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Validation cost effectiveness simulation

Raffick A R Bowen, Dorothy Adcock
Blood collection tubes (BCTs) are an often under-recognized variable in the preanalytical phase of clinical laboratory testing. Unfortunately, even the best-designed and manufactured BCTs may not work well in all clinical settings. Clinical laboratories, in collaboration with healthcare providers, should carefully evaluate BCTs prior to putting them into clinical use to determine their limitations and ensure that patients are not placed at risk because of inaccuracies due to poor tube performance. Selection of the best BCTs can be achieved through comparing advertising materials, reviewing the literature, observing the device at a scientific meeting, receiving a demonstration, evaluating the device under simulated conditions, or testing the device with patient samples...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Matthieu Barbier, James R Watson
Predators of all kinds, be they lions hunting in the Serengeti or fishermen searching for their catch, display various collective strategies. A common strategy is to share information about the location of prey. However, depending on the spatial characteristics and mobility of predators and prey, information sharing can either improve or hinder individual success. Here, our goal is to investigate the interacting effects of space and information sharing on predation efficiency, represented by the expected rate at which prey are found and consumed...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Amy J Davis, Mevin B Hooten, Ryan S Miller, Matthew L Farnsworth, Jesse Lewis, Michael Moxcey, Kim M Pepin
Evaluation of the progress of management programs for invasive species is crucial for demonstrating impacts to stakeholders and strategic planning of resource allocation. Estimates of abundance before and after management activities can serve as a useful metric of population management programs. However, many methods of estimating population size are too labor intensive and costly to implement, posing restrictive levels of burden on operational programs. Removal models are a reliable method for estimating abundance before and after management using data from the removal activities exclusively, thus requiring no work in addition to management...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Katherine R Kavanagh, Valerie Cote, Yvonne Tsui, Simon Kudernatsch, Donald R Peterson, Tulio A Valdez
OBJECTIVE: Simulation to acquire and test technical skills is an essential component of medical education and residency training in both surgical and nonsurgical specialties. High-quality simulation education relies on the availability, accessibility, and reliability of models. The objective of this work was to describe a practical pediatric laryngeal model for use in otolaryngology residency training. Ideally, this model would be low-cost, have tactile properties resembling human tissue, and be reliably reproducible...
October 12, 2016: Laryngoscope
Martine Hoogendoorn, Talitha L Feenstra, Yumi Asukai, Andrew H Briggs, Sixten Borg, Roberto W Dal Negro, Ryan N Hansen, Sven-Arne Jansson, Reiner Leidl, Nancy Risebrough, Yevgeniy Samyshkin, Margarethe E Wacker, Maureen P M H Rutten-van Mölken
OBJECTIVES: To assess how suitable current chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cost-effectiveness models are to evaluate personalized treatment options for COPD by exploring the type of heterogeneity included in current models and by validating outcomes for subgroups of patients. METHODS: A consortium of COPD modeling groups completed three tasks. First, they reported all patient characteristics included in the model and provided the level of detail in which the input parameters were specified...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Lilian Joly, Rabih Maamary, Thomas Decarpenterie, Julien Cousin, Nicolas Dumelié, Nicolas Chauvin, Dominique Legain, Diane Tzanos, Georges Durry
The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere plays an important role in the radiative effects in the Earth's climate system. Therefore, it is crucial to increase the number of atmospheric observations in order to quantify the natural sinks and emission sources. We report in this paper the development of a new compact lightweight spectrometer (1.8 kg) called AMULSE based on near infrared laser technology at 2.04 µm coupled to a 6-m open-path multipass cell. The measurements were made using the Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) technique and the spectrometer is hence dedicated to in situ measuring the vertical profiles of the CO₂ at high precision levels (σAllan = 0...
2016: Sensors
Efrat Broide, Shay Matalon, Ofra Kriger-Sharabi, Vered Richter, Haim Shirin, Moshe Leshno
AIM: To investigate the cost effectiveness of routine small bowel biopsies (SBBs) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) independent of their celiac disease (CD) serology test results. METHODS: We used a state transition Markov model. Two strategies were compared: routine SBBs during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in all patients with IDA regardless their celiac serology status (strategy A) vs SBBs only in IDA patients with positive serology (strategy B)...
September 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Godwin Yung, Xihong Lin
Case-control association studies often collect from their subjects information on secondary phenotypes. Reusing the data and studying the association between genes and secondary phenotypes provide an attractive and cost-effective approach that can lead to discovery of new genetic associations. A number of approaches have been proposed, including simple and computationally efficient ad hoc methods that ignore ascertainment or stratify on case-control status. Justification for these approaches relies on the assumption of no covariates and the correct specification of the primary disease model as a logistic model...
September 26, 2016: Genetic Epidemiology
Henry B Colaço, Duncan Tennent
Simulation is a rapidly developing field in medical education. There is a growing need for trainee surgeons to acquire surgical skills in a cost-effective learning environment to improve patient safety and compensate for a reduction in training time and operative experience. Although simulation is not a replacement for traditional models of surgical training, and robust assessment metrics need to be validated before widespread use for accreditation, it is a useful adjunct that may ultimately lead to improving surgical outcomes for our patients...
