METHOD: We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088484/optimal-trajectories-of-brain-state-transitions
#3
Shi Gu, Richard F Betzel, Marcelo G Mattar, Matthew Cieslak, Philip R Delio, Scott T Grafton, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
The complexity of neural dynamics stems in part from the complexity of the underlying anatomy. Yet how white matter structure constrains how the brain transitions from one cognitive state to another remains unknown. Here we address this question by drawing on recent advances in network control theory to model the underlying mechanisms of brain state transitions as elicited by the collective control of region sets. We find that previously identified attention and executive control systems are poised to affect a broad array of state transitions that cannot easily be classified by traditional engineering-based notions of control...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#4
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077329/body-schema-plasticity-after-stroke-subjective-and-neurophysiological-correlates-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#5
Roberto Llorens, Adrián Borrego, Priscila Palomo, Ausiàs Cebolla, Enrique Noé, Sergi Bermúdez I Badia, Rosa Baños
Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057925/decreased-empathy-response-to-other-people-s-pain-in-bipolar-disorder-evidence-from-an-event-related-potential-study
#6
Jingyue Yang, Xinglong Hu, Xiaosi Li, Lei Zhang, Yi Dong, Xiang Li, Chunyan Zhu, Wen Xie, Jingjing Mu, Su Yuan, Jie Chen, Fangfang Chen, Fengqiong Yu, Kai Wang
Bipolar disorder (BD) patients often demonstrate poor socialization that may stem from a lower capacity for empathy. We examined the associated neurophysiological abnormalities by comparing event-related potentials (ERP) between 30 BD patients in different states and 23 healthy controls (HCs, matched for age, sex, and education) during a pain empathy task. Subjects were presented pictures depicting pain or neutral images and asked to judge whether the person shown felt pain (pain task) and to identify the affected side (laterality task) during ERP recording...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045854/the-percentage-of-amplitude-decrease-warning-criteria-for-transcranial-mep-monitoring
#7
Henricus L Journée, Hanneke I Berends, Moyo C Kruyt
Muscle motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) became a standard technique for monitoring the motor functions of the brain and spinal cord at risk during spinal and brain surgery. However, a wide range of criteria based on the percentage of amplitude decrease is used in practice. A survey of the current literature on clinical outcome parameters reveals a variety of percentages in a range of 30% to 100% (50% to 100% spinal procedures) with no consensus. The interpretation of muscle MEPs is hampered by their sensitivity to many interfering factors...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045223/on-the-dependence-of-response-inhibition-processes-on-sensory-modality
#8
Benjamin Bodmer, Christian Beste
The ability to inhibit responses is a central sensorimotor function but only recently the importance of sensory processes for motor inhibition mechanisms went more into the research focus. In this regard it is elusive, whether there are differences between sensory modalities to trigger response inhibition processes. Due to functional neuroanatomical considerations strong differences may exist, for example, between the visual and the tactile modality. In the current study we examine what neurophysiological mechanisms as well as functional neuroanatomical networks are modulated during response inhibition...
January 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044023/how-is-visual-salience-computed-in-the-brain-insights-from-behaviour-neurobiology-and-modelling
#9
REVIEW
Richard Veale, Ziad M Hafed, Masatoshi Yoshida
Inherent in visual scene analysis is a bottleneck associated with the need to sequentially sample locations with foveating eye movements. The concept of a 'saliency map' topographically encoding stimulus conspicuity over the visual scene has proven to be an efficient predictor of eye movements. Our work reviews insights into the neurobiological implementation of visual salience computation. We start by summarizing the role that different visual brain areas play in salience computation, whether at the level of feature analysis for bottom-up salience or at the level of goal-directed priority maps for output behaviour...
February 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043769/motor-unit-number-index-munix-detects-motor-neuron-loss-in-pre-symptomatic-muscles-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Christoph Neuwirth, Paul E Barkhaus, Christian Burkhardt, José Castro, David Czell, Mamede de Carvalho, Sanjeev Nandedkar, Erik Stålberg, Markus Weber
OBJECTIVE: Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) is a quantitative neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons supplying a muscle. It reflects the loss of motor neurons in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). However, it is unclear whether MUNIX also detects motor unit loss in strong, non-wasted muscles. METHODS: Three centres measured MUNIX in 49 ALS patients every three months in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, biceps brachii, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum brevis, abductor hallucis) on the less affected side...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031039/attention-training-for-infants-at-familial-risk-of-adhd-interstaars-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Amy Goodwin, Simona Salomone, Patrick Bolton, Tony Charman, Emily J H Jones, Andrew Pickles, Emily Robinson, Tim Smith, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Sam Wass, Mark H Johnson
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that can negatively impact on an individual's quality of life. It is pathophysiologically complex and heterogeneous with different neuropsychological processes being impaired in different individuals. Executive function deficits, including those affecting attention, working memory and inhibitory control, are common. Cognitive training has been promoted as a treatment option, based on the notion that by strengthening the neurocognitive networks underlying these executive processes, ADHD symptoms will also be reduced...
December 28, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028801/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-basic-principles-and-clinical-applications-in-migraine
#12
Anthony T Barker, Kevin Shields
PURPOSE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurophysiological technique with a long established pedigree of safety, tolerability, and efficacy. Initially TMS was used to study the function of the cerebral cortex, but it has now become a treatment for migraine, one of the most common and debilitating neurological conditions. In this review we discuss the scientific background and development of the technique. We explore its application for the treatment of migraine and ponder the possible mechanisms of action in this most common neurological condition...
