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Cytoarchitectonic cortex review

Kevin S Weiner, Karl Zilles
The fusiform gyrus (FG) is commonly included in anatomical atlases and is considered a key structure for functionally-specialized computations of high-level vision such as face perception, object recognition, and reading. However, it is not widely known that the FG has a contentious history. In this review, we first provide a historical analysis of the discovery of the FG and why certain features, such as the mid-fusiform sulcus, were discovered and then forgotten. We then discuss how observer-independent methods for identifying cytoarchitectonical boundaries of the cortex revolutionized our understanding of cytoarchitecture and the correspondence between those boundaries and cortical folding patterns of the FG...
March 2016: Neuropsychologia
D Schubert, G J M Martens, S M Kolk
The prefrontal cortex (PFC), seat of the highest-order cognitive functions, constitutes a conglomerate of highly specialized brain areas and has been implicated to have a role in the onset and installation of various neurodevelopmental disorders. The development of a properly functioning PFC is directed by transcription factors, guidance cues and other regulatory molecules and requires the intricate and temporal orchestration of a number of developmental processes. Disturbance or failure of any of these processes causing neurodevelopmental abnormalities within the PFC may contribute to several of the cognitive deficits seen in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders...
July 2015: Molecular Psychiatry
Rudolf Nieuwenhuys, Cees A J Broere, Leonardo Cerliani
The human cerebral cortex contains numerous myelinated fibres, the arrangement and density of which is by no means homogeneous throughout the cortex. Local differences in the spatial organization of these fibres render it possible to recognize areas with a different myeloarchitecture. The neuroanatomical subdiscipline aimed at the identification and delineation of such areas is known as myeloarchitectonics. During the period extending from 1910 to 1970, Oscar and Cécile Vogt and their numerous collaborators (The Vogt-Vogt school) published a large number of myeloarchitectonic studies on the cortex of the various lobes of the human cerebrum...
September 2015: Brain Structure & Function
(no author information available yet)
The investigation has the aim to compare reactions of phylogenetically different parts of the brain cortex to single and fractionated irradiation by 1 Gy. The focus is primarily laid on unveiling the morphological stage of radiation-induced changes in the cortex. A hundred of 100 nubilous male rats with the body mass of 200-230 g were subject to whole-body uniform single and fractionated gamma-irradiation (total dose absorption over 5 days) with MeV spectrum 1.2 at 1 Gy (dose rate--50 cGy/h). Sampling of cortex motoria secundaria, cortex prelimbicus, hippocampus fields CA1-CA4, dentate fascia and cortex piriformis was conducted in a day, 6, 12 and 18 months after exposure...
September 2013: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
Matthew A J Apps, Patricia L Lockwood, Joshua H Balsters
A plethora of research has implicated the cingulate cortex in the processing of social information (i.e., processing elicited by, about, and directed toward others) and reward-related information that guides decision-making. However, it is often overlooked that there is variability in the cytoarchitectonic properties and anatomical connections across the cingulate cortex, which is indicative of functional variability. Here we review evidence from lesion, single-unit recording and functional imaging studies...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Henri J J M Van De Werd, Harry B M Uylings
This study compares the cytoarchitectonic parcellation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the mouse as presented in publications that are commonly used for identifying brain areas. Agreement was found to be greater for boundaries in the medial PFC than in the lateral PFC and lowest for those in the orbital areas of the PFC. In this review, we explain and illustrate in a selected series of photographs and stereotactic pictures the differences in location and terminology of the different prefrontal cortical areas...
March 2014: Brain Structure & Function
Sabine Frank, Stephanie Kullmann, Ralf Veit
The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex. In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ricardo Insausti
The temporal pole is unique to nonhuman and human primates, although other species also present temporal cortex. A clear distinction is made between the gross anatomical, macroscopic temporal pole, located at the tip of the temporal lobe, and the temporal polar cortex, which is a general term that encompasses all reported divisions and can be applied to both nonhuman and human primates. In the 19th century early neuroanatomists identified the temporal polar cortex as a different entity, independent from the remainder of the temporal lobe...
December 15, 2013: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Manuel A Castro-Alamancos
The neocortex or six layer cortex consists of at least 52 cytoarchitectonically distinct areas in humans, and similar areas can be distinguished in rodents. Each of these areas has a defining set of extrinsic connections, identifiable functional roles, a distinct laminar arrangement, etc. Thus, neocortex is extensively subdivided into areas of anatomical and functional specialization, but less is known about the specialization of cellular and network physiology across areas. The motor cortex appears to have a distinct propensity to oscillate in the 7-14 Hz frequency range...
2013: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Tilmann A Klein, Markus Ullsperger, Claudia Danielmeier
Becoming aware of errors that one has committed might be crucial for strategic behavioral and neuronal adjustments to avoid similar errors in the future. This review addresses conscious error perception ("error awareness") in healthy subjects as well as the relationship between error awareness and neurological and psychiatric diseases. We first discuss the main findings on error awareness in healthy subjects. A brain region, that appears consistently involved in error awareness processes, is the insula, which also provides a link to the clinical conditions reviewed here...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rudolf Nieuwenhuys
The human cerebral cortex contains numerous myelinated fibres, many of which are concentrated in tangentially organized layers and radially oriented bundles. The spatial organization of these fibres is by no means homogeneous throughout the cortex. Local differences in the thickness and compactness of the fibre layers, and in the length and strength of the radial bundles renders it possible to recognize areas with a different myeloarchitecture. The neuroanatomical subdiscipline aimed at the identification and delineation of such areas is known as myeloarchitectonics...
