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Affective neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-for-ptsd-addiction-and-disorders-of-affective-facial-interpretation-review-and-discussion-of-potential-biomarkers-and-stimulation-paradigms
#1
REVIEW
Robert W Bina, Jean-Phillipe Langevin
The treatment of psychiatric diseases with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is becoming more of a reality as studies proliferate the indications and targets for therapies. Opinions on the initial failures of DBS trials for some psychiatric diseases point to a certain lack of finesse in using an Open Loop DBS (OLDBS) system in these dynamic, cyclical pathologies. OLDBS delivers monomorphic input into dysfunctional brain circuits with modulation of that input via human interface at discrete time points with no interim modulation or adaptation to the changing circuit dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780227/neurophysiologic-tests-screening-cognitive-impairment-in-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-patients
#2
Iman A Elbanhawy, Gihan M Ramzy, Mye A Basheer, Diana M Khedr
Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder with increased intracranial pressure of obscure cause. Patients with IIH may suffer from difficulty in thinking or concentrating. This work aimed at highlighting the neurophysiologic suggestions of cognitive impairment in IIH patients. Methods: Twenty patients with IIH-and a similar number of matched control subjects-were examined in this case-control study. The P300 and contingent negative variation (CNV) were performed...
2018: Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779733/reflections-on-music-affect-and-sociality
#3
Matthew Sachs, Assal Habibi, Hanna Damasio
Music is an important facet of and practice in human cultures, significantly related to its capacity to induce a range of intense and complex emotions. Studying the psychological and neurophysiological responses to music allows us to examine and uncover the neural mechanisms underlying the emotional impact of music. We provide an overview of different aspects of current research on how music listening produces emotions and the corresponding feelings, and consider the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774303/myotonia-permanens-with-nav1-4-g1306e-displays-varied-phenotypes-during-course-of-life
#4
Frank Lehmann-Horn, Adele D'Amico, Enrico Bertini, Mauro Lomonaco, Luciano Merlini, Kevin R Nelson, Heike Philippi, Gabriele Siciliano, Frank Spaans, Karin Jurkat-Rott
Introduction: Myotonia permanens due to Nav1.4-G1306E is a rare sodium channelopathy with potentially life-threatening respiratory complications. Our goal was to study phenotypic variability throughout life. Methods: Clinical neurophysiology and genetic analysis were performed. Using existing functional expression data we determined the sodium window by integration. Results: In 10 unrelated patients who were believed to have epilepsy, respiratory disease or Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, we made the same prima facie diagnosis and detected the same heterologous Nav1...
September 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764274/delayed-transmastoid-facial-nerve-decompression-surgery-in-patients-with-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-presenting-with-neurophysiologically-complete-paralysis
#5
Yoshihiko Kumai, Momoko Ise, Satoru Miyamaru, Yorihisa Orita
OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of delayed transmastoid facial nerve decompression in patients with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) presenting with complete facial paralysis. METHODS: Twenty-five RHS patients with complete facial nerve paralysis presenting electroneuronographic (ENoG) degeneration ≥90% underwent transmastoid facial nerve decompression more than 3 weeks after the onset of paralysis. The principal features measured were 12 months pre- and post-operative House-Brackmann (HB) grades and the presence of a direct intraoperative neural response (INR) prior to decompression procedure...
May 15, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755928/the-effects-of-social-support-on-strenuous-physical-exercise
#6
Arran Davis, Emma Cohen
In humans, socio-environmental cues play an important role in determining adaptive psychophysiological states and behaviours. In sport and exercise, cues to cohesive groups and close, supportive relationships are ubiquitous, possibly because of their effects on neurobiological mechanisms underlying physical performance. Clinical research has shown that the presence of supportive others can lead to reductions in perceptions of pain, while research from sport and exercise science has shown that pain and physical fatigue occupy ranges on a single spectrum of physical discomfort, which works to regulate outputs during strenuous physical exertion...
2018: Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753078/isolated-pediatric-intramedullary-schwannoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Alessandro Landi, Giovanni Grasso, Fabrizio Gregori, Giorgia Iacopino, Andrea Ruggeri, Roberto Delfini
BACKGROUND: Intramedullary (IM) schwannomas are rare entities representing the 0.3-1% of intramedullary tumors and 1.1% of spinal schwannomas. Beside many theories proposed, their rare occurrence might be related to the absence of Schwann cells into the spinal cord. Pediatric IM schwannomas are uncommon and in absence of neurofibromatosis (NF) they are extremely rare. To date, very few cases have been reported in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the case of a 8 year-old female affected by a progressive paraparesis...
