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Affective neurophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213447/the-drosophila-postsynaptic-deg-enac-channel-ppk29-contributes-to-excitatory-neurotransmission
#1
Alexis Hill, Xingguo Zheng, Xiling Li, Ross McKinney, Dion Dickman, Yehuda Ben-Shahar
The protein family of Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channels (DEG/ENaC) is comprised of diverse animal-specific, non-voltage-gated ion channels that play important roles in regulating cationic gradients across epithelial barriers. Some family members are also enriched in neural tissues in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the specific neurophysiological functions of most DEG/ENaC-encoding genes remain poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for deciphering the functions of DEG/ENaC genes because its genome encodes an exceptionally large number of DEG/ENaC subunits termed pickpocket (ppk) 1-31 Here we demonstrate that ppk29 contributes specifically to the postsynaptic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209926/characterization-of-the-influence-of-age-on-gabaa-and-glutamatergic-mediated-functions-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-using-paired-pulse-tms-eeg
#2
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Mera S Barr, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions in the prefrontal cortex decreases with age. Further, cognitive function mediated through the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) also declines with age. Although neuroimaging studies have demonstrated decreased levels of these substances, direct neurophysiological data investigating the effect of aging in the DLPFC in human subjects is lacking. The advent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) has allowed for the assessment of functional neurotransmission in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206797/social-information-influences-emotional-experience-and-late-positive-potential-response-to-affective-pictures
#3
Emily C Willroth, Leonie Koban, Matthew R Hilimire
Emotion experience and regulation frequently occur in social settings. Social influence is a common source of unconscious change in judgment in many contexts, but it has yet to be investigated as a form of automatic emotion regulation. Here, we demonstrate that nonpredictive social information (i.e., high or low "emotion intensity ratings from other people" that were not related to the actual intensity of the pictures) about the intensity of pleasant and unpleasant picture stimuli can influence self-reported emotional experience and the magnitude of the late positive potential, an event-related potential associated with the detection of emotional salience and sustained attention to motivationally significant stimulus features...
February 16, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176937/an-integrated-perspective-on-diabetic-alcoholic-and-drug-induced-neuropathy-etiology-and-treatment-in-the-us
#4
REVIEW
Lily Zeng, Doungkamol Alongkronrusmee, Richard M van Rijn
Neuropathic pain (NeuP) is a syndrome that results from damaged nerves and/or aberrant regeneration. Common etiologies of neuropathy include chronic illnesses and medication use. Chronic disorders, such as diabetes and alcoholism, can cause neuronal injury and consequently NeuP. Certain medications with antineoplastic effects also carry an exquisitely high risk for neuropathy. These culprits are a few of many that are fueling the NeuP epidemic, which currently affects 7%-10% of the population. It has been estimated that approximately 10% and 7% of US adults carry a diagnosis of diabetes and alcohol disorder, respectively...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168888/cutaneous-sensibility-changes-in-bell-s-palsy-patients
#5
Carlos Andrés Cárdenas Palacio, Francisco Alejandro Múnera Galarza
Objective Bell's palsy is a cranial nerve VII dysfunction that renders the patient unable to control facial muscles from the affected side. Nevertheless, some patients have reported cutaneous changes in the paretic area. Therefore, cutaneous sensibility changes might be possible additional symptoms within the clinical presentation of this disorder. Accordingly, the aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between cutaneous sensibility and facial paralysis severity in these patients. Study Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study...
February 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165363/effect-of-experimental-hand-pain-on-training-induced-changes-in-motor-performance-and-corticospinal-excitability
#6
Nicolas Mavromatis, Cécilia Neige, Martin Gagné, Karen T Reilly, Catherine Mercier
Pain influences plasticity within the sensorimotor system and the aim of this study was to assess the effect of pain on changes in motor performance and corticospinal excitability during training for a novel motor task. A total of 30 subjects were allocated to one of two groups (Pain, NoPain) and performed ten training blocks of a visually-guided isometric pinch task. Each block consisted of 15 force sequences, and subjects modulated the force applied to a transducer in order to reach one of five target forces...
