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Affective neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713238/targeting-cognitive-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-road-toward-an-imaging-based-biomarker
#1
Jeroen Van Schependom, Guy Nagels
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuro-degenerative and -inflammatory disease leading to physical and cognitive impairment, pathological fatigue and depression, and affecting patients' quality of life and employment status. The combination of inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration leads to the emergence of MS lesions, reduced white and gray matter brain volumes, a reduced conduction velocity and microstructural changes in the so-called Normal Appearing White Matter (NAWM). Currently, there are very limited options to treat cognitive impairment and its origin is only poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705167/inhibition-of-parkinsonian-tremor-with-cutaneous-afferent-evoked-by-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation
#2
Man-Zhao Hao, Shao-Qin Xu, Zi-Xiang Hu, Fu-Liang Xu, Chuan-Xin M Niu, Qin Xiao, Ning Lan
BACKGROUND: Recent study suggests that tremor signals are transmitted by way of multi-synaptic corticospinal pathway. Neurophysiological studies have also demonstrated that cutaneous afferents exert potent inhibition to descending motor commands by way of spinal interneurons. We hypothesize in this study that cutaneous afferents could also affect the transmission of tremor signals, thus, inhibit tremor in patients with PD. METHODS: We tested this hypothesis by activating cutaneous afferents in the dorsal hand skin innervated by superficial radial nerve using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698388/delayed-cryptochrome-degradation-asymmetrically-alters-the-daily-rhythm-in-suprachiasmatic-clock-neuron-excitability
#3
Sven Wegner, Mino D C Belle, Alun T L Hughes, Casey O Diekman, Hugh D Piggins
Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurons contain an intracellular molecular circadian clock and the Cryptochromes (CRY1/2), key transcriptional repressors of this molecular apparatus, are subject to post-translational modification through ubiquitination and targeting for proteosomal degradation by the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Loss-of-function point mutations in a component of this ligase complex, Fbxl3, delay CRY1/2 degradation, reduce circadian rhythm strength, and lengthen the circadian period by ∼2.5h...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698187/the-stoichiometry-%C3%AE-4-3-%C3%AE-2-2-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-predominates-in-the-rat-motor-cortex
#4
Kristen E DeDominicis, Niaz Sahibzada, Thao T Olson, Yingxian Xiao, Barry B Wolfe, Kenneth J Kellar, Robert P Yasuda
The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is important in normal CNS physiology and in mediating several of the pharmacological effects of nicotine on cognition, attention, and affective states. It is also the likely receptor that mediates nicotine addiction. This receptor assembles in two distinct stoichiometries: (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2 that are referred to as high (HS) and low (LS) sensitivity nAChRs, respectively, based on a difference in the potency of acetylcholine to activate them. The physiological and pharmacological differences between these two receptor subtypes have been described in heterologous expression systems...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697903/implicit-self-other-discrimination-affects-the-interplay-between-multisensory-affordances-of-mental-representations-of-faces
#5
David Zeugin, Norhan Arfa, Michael Notter, Micah M Murray, Silvio Ionta
Face recognition is an apparently straightforward but, in fact, complex ability, encompassing the activation of at least visual and somatosensory representations. Understanding how identity shapes the interplay between these face-related affordances could clarify the mechanisms of self-other discrimination. To this aim, we exploited the so-called "face inversion effect" (FIE), a specific bias in the mental rotation of face images (of other people): with respect to inanimate objects, face images require longer time to be mentally rotated from the upside-down...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690502/serotonin-5-httlpr-genotype-modulates-reactive-visual-scanning-of-social-and-non-social-affective-stimuli-in-young-children
#6
Antonios I Christou, Yvonne Wallis, Hayley Bair, Maurice Zeegers, Joseph P McCleery
Previous studies have documented the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms as genetic variants that are involved in serotonin availability and also associated with emotion regulation and facial emotion processing. In particular, neuroimaging and behavioral studies of healthy populations have produced evidence to suggest that carriers of the Short allele exhibit heightened neurophysiological and behavioral reactivity when processing aversive stimuli, particularly in brain regions involved in fear. However, an additional distinction has emerged in the field, which highlights particular types of fearful information, i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687804/on-the-effects-of-multimodal-information-integration-in-multitasking
#7
Ann-Kathrin Stock, Krutika Gohil, René J Huster, Christian Beste
There have recently been considerable advances in our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying multitasking, but the role of multimodal integration for this faculty has remained rather unclear. We examined this issue by comparing different modality combinations in a multitasking (stop-change) paradigm. In-depth neurophysiological analyses of event-related potentials (ERPs) were conducted to complement the obtained behavioral data. Specifically, we applied signal decomposition using second order blind identification (SOBI) to the multi-subject ERP data and source localization...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679350/functional-work-breaks-in-a-high-demanding-work-environment-an-experimental-field-study
#8
André Scholz, Argang Ghadiri, Usha Singh, Johannes Wendsche, Theo Peters, Stefan Schneider
Work breaks are known to have positive effects on employees' health, performance and safety. Using a sample of twelve employees working in a stressful and cognitively demanding working environment, this experimental field study examined how different types of work breaks (boxing, deep relaxation and usual breaks) affect participants' mood, cognitive performance and neurophysiological state compared to a control condition without any break. In a repeated measures experimental design, cognitive performance was assessed using an auditory oddball test and a Movement Detection Test...
