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Yuan Zhang, Yuan Qu, Tian Niu, Haiyan Wang, Kun Liu
Intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is an important inflammatory factor that causes retinal damage during diabetic retinopathy. Hyperglycaemia can increase ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells and the ICAM-1 promoter is responsive to the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1). O-GlcNAc modification is driven by the glucose concentration and has a profound effect on Sp1 activity. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism through which hyperglycaemia triggers ICAM-1 expression, which is mediated by O-GlcNAc modification of Sp1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat retinal capillary endothelial cells (RRCECs)...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Juliana L Sacoman, Raul Y Dagda, Amanda R Burnham-Marusich, Ruben K Dagda, Patricia M Berninsone
O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins and regulates numerous biological processes. OGT is encoded by a single gene that yields nucleocytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms. To date, the role of the mitochondrial isoform of OGT (mOGT) remains largely unknown. Using high-throughput proteomics, we identified 84 candidate mitochondrial glycoproteins, of which 44 are novel. Notably, two of the candidate glycoproteins identified (cytochrome oxidase 2 (COX2) and NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 4 (MT-ND4)) are encoded by mitochondrial DNA...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Huabei Guo, Bing Zhang, Alison V Nairn, Tamas Nagy, Kelley W Moremen, Phillip Buckhaults, Michael Pierce
To study the regulation of colorectal adenocarcinoma progression by O-GlcNAc, we have focused on the O-GlcNAc-mediated epigenetic regulation of human colon cancer stem cells (CCSC). Xenograft tumors from colon tumor cells with OGT knockdown grew significantly slower than those formed from control cells, indicating a reduced proliferation of tumor cells due to inhibition of OGT expression. Significant reduction of CCSC population was observed in the tumor cells after OGT knockdown, while tumor cells treated with O-GlcNAcase inhibitor showed an increased CCSC population, indicating that O-GlcNAc levels regulated the CCSC compartment...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Judith M van der Harg, Jessica C van Heest, Fabian N Bangel, Sanne Patiwael, Jan R T van Weering, Wiep Scheper
Neurons are highly dependent on glucose. A disturbance in glucose homeostasis therefore poses a severe risk that is counteracted by activation of stress responses to limit damage and restore the energy balance. A major stress response that is activated under conditions of glucose deprivation is the unfolded protein response (UPR) that is aimed to restore proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum. The key signaling of the UPR involves the transient activation of a transcriptional program and an overall reduction of protein synthesis...
January 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Matthew Worth, Hao Li, Jiaoyang Jiang
O-GlcNAcylation is the modification of serine and threonine residues with β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on intracellular proteins. This dynamic modification is attached by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and removed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA) and is a critical regulator of various cellular processes. Furthermore, O-GlcNAcylation is dysregulated in many diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise role of this modification and its cycling enzymes (OGT and OGA) in normal and disease states remains elusive...
January 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Tetsuya Okuda
Protein modification by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is one of the post transcriptional modifications occurring on cellular proteins. This paper provides a data set relating to the O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins detected by RL2 and CTD110.6 antibodies, which are commonly used for detection of protein O-GlcNAcylation, in 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG)-treated human teratocarcinoma NCCIT cells in support of the research article entitled "A novel, promoter-based, target-specific assay identifies 2-deoxy-d-glucose as an inhibitor of globotriaosylceramide biosynthesis" (Okuda et al...