February 4, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164736/strength-of-20-hz-rebound-and-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#7
Eeva Parkkonen, Kristina Laaksonen, Harri Piitulainen, Johanna Pekkola, Lauri Parkkonen, Turgut Tatlisumak, Nina Forss
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of disability worldwide, and effective rehabilitation is crucial to regain skills for independent living. Recently, novel therapeutic approaches manipulating the excitatory-inhibitory balance of the motor cortex have been introduced to boost recovery after stroke. However, stroke-induced neurophysiological changes of the motor cortex may vary despite of similar clinical symptoms. Therefore, better understanding of excitability changes after stroke is essential when developing and targeting novel therapeutic approaches...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160751/pain-perception-in-patients-with-chronic-disorders-of-consciousness-what-can-limbic-system-tell-us
#8
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Alfredo Manuli, Antonino Leo, Rosaria De Luca, Viviana Lo Buono, Margherita Russo, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti
OBJECTIVE: Although it is believed that patients with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) do not feel pain, recent neuroimaging and neurophysiologic studies have demonstrated some residual traces of nociceptive processing. METHODS: To confirm this growing evidence, we evaluated 21 patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC) (both UWS, n=11, and Minimally Conscious State - MCS -, n=10), using an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Low-Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) approach, based on nociceptive repeated laser stimulation (RLS)...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142128/the-clinical-phenotype-of-autosomal-dominant-lateral-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-related-to-reelin-mutations
#9
Roberto Michelucci, Patrizia Pulitano, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Simona Binelli, Concetta Luisi, Elena Pasini, Salvatore Striano, Pasquale Striano, Giangennaro Coppola, Angela La Neve, Anna Teresa Giallonardo, Oriano Mecarelli, Elena Serioli, Emanuela Dazzo, Manuela Fanciulli, Carlo Nobile
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical phenotype of 7 families with Autosomal Dominant Lateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (ADLTE) related to Reelin (RELN) mutations comparing the data with those observed in 12 LGI1-mutated pedigrees belonging to our series. METHODS: Out of 40 Italian families with ADLTE, collected by epileptologists participating in a collaborative study of the Commission for Genetics of the Italian League against Epilepsy encompassing a 14-year period (2000-2014), 7 (17...
January 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132610/upper-limb-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Jens A Petersen, Martina Spiess, Armin Curt, Norbert Weidner, Rüdiger Rupp, Rainer Abel, Martin Schubert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The course of central and peripheral motor recovery after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) may be investigated by electrophysiological measures. The goal of this study was to compare the 2 over the first year after injury in relation to motor gains. METHODS: Compound motor action potentials (CMAPs), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and F-waves were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi and CMAP and F-waves from abductor hallucis muscles in 305 patients at about 15 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months following an acute traumatic SCI...
January 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123007/modulation-of-motor-cortex-inhibition-during-motor-imagery
#11
Benjamin W X Chong, Cathy M Stinear
Motor imagery (MI) is similar to overt movement, engaging common neural substrates and facilitating the corticomotor pathway, however it does not result in excitatory descending motor output. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to assess inhibitory networks in the primary motor cortex via measures of 1 ms short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and late cortical disinhibition (LCD). These measures are thought to reflect extrasynaptic GABAA tonic inhibition, postsynaptic GABAB inhibition and presynaptic GABAB disinhibition respectively...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120238/neurophysiological-mechanisms-underpinning-stretch-induced-force-loss
#12
REVIEW
Gabriel S Trajano, Kazunori Nosaka, Anthony J Blazevich
It is well known that prolonged passive muscle stretch reduces maximal muscle force production. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that adaptations occurring within the nervous system play a major role in this stretch-induced force reduction. This article reviews the existing literature, and some new evidence, regarding acute neurophysiological changes in response to passive muscle stretching. We discuss the possible contribution of supra-spinal and spinal structures to the force reduction after passive muscle stretch...
January 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117135/sleep-regulation-physiology-and-development-sleep-duration-and-patterns-and-sleep-hygiene-in-infants-toddlers-and-preschool-age-children
#13
Eleanor Bathory, Suzy Tomopoulos
Sleep problems are common, reported by a quarter of parents with children under the age of 5 years, and have been associated with poor behavior, worse school performance, and obesity, in addition to negative secondary effects on maternal and family well-being. Yet, it has been shown that pediatricians do not adequately address sleep in routine well-child visits, and underdiagnose sleep issues. Pediatricians receive little formal training in medical school or in residency regarding sleep medicine. An understanding of the physiology of sleep is critical to a pediatrician׳s ability to effectively and confidently counsel patients about sleep...