May 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752486/effects-of-speed-and-direction-of-perturbation-on-electroencephalographic-and-balance-responses
#8
Rahul Goel, Recep A Ozdemir, Sho Nakagome, Jose L Contreras-Vidal, William H Paloski, Pranav J Parikh
The modulation of perturbation-evoked potential (PEP) N1 as a function of different biomechanical characteristics of perturbation has been investigated before. However, it remains unknown whether the PEP N1 modulation contributes to the shaping of the functional postural response. To improve this understanding, we examined the modulation of functional postural response in relation to the PEP N1 response in ten healthy young subjects during unpredictable perturbations to their upright stance-translations of the support surface in a forward or backward direction at two different amplitudes of constant speed...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747614/there-is-more-to-mental-illness-than-negative-affect-comprehensive-temperament-profiles-in-depression-and-generalized-anxiety
#9
Irina Trofimova, William Sulis
BACKGROUND: Temperament and mental illness are thought to represent varying degrees along the same continuum of neurotransmitter imbalances. A taxonomy of temperament could provide the basis for a new taxonomy of mental illness. Most popular models of temperament, being based heavily on emotionality traits, show very poor ability to discriminate between mental disorders. The main goal of this study was to examine whether a temperament model based on modern neurophysiology and possessing an extensive set of non-emotionality traits provides better discrimination between Major Depression (MD), Generalized Anxiety (GAD) and Comorbid MD and GAD, in comparison to emotionality-based temperament models...
May 10, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740290/goal-achievement-failure-drives-corticospinal-modulation-in-promotion-and-prevention-contexts
#10
Emanuele Lo Gerfo, Alberto Pisoni, Stefania Ottone, Ferruccio Ponzano, Luca Zarri, Alessandra Vergallito, Erica Varoli, Davide Fedeli, Leonor J Romero Lauro
When making decisions, people are typically differently sensitive to gains and losses according to the motivational context in which the choice is performed. As hypothesized by Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT), indeed, goals are supposed to change in relation to the set of possible outcomes. In particular, in a promotion context, the goal is achieving the maximal gain, whereas in a prevention context it turns into avoiding the greatest loss. We explored the neurophysiological counterpart of this phenomenon, by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and recording the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in participants taking part in an economic game, in which they observed actions conveying different goal attainment levels, framed in different motivational contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740037/negative-association-between-resilience-and-event-related-potentials-evoked-by-negative-emotion
#11
Dan Chen, Jianhui Wu, Zhuxi Yao, Kaikai Lei, Yuejia Luo, Zhihao Li
Individuals with low level of resilience are documented to be less capable of regulating negative emotion. To investigate the underlying neurophysiology, the present study examined the relationship between resilience and the late positive potential (LPP) evoked by emotionally negative pictures. Fifty-four participants watched negative and neutral pictures passively while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded to assess LPP. Participants also completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) for assessment of their resilience levels...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737034/distress-intolerance-moderation-of-motivated-attention-to-cannabis-and-negative-stimuli-after-induced-stress-among-cannabis-users-an-erp-study
#12
Richard J Macatee, Sarah A Okey, Brian J Albanese, Norman B Schmidt, Jesse R Cougle
Prevalence of cannabis use is increasing, but many regular users do not develop cannabis use disorder (CUD); thus, CUD risk identification among current users is vital for targeted intervention development. Existing data suggest that high distress intolerance (DI), an individual difference reflective of the ability to tolerate negative affect, may be linked to CUD, but no studies have tested possible neurophysiological mechanisms. Increased motivated attentional processing of cannabis and negative emotional stimuli as indexed by neurophysiology [i...
May 7, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731705/the-temptation-of-zero-price-event-related-potentials-evidence-of-how-price-framing-influences-the-purchase-of-bundles
#13
Haiying Ma, Zan Mo, Huijun Zhang, Cuicui Wang, Huijian Fu
Studies have revealed that consumers are susceptible to price framing effect, a common cognitive bias, due to their limited capacity in processing information. The effect of price framing in a bundling context and its neural correlates, however, remain not clearly characterized. The present study applied the event-related potentials (ERPs) approach to investigate the role of price framing in information processing and purchase decision making in a bundling context. Three price frames were created with practically identical total prices (with a maximum difference of ¥0...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729683/effects-of-repeated-concussions-and-sex-on-early-processing-of-emotional-facial-expressions-as-revealed-by-electrophysiology
#14
Frédérike Carrier-Toutant, Samuel Guay, Christelle Beaulieu, Édith Léveillé, Alexandre Turcotte-Giroux, Samaël D Papineau, Benoit Brisson, Fabien D'Hondt, Louis De Beaumont
OBJECTIVES: Concussions affect the processing of emotional stimuli. This study aimed to investigate how sex interacts with concussion effects on early event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures (P1, N1) of emotional facial expressions (EFE) processing in asymptomatic, multi-concussion athletes during an EFE identification task. METHODS: Forty control athletes (20 females and 20 males) and 43 multi-concussed athletes (22 females and 21 males), recruited more than 3 months after their last concussion, were tested...