February 2017: Data in Brief
Baoshan Liu, Jiali Wang, Minghua Li, Qiuhuan Yuan, Mengyang Xue, Feng Xu, Yuguo Chen
Although hyperglycemia is causally related to adverse outcomes after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether excessive O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an important cardioprotective enzyme, was a mechanism for the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial I/R injury. Both acute hyperglycemia (AHG) and diabetes (DM)-induced chronic hyperglycemia increased cardiac dysfunction, infarct size and apoptosis index compared with normal saline (NS)+I/R rats (P<0...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Yue Wang, Jingjing Zhu, Lianwen Zhang
O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is a key enzyme involved in dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins similar to phosphorylation. Discovery of cell-permeable OGT inhibitors is significant to clarify the function and regulatory mechanism of O-GlcNAcylation. This will establish the foundation for the development of therapeutic drugs for relevant diseases. Here, we report two cell-permeable OGT inhibitors (APNT and APBT), developed from low-activity precursors (IC50 > 1 mM) via "tethering in situ click chemistry (TISCC)"...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jiachang Hu, Rongyi Chen, Ping Jia, Yi Fang, Tongqiang Liu, Nana Song, Xialian Xu, Jun Ji, Xiaoqiang Ding
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is an iatrogenic renal injury and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in susceptible individuals. Despite extensive study of a variety of agents for renal protection, limited strategies have been shown to be effective in the reduction of CI-AKI. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a post-translational regulatory modification of intracellular proteins and governs the function of numerous proteins, both cytosolic and nuclear. Increasing evidence suggests that O-GlcNAc levels are increased in response to stress and that acute augmentation of this reaction is cytoprotective...
December 23, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Darya Zibrova, Franck Vandermoere, Olga Göransson, Mark Peggie, Karina V Mariño, Anne Knierim, Katrin Spengler, Cora Weigert, Benoit Viollet, Nicholas A Morrice, Kei Sakamoto, Regine Heller
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells regulates energy homeostasis, stress protection and angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using a label-free phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1) as an AMPK substrate. GFAT1 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and as such controls the modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AMPK controls O-GlcNAc levels and function of endothelial cells via GFAT1 phosphorylation using biochemical, pharmacological, genetic and in vitro angiogenesis approaches...
22, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Cheng Xue Qin, Rochelle Sleaby, Amy J Davidoff, James R Bell, Miles J De Blasio, Leanne M Delbridge, John C Chatham, Rebecca H Ritchie
Diabetes mellitus significantly increases the risk of heart failure, independent of coronary artery disease. The mechanisms implicated in the development of diabetic heart disease, commonly termed diabetic cardiomyopathy, are complex, but much of the impact of diabetes on the heart can be attributed to impaired glucose handling. It has been shown that the maladaptive nutrient-sensing hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) contributes to diabetic complications in many non-cardiac tissues. Glucose metabolism by the HBP leads to enzymatically-regulated, O-linked attachment of a sugar moiety molecule, β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), to proteins, affecting their biological activity (similar to phosphorylation)...
December 14, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Taichi Miura, Shoko Nishihara
"Naïve" mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from pre-implantation embryos and possess pluripotency, the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the body. "Primed" mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are also pluripotent but are derived from post-implantation embryos. ESC-derived EpiSCs (ESD-EpiSCs) are "primed" pluripotent stem cells and can revert to naïve reverted ESCs (rESCs). O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is a posttranslational modification in the cytoplasm and nucleus...
October 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Scott A Yuzwa, David J Vocadlo
Assembly of the microtubule-associated protein tau (tau) into paired helical filaments that ultimately give rise to neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) makes up one half of the two hallmark pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau has been shown to be modified with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (O-GlcNAc), which is the modification of serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties. Increasing O-GlcNAc in mouse models of tauopathy has been shown to hinder the progression of symptoms in these mice and impair the aggregation of tau into NFTs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrew C Wang, Elizabeth H Jensen, Jessica E Rexach, Harry V Vinters, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson
O-GlcNAc glycosylation (or O-GlcNAcylation) is a dynamic, inducible posttranslational modification found on proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as α-synuclein, amyloid precursor protein, and tau. Deletion of the O-GlcNAc transferase (ogt) gene responsible for the modification causes early postnatal lethality in mice, complicating efforts to study O-GlcNAcylation in mature neurons and to understand its roles in disease. Here, we report that forebrain-specific loss of OGT in adult mice leads to progressive neurodegeneration, including widespread neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation, increased production of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloidogenic Aβ-peptides, and memory deficits...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David L Shen, Ta-Wei Liu, Wesley Zandberg, Tom Clark, Razieh Eskandari, Matthew G Alteen, Hong Yee Tan, Yanping Zhu, Samy Cecioni, David Vocadlo
O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the installation of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) O-linked to nucleocytoplasmic proteins (O-GlcNAc) within multicellular eukaryotes. OGT shows surprising tolerance for structural changes in the sugar component of its nucleotide sugar donor substrate, uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). Here, we find that OGT uses UDP-glucose to install O-linked glucose (O-Glc) onto proteins only 25-fold less efficiently than O-GlcNAc. Spurred by this observation, we show that OGT transfers 2-azido-2-deoxy-d-glucose (GlcAz) in vitro from UDP-GlcAz to proteins...