July 10, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679198/post-anoxic-status-epilepticus-which-variable-could-modify-prognosis-a-single-centre-experience
#9
Christian Lettieri, Grazia Devigili, Giada Pauletto, Miriam Isola, Sara Rinaldo, Riccardo Budai, Roberto Eleopra
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with high mortality in post-anoxic coma despite antiepileptic treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the percentage of awakening in a consecutive series of post-anoxic comatose patients with an EEG pattern consistent with SE and to verify any correlation with clinical, neurophysiological or pharmacological parameters. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data collected from seventeen patients affected by post- anoxic SE matching them with outcome scores by means of univariate statistical analysis...
July 5, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678540/pure-and-short-term-phonics-training-improves-reading-and-print-specific-erp-in-english-a-case-study-of-a-japanese-middle-school-girl
#10
Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Masumi Inagaki
Although phonics is the most frequently used approach in treating students with reading difficulties, its effects have not been fully clarified at either a behavioral or neurophysiological level. The present case study administered pure and short-term (i.e., 10 minutes per day for five weeks) phonics-training to a 13-year-old Japanese girl with severe difficulty in learning English. As a result, a drastic improvement in reading accuracy was associated with the enhancement of print-specific N170 in event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the trained words...
July 5, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671588/implications-of-neuroinvasive-bacterial-peptides-on-rodents-behaviour-and-neurotransmission
#11
Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
Neuroinvasive microbes are capable of applying their influences on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the host followed by the involvement of central nervous system (CNS) by releasing extracellular metabolites that may cause alterations in the biochemical and neurophysiological environment. Consequently synaptic, neuroendocrine, peripheral immune, neuro-immune, and behavioural responses of the host facilitate the progression of infection. The present study was designed to extrapolate the effects of crude and purified extracellular peptides of neuropathogenic bacteria on behavioural responses and neurotransmission of Sprague Dawley (SD) models...