May 6, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729595/decrease-of-motor-cortex-excitability-following-exposure-to-a-20-hz-magnetic-field-as-generated-by-a-rotating-permanent-magnet
#15
Eugen Gallasch, Dietmar Rafolt, Magdalena Postruznik, Shane Fresnoza, Monica Christova
OBJECTIVES: Rotation of a static magnet over the motor cortex (MC) generates a transcranial alternating magnetic field (tAMF), and a linked alternating electrical field. The aim of this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study is to investigate whether such fields are able to influence MC excitability, and whether there are parallels to tACS induced effects. METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers received 20 Hz tAMF stimulation over the MC, over the vertex, and 20 Hz tACS over the MC, each with a duration of 15 min...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695280/shaping-neuroplasticity-by-using-powered-exoskeletons-in-patients-with-stroke-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Margherita Russo, Placido Bramanti, Luigi Carioti, Tina Balletta, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Serena Filoni, Alessia Bramanti
BACKGROUND: The use of neurorobotic devices may improve gait recovery by entraining specific brain plasticity mechanisms, which may be a key issue for successful rehabilitation using such approach. We assessed whether the wearable exoskeleton, Ekso™, could get higher gait performance than conventional overground gait training (OGT) in patients with hemiparesis due to stroke in a chronic phase, and foster the recovery of specific brain plasticity mechanisms. METHODS: We enrolled forty patients in a prospective, pre-post, randomized clinical study...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693214/transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tvns-enhances-conflict-triggered-adjustment-of-cognitive-control
#17
Rico Fischer, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Alfons Hamm, Mathias Weymar
Response conflicts play a prominent role in the flexible adaptation of behavior as they represent context-signals that indicate the necessity for the recruitment of cognitive control. Previous studies have highlighted the functional roles of the affectively aversive and arousing quality of the conflict signal in triggering the adaptation process. To further test this potential link with arousal, participants performed a response conflict task in two separate sessions with either transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), which is assumed to activate the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NE) system, or with neutral sham stimulation...
April 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686384/on-the-role-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-fatigue-effects-on-cognitive-flexibility-a-system-neurophysiological-approach
#18
Vanessa A Petruo, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste
Demanding tasks like cognitive flexibility show time-related deterioration of performance (i.e. fatigability effects). Fatigability has been associated with structural and functional properties of the prefrontal cortex. However, the electrophysiological underpinnings of these processes are not well understood. We examined n = 34 healthy participants with a task switching paradigm in which switches were either signaled by cues or needed to be maintained by working memory processes. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and performed residue iteration decomposition (RIDE) to account for effects of fatigue on intra-individual variability of neurophysiological data...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681532/a-missense-variant-at-the-nrxn3-locus-enhances-empathy-fear-in-the-mouse
#19
Sehoon Keum, Arie Kim, Jae Jin Shin, Jong-Hyun Kim, Joomin Park, Hee-Sup Shin
Empathy is crucial for our emotional experience and social interactions, and its abnormalities manifest in various psychiatric disorders. Observational fear is a useful behavioral paradigm for assessing affective empathy in rodents. However, specific genes that regulate observational fear remain unknown. Here we showed that 129S1/SvImJ mice carrying a unique missense variant in neurexin 3 (Nrxn3) exhibited a profound and selective enhancement in observational fear. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, the arginine-to-tryptophan (R498W) change in Nrxn3 was confirmed to be the causative variant...
April 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680709/parkinson-s-disease-like-burst-firing-activity-in-subthalamic-nucleus-induced-by-aav-%C3%AE-synuclein-is-normalized-by-lrrk2-modulation
#20
Michael Aagaard Andersen, Kenneth Vielsted Christensen, Lassina Badolo, Garrick Paul Smith, Ross Jeggo, Poul Henning Jensen, Kathrine Just Andersen, Florence Sotty
Parkinson's disease (PD) affects motor function through degenerative processes and synaptic transmission impairments in the basal ganglia. None of the treatments available delays or stops the progression of the disease. While α-synuclein pathological accumulation represents a hallmark of the disease in its idiopathic form, leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is genetically associated with familial and sporadic forms of PD. The genetic information suggests that LRRK2 kinase activity plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease...
April 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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