December 9, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Ta-Wei Liu, Mike Myschyshyn, Donald A Sinclair, Samy Cecioni, Kevin Beja, Barry M Honda, Ryan D Morin, David J Vocadlo
N-Acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to nucleocytoplasmic proteins (O-GlcNAc) is implicated in the regulation of gene expression in organisms, from humans to Drosophila melanogaster. Within Drosophila, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is one of the Polycomb group proteins (PcGs) that act through Polycomb group response elements (PREs) to silence homeotic (HOX) and other PcG target genes. Using Drosophila, we identify new O-GlcNAcylated PcG proteins and develop an antibody-free metabolic feeding approach to chemoselectively map genomic loci enriched in O-GlcNAc using next-generation sequencing...
February 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
Kazuo Kamemura
Of the FET (fused in sarcoma [FUS]/Ewing sarcoma protein [EWS]/TATA binding protein-associated factor 15 [TAF15]) family of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle proteins, FUS and TAF15 are consistently and EWS variably found in inclusion bodies in neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with FUS. It is speculated that dysregulation of FET proteins at the post-translational level is involved in their cytoplasmic deposition. Here, the O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation stoichiometry of the FET proteins was chemoenzymatically analyzed, and it was found that only EWS is dynamically glycosylated with a high stoichiometry in the neural cell lines tested and in mouse brain...
December 1, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yating He, Xiaofeng Ma, Daojing Li, Junwei Hao
Inflammatory responses are accountable for secondary injury induced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Previous studies indicated that O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is involved in the pathology of AIS, and increase of O-GlcNAcylation by glucosamine attenuated the brain damage after ischemia/reperfusion. Inhibition of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA) with thiamet G (TMG) is an alternative option for accumulating O-GlcNAcylated proteins. In this study, we investigate the neuroprotective effect of TMG in a mouse model of experimental stroke...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Sung Hwan Kim, Yoon Sook Kim, Mee Young Choi, Minjun Kim, Jun Ho Yang, Hyun Oh Park, In Seok Jang, Sung Ho Moon, Hyun Ok Kim, Dae Hyun Song, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Jun Young Choi, Wan Sung Choi
High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) 16/18 infections are often found in lung cancer. The cellular mechanisms involved in the metastatic spread of HPV-infected cervical cancer cells remain largely elusive. High O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification has also been observed in lung cancer. In the present study, we assessed the relationship between O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and HPV 16/18 E6/E7, or C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), in HeLa cells and in lungs of xenografted mice. Depleting OGT with an OGT-specific shRNA significantly decreased levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins in HeLa cells and xenograft tumors, and reduced tumor formation in vivo...
November 11, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tian-Hua Liu, Deng-He Liu, Cui-Ju Mo, Lu Sun, Xiao-Xia Liu, Wei Li, Shu Zhang, Yin-Kun Liu, Kun Guo
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) as a severe neuropsychiatric complication is commonly present in the end stage of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). However, widely accepted biomarkers for diagnosing early HE are still absent. Here, we screened glycosylation patterns of serum proteins from Chinese HCC patients with or without early HE by lectin microarray. Then, phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E) as a lectin binding with bisecting GlcNAc structure which was significantly decreased in sera from Chinese HCC patients with early HE, was chosen to perform lectin affinity chromatography, following by in-gel digestion, Mass Spectrometry (MS) analysis and bioinformatics analysis...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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