July 2, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670264/inter-rater-reliability-of-preprocessing-eeg-data-impact-of-subjective-artifact-removal-on-associative-memory-task-erp-results
#12
Steven D Shirk, Donald G McLaren, Jessica S Bloomfield, Alex Powers, Alec Duffy, Meghan B Mitchell, Ali Ezzati, Brandon A Ally, Alireza Atri
The processing of EEG data routinely involves subjective removal of artifacts during a preprocessing stage. Preprocessing inter-rater reliability (IRR) and how differences in preprocessing may affect outcomes of primary event-related potential (ERP) analyses has not been previously assessed. Three raters independently preprocessed EEG data of 16 cognitively healthy adult participants (ages 18-39 years) who performed a memory task. Using intraclass correlations (ICCs), IRR was assessed for Early-frontal, Late-frontal, and Parietal Old/new memory effects contrasts across eight regions of interest (ROIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667296/somatosensory-lateral-inhibition-processes-modulate-motor-response-inhibition-an-eeg-source-localization-study
#13
Julia Friedrich, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste
Motor inhibitory control is a central executive function, but only recently the importance of perceptual mechanisms for these processes has been focused. It is elusive whether basic mechanisms governing sensory perception affect motor inhibitory control. We examine whether sensory lateral inhibition (LI) processes modulate motor inhibitory control using a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG signal decomposition with source localization methods in a somatosensory GO/NOGO task. The results show that inter-individual variations in the strength of LI effects predominantly affect processes when information needs to be integrated between cerebral hemispheres...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664035/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-circadian-cognitive-control-in-rls-patients-an-eeg-source-localization-study
#14
Rui Zhang, Moritz D Brandt, Wiebke Schrempf, Christian Beste, Ann-Kathrin Stock
The circadian variation of sensory and motor symptoms with increasing severity in the evening and at night is a key diagnostic feature/symptom of the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Even though many neurological diseases have shown a strong nexus between motor and cognitive symptoms, it has remained unclear whether cognitive performance of RLS patients declines in the evening and which neurophysiological mechanisms are affected by the circadian variation. In the current study, we examined daytime effects (morning vs...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660637/sensory-processes-modulate-differences-in-multi-component-behavior-and-cognitive-control-between-childhood-and-adulthood
#15
Krutika Gohil, Annet Bluschke, Veit Roessner, Ann-Kathrin Stock, Christian Beste
Many everyday tasks require executive functions to achieve a certain goal. Quite often, this requires the integration of information derived from different sensory modalities. Children are less likely to integrate information from different modalities and, at the same time, also do not command fully developed executive functions, as compared to adults. Yet still, the role of developmental age-related effects on multisensory integration processes has not been examined within the context of multicomponent behavior until now (i...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660107/optimal-timing-of-surgery-for-intramedullary-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-spinal-cord-in-relation-to-preoperative-motor-paresis-disease-duration-and-tumor-volume-and-location
#16
Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Hiroaki Nakashima, Norimitsu Wakao, Yoshihito Sakai, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. OBJECTIVE: Investigate factors associated with preoperative motor paresis, recovery, ambulatory status, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) among patients with no preoperative paresis (N group), complete preoperative motor recovery (CR group), and no complete recovery (NCR group) in patients with intramedullary spinal cavernous hemangioma to determine the optimal timing of surgery. METHODS: The study evaluated 41 surgical cases in our institute...
May 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648891/implications-of-the-vienna-integrated-model-of-art-perception-for-art-based-interventions-in-clinical-populations-comment-on-move-me-astonish-me-delight-my-eyes-and-brain-the-vienna-integrated-model-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-in-art-perception-vimap
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645699/the-forgotten-artist-why-to-consider-intentions-and-interaction-in-a-model-of-aesthetic-experience-comment-on-move-me-astonish-me-delight-my-eyes-and-brain-the-vienna-integrated-model-of-top-down-and-bottom-up-processes-in-art-perception-vimap-and-corresponding
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642548/hemodynamics-of-speech-production-an-fnirs-investigation-of-children-who-stutter
#19
B Walsh, F Tian, J A Tourville, M A Yücel, T Kuczek, A J Bostian
Stuttering affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide and often has life-altering negative consequences, including poorer mental health and emotional well-being, and reduced educational and employment achievements. Over two decades of neuroimaging research reveals clear anatomical and physiological differences in the speech neural networks of adults who stutter. However, there have been few neurophysiological investigations of speech production in children who stutter. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we examined hemodynamic responses over neural regions integral to fluent speech production including inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and superior temporal gyrus during a picture description task...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624433/the-highs-and-lows-of-the-human-brain-on-dopaminergics-evidence-from-neuropharmacology
#20
REVIEW
Daniel Martins, Mitul A Mehta, Diana Prata
Rewards are appetitive events that elicit approach. Ground-breaking findings from neurophysiological experiments in animals, alongside neuropharmacology and neuroimaging research in human samples have identified dopamine as the main neurochemical messenger of global reward processing in the brain. However, dopamine's contribution to the different components of reward processing remains to be precisely defined. To facilitate the informed design and interpretation of reward studies in humans, we have systematically reviewed all existing human pharmacological studies investigating how drug manipulation of the dopamine system affects reward-related behaviour and its neural correlates...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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