March 2013: Brain Structure & Function
Lauren L Cloutman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The parcellation of the cortex via its anatomical properties has been an important research endeavor for over a century. To date, however, a universally accepted parcellation scheme for the human brain still remains elusive. In the current review, we explore the use of in vivo diffusion imaging and white matter tractography as a non-invasive method for the structural and functional parcellation of the human cerebral cortex, discussing the strengths and limitations of the current approaches. Cortical parcellation via white matter connectivity is based on the premise that, as connectional anatomy determines functional organization, it should be possible to segregate functionally-distinct cortical regions by identifying similarities and differences in connectivity profiles...
2012: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Tiziana Pisano, A James Barkovich, Richard J Leventer, Waney Squier, Ingrid E Scheffer, Elena Parrini, Susan Blaser, Carla Marini, Stephen Robertson, Gaetano Tortorella, Felix Rosenow, Pierre Thomas, George McGillivray, Eva Andermann, Frederick Andermann, Samuel F Berkovic, William B Dobyns, Renzo Guerrini
OBJECTIVE: To describe a homogeneous subtype of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) as part of a newly defined malformation complex. METHODS: Observational study including review of brain MRI and clinical findings of a cohort of 50 patients with PNH in the temporo-occipital horns and trigones, mutation analysis of the FLNA gene, and anatomopathologic study of a fetal brain. RESULTS: There were 28 females and 22 males. All were sporadic with the exception of an affected mother and son...
September 18, 2012: Neurology
Hong Li, Michael C Crair
The somatosensory cortex of many rodents, lagomorphs, and marsupials contains distinct cytoarchitectonic features named "barrels" that reflect the pattern of large facial whiskers on the snout. Barrels are composed of clustered thalamocortical afferents relaying sensory information from one whisker surrounded by cell-dense walls or "barrels" in layer 4 of the cortex. In many ways, barrels are a simple and relatively accessible canonical cortical column, making them a common model system for the examination of cortical development and function...
April 2011: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Gavin Clowry, Zoltán Molnár, Pasko Rakic
Many specifically human psychiatric and neurological conditions have developmental origins. Rodent models are extremely valuable for the investigation of brain development, but cannot provide insight into aspects that are specifically human. The human brain, and particularly the cerebral cortex, has some unique genetic, molecular, cellular and anatomical features, and these need to be further explored. Cortical expansion in human is not just quantitative; there are some novel types of neurons and cytoarchitectonic areas identified by their gene expression, connectivity and functions that do not exist in rodents...
October 2010: Journal of Anatomy
Ivica Kostović, Miloš Judaš, Goran Sedmak
The subplate zone is a transient cytoarchitectonic compartment of the fetal telencephalic wall and contains a population of subplate neurons which are the main neurons of the fetal neocortex and play a key role in normal development of cerebral cortical structure and connectivity. While the subplate zone disappears during the perinatal and early postnatal period, numerous subplate neurons survive and remain embedded in the superficial (gyral) white matter of adolescent and adult brain as so-called interstitial neurons...
May 2011: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Gordon M G Shepherd
A well-defined granular layer 4 is a defining cytoarchitectonic feature associated with sensory areas of mammalian cerebral cortex, and one with hodological significance: the local axons ascending from cells in thalamorecipient layer 4 and connecting to layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons form a major feedforward excitatory interlaminar projection. Conversely, agranular cortical areas, lacking a distinct layer 4, pose a hodological conundrum: without a laminar basis for the canonical layer 4-->2/3 pathway, what is the basic circuit organization? This review highlights current challenges and prospects for local-circuit electroanatomy and electrophysiology in agranular cortex, focusing on the mouse...
2009: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Karl Zilles, Katrin Amunts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cytoarchitectonical brain mapping is of growing interest as a powerful tool for localization of activated brain regions in functional neuroimaging. Mapping of neurotransmitter receptors can provide novel molecular and functionally relevant information to the available cytoarchitectonical brain maps, because receptors are key molecules of neurotransmission. This review highlights the relation between cytoarchitectonical parcellations and the regionally inhomogeneous distribution of receptors...
August 2009: Current Opinion in Neurology
Troy A Hackett
The identification of areas that contribute to auditory processing in the human cerebral cortex has been the subject of sporadic investigation for more than one century. Several anatomical schemas have been advanced, but a standard model has not been adopted by researchers in the field. Most often, the results of functional imaging or electrophysiological studies involving auditory cortex are related to the cytoarchitectonic map of Brodmann (1909). Though useful as a guide and point of reference, this map has never been validated and appears to be incomplete...
November 2008: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Simon S Keller, Timothy Crow, Anne Foundas, Katrin Amunts, Neil Roberts
In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural asymmetry of Broca's area with the differences in methodological approaches, (iv) consider the functional significance of cytoarchitectonic definitions of Broca's area, and (v) critically elucidate the significance of circumscribed regions of cortex for language lateralisation and language development...
April 2009: Brain and Language
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