January 20, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114491/aging-alters-intraocular-but-not-interocular-foveal-center-surround-contrast-suppression
#14
Kabilan Pitchaimuthu, Bao N Nguyen, Allison M McKendrick
Numerous previous studies have shown that healthy aging results in increased foveal center surround contrast suppression when the center and surround patterns are presented to both eyes. The mechanistic cause of this observation is not well established. Neurophysiological and psychophysical studies have shown that different mechanisms of parafoveal center surround suppression can be tapped by manipulating viewing conditions to present the center and surround to the same eye (intraocular viewing) or to different eyes (interocular viewing), or by manipulating stimulus parameters such as duration...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108369/jaburetox-affects-gene-expression-and-enzyme-activities-in-rhodnius-prolixus-a-chagas-disease-vector
#15
Leonardo L Fruttero, Natalia R Moyetta, Monique Siebra Krug, Valquiria Broll, Matheus V Coste Grahl, Rafael Real-Guerra, Fernanda Stanisçuaski, Celia R Carlini
Jaburetox, a recombinant peptide of ∼11kDa derived from one of the Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) urease isoforms, is toxic and lethal to insects belonging to different orders when administered orally or via injection. Previous findings indicated that Jaburetox acts on insects in a complex fashion, inhibiting diuresis and the transmembrane potential of Malpighian tubules, interfering with muscle contractility and affecting the immune system. In vitro, Jaburetox forms ionic channels and alters permeability of artificial lipid membranes...
January 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095964/f-wave-duration-parameters-as-a-specific-and-sensitive-tool-for-diagnosis-of-restless-legs-syndrome
#16
Patrizia Congiu, Maria Livia Fantini, Giulia Milioli, Paolo Tacconi, Michela Figorilli, Gioia Gioi, Bruno Pereira, Francesco Marrosu, Liborio Parrino, Monica Puligheddu
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Restless legs syndrome, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), is a frequent condition, though its pathophysiology is not completely understood. The diagnosis of RLS/WED relies on clinical criteria, and the only instrumental tool, the suggested immobilization test, may lead to equivocal results. Recently, neurophysiological parameters related to F-wave duration have been proposed as a diagnostic aid. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the diagnostic values of these parameters in diagnosis of RLS/WED...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089759/using-pupil-size-and-heart-rate-to-infer-affective-states-during-behavioral-neurophysiology-and-neuropsychology-experiments
#17
Andrew R Mitz, Ravi V Chacko, Philip T Putnam, Peter H Rudebeck, Elisabeth A Murray
BACKGROUND: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. NEW METHOD: We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088484/optimal-trajectories-of-brain-state-transitions
#18
Shi Gu, Richard F Betzel, Marcelo G Mattar, Matthew Cieslak, Philip R Delio, Scott T Grafton, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
The complexity of neural dynamics stems in part from the complexity of the underlying anatomy. Yet how white matter structure constrains how the brain transitions from one cognitive state to another remains unknown. Here we address this question by drawing on recent advances in network control theory to model the underlying mechanisms of brain state transitions as elicited by the collective control of region sets. We find that previously identified attention and executive control systems are poised to affect a broad array of state transitions that cannot easily be classified by traditional engineering-based notions of control...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077329/body-schema-plasticity-after-stroke-subjective-and-neurophysiological-correlates-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#20
Roberto Llorens, Adrián Borrego, Priscila Palomo, Ausiàs Cebolla, Enrique Noé, Sergi Bermúdez I Badia, Rosa Baños
Stroke can lead to motor impairments that can affect the body structure and restraint mobility. We hypothesize that brain lesions and their motor sequelae can distort the body schema, a sensorimotor map of body parts and elements in the peripersonal space through which human beings embody the reachable space and ready the body for forthcoming movements. Two main constructs have been identified in the embodiment mechanism: body-ownership, the sense that the body that one inhabits is his/her own, and agency, the sense that one can move and control his/her body...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
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