December 28, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027954/simulating-social-interactions-for-the-experimental-investigation-of-joint-attention
#13
REVIEW
Nathan Caruana, Genevieve McArthur, Alexandra Woolgar, Jon Brock
Social interactions are, by their nature, dynamic and reciprocal - your behaviour affects my behaviour, which affects your behaviour in return. However, until recently, the field of social cognitive neuroscience has been dominated by paradigms in which participants passively observe social stimuli from a detached "third person" perspective. Here we consider the unique conceptual and methodological challenges involved in adopting a "second person" approach whereby social cognitive mechanisms and their neural correlates are investigated within social interactions (Schilbach et al...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025488/toxicity-and-physiological-actions-of-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitors-to-aedes-aegypti-and-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Sheena A M Francis, Jennina Taylor-Wells, Aaron D Gross, Jeffrey R Bloomquist
The physiological role of carbonic anhydrases in pH and ion regulation is crucial to insect survival. We examined the toxic and neurophysiological effects of five carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) against Aedes aegypti. The 24 h larvicidal toxicities followed this rank order of potency: dichlorphenamide > methazolamide > acetazolamide = brinzolamide = dorzolamide. Larvicidal activity increased modestly in longer exposures, and affected larvae showed attenuated responses to probing without overt tremors, hyperexcitation, or convulsions...
December 22, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025015/developmental-trajectories-of-event-related-potentials-related-to-working-memory
#15
Catarina I Barriga-Paulino, Elena I Rodríguez-Martínez, Antonio Arjona, Manuel Morales, Carlos M Gómez
Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS)...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017922/noise-and-non-neuronal-contributions-to-the-bold-signal-applications-to-and-insights-from-animal-studies
#16
Shella D Keilholz, Wen-Ju Pan, Jacob Billings, Maysam Nezafati, Sadia Shakil
The BOLD signal reflects hemodynamic events within the brain, which in turn are driven by metabolic changes and neural activity. However, the link between BOLD changes and neural activity is indirect and can be influenced by a number of non-neuronal processes. Motion and physiological cycles have long been known to affect the BOLD signal and are present in both humans and animal models. Differences in physiological baseline can also contribute to intra- and inter-subject variability. The use of anesthesia, common in animal studies, alters neural activity, vascular tone, and neurovascular coupling...
December 22, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011082/-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-review-of-the-current-guidelines
#17
E Saliba, T Debillon, S Auvin, O Baud, V Biran, J-L Chabernaud, S Chabrier, F Cneude, A-G Cordier, V Darmency-Stamboul, J-F Diependaele, T Debillon, M Dinomais, C Durand, A Ego, G Favrais, Y Gruel, L Hertz-Pannier, B Husson, S Marret, S N'Guyen The Tich, T Perez, E Saliba, J-B Valentin, C Vuillerot
Neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is a rare event that occurs in approximately one in 5000 term or close-to-term infants. Most affected infants will present with seizures. Although a well-recognized clinical entity, many questions remain regarding diagnosis, risk factors, treatment, and follow-up modalities. In the absence of a known pathophysiological mechanism and lack of evidence-based guidelines, only supportive care is currently provided. To address these issues, a French national committee set up by the French Neonatal Society (Société française de néonatologie) and the national referral center (Centre national de référence) for arterial ischemic stroke in children drew up guidelines based on an HAS (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]; French national authority for health) methodology...
December 20, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009677/effectiveness-of-temporary-deafferentation-of-the-arm-on-somatosensory-and-motor-functions-following-stroke-a-systematic-review
#18
Emmanuelle Opsommer, Camille Zwissig, Natalya Korogod, Thomas Weiss
BACKGROUND: After stroke, regaining functional use of the upper limb can be challenging. Temporary deafferentation (TD) is a novel approach used in neurorehabilitation to voluntarily reduce the somatosensory input in a body part by temporary anesthesia; which has been shown to improve sensorimotor functions in the affected limb. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this systematic review was to present the best available evidence related to the effects of TD of the affected arm on the recovery of motor function and activity of the upper limb (arm and hand) following stroke...
December 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008690/heavy-alcohol-use-in-adolescence-is-associated-with-altered-cortical-activity-a-combined-tms-eeg-study
#19
Outi Kaarre, Elisa Kallioniemi, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Noora Heikkinen, Florinda Ferreri, Eila Laukkanen, Sara Määttä
Long-term alcohol use affects cognitive and neurophysiological functioning as well as structural brain development. Combining simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enables direct, in vivo exploration of cortical excitability and assessment of effective and functional connectivity. In the central nervous system, the effects of alcohol are particularly mediated by alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission, and TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) N45 and N100 in EEG are known to reflect GABAergic function...
December 23, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007358/hypnic-jerks-are-an-underestimated-sleep-motor-phenomenon-in-patients-with-parkinsonism-a-video-polysomnographic-and-neurophysiological-study
#20
Giacomo Chiaro, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, Luisa Sambati, Annagrazia Cecere, Caterina Ferri, Maria Turchese Caletti, Pietro Cortelli, Federica Provini
INTRODUCTION: Hypnic jerks (HJs) are sudden contractions of one or more body segments occurring mostly at sleep onset. They are highly sporadic and affect all ages and both sexes with prevalence between 60% and 70% in the general population. STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study describes the frequency and the neurophysiological characteristics of HJs in a population of patients with parkinsonism by means of nocturnal video-polysomnographic recordings. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study and is reported following the STROBE guidelines...
October 2016: Sleep Medicine
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