October 2016: Shoulder & Elbow
Nora Döring, Susanne Mayer, Finn Rasmussen, Diana Sonntag
Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Songze Chen, Zhaoli Guo, Kun Xu
The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving (AP) scheme for kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulation and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well-known discrete ordinate method (DOM), which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS...
August 2016: Physical Review. E
Sanjay Basu, Russell S Phillips, Zirui Song, Bruce E Landon, Asaf Bitton
PURPOSE: We assess the financial implications for primary care practices of participating in patient-centered medical home (PCMH) funding initiatives. METHODS: We estimated practices' changes in net revenue under 3 PCMH funding initiatives: increased fee-for-service (FFS) payments, traditional FFS with additional per-member-per-month (PMPM) payments, or traditional FFS with PMPM and pay-for-performance (P4P) payments. Net revenue estimates were based on a validated microsimulation model utilizing national practice surveys...
September 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
Yasser A Noureldin, Sero Andonian
OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous renal access (PCA) is a challenging step during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The aim of this study is to review the literature for different types of simulators described for PCA. METHODS: Databases of Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, OvidSP, and Google Scholar were systematically searched until May 2016. The studies were analyzed regarding the type of simulator (nonbiologic, biologic, live animal, and virtual reality [VR]), type of validity (face, content, construct, and predictive), cost-effectiveness, and whether these simulators have been used for training and/or assessment of PCA...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Ana F Tena, Joaquín Fernández, Eduardo Álvarez, Pere Casan, D Keith Walters
BACKGROUND: The need for a better understanding of pulmonary diseases has led to increased interest in the development of realistic computational models of the human lung. METHODS: To minimize computational cost, a reduced geometry model is used for a model lung airway geometry up to generation 16. Truncated airway branches require physiologically realistic boundary conditions to accurately represent the effect of the removed airway sections. A user-defined function has been developed, which applies velocities mapped from similar locations in fully resolved airway sections...
September 5, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Rudong Li, Hui Cheng, Tao Cheng, Lei Liu
BACKGROUND: Computer-aided, interdisciplinary researches for biomedicine have valuable prospects, as digitalization of experimental subjects provide opportunities for saving the economic costs of researches, as well as promoting the acquisition of knowledge. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is intensively studied over long periods of time. Till nowaday, most of the studies primarily focus on the leukemic cells rather than how normal hematopoietic cells are affected by the leukemic environment...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Benjamin Z Ball, Boxiang Jiang, Prachi Mehndiratta, George J Stukenborg, Gilbert R Upchurch, James F Meschia, Bradford B Worrall, Andrew M Southerland
OBJECTIVE: Aneurysm rupture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and evidence suggests shared risk for both abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and intracranial aneurysms (IAs). We hypothesized that screening for AAA in patients with known IA is cost-effective. METHODS: We used a decision tree model to compare costs and outcomes of AAA screening vs no screening in a hypothetical cohort of patients with IA. We measured expected outcomes using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)...
September 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Tamir Biezuner, Adam Spiro, Ofir Raz, Shiran Amir, Lilach Milo, Rivka Adar, Noa Chapal-Ilani, Veronika Berman, Yael Fried, Elena Ainbinder, Galit Cohen, Haim M Barr, Ruth Halaban, Ehud Shapiro
Advances in single-cell genomics enable commensurate improvements in methods for uncovering lineage relations among individual cells. Current sequencing-based methods for cell lineage analysis depend on low-resolution bulk analysis or rely on extensive single cell sequencing, which is not scalable and could be biased by functional dependencies. Here we show an integrated biochemical-computational platform for generic single-cell lineage analysis that is retrospective, cost-effective and scalable. It consists of a biochemical-computational pipeline that inputs individual cells, produces targeted single-cell sequencing data and uses it to generate a lineage tree of the input cells...
August 24, 2016: Genome Research
Yanping Lin, Huajiang Chen, Dedong Yu, Ying Zhang, Wen Yuan
PURPOSE: Bone drilling simulators with virtual and haptic feedback provide a safe, cost-effective and repeatable alternative to traditional surgical training methods. To develop such a simulator, accurate haptic rendering based on a force model is required to feedback bone drilling forces based on user input. Current predictive bone drilling force models based on bovine bones with various drilling conditions and parameters are not representative of the bone drilling process in bone surgery...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Matthew Moore, Glenn R Barnhart, Walter Randolph Chitwood, John A Rizzo, Candace Gunnarsson, Swetha R Palli, Eugene A Grossi
OBJECTIVE: The recent development of the EDWARDS INTUITY Elite™ (EIE) valve system enables the rapid deployment of a prosthetic surgical heart valve in an aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedure via both the minimally invasive (MISAVR) and conventional (CAVR) approaches. In order to understand its economic value, this study performed a cost evaluation of the EIE valve system used in a MIS rapid-deployment approach (MIS-RDAVR) vs MISAVR and CAVR, respectively, compared to standard prosthetic aortic valves...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
Min Yang, Yuansong Wei, Xiang Zheng, Fang Wang, Xing Yuan, Jibao Liu, Nan Luo, Rongle Xu, Dawei Yu, Yaobo Fan
Cost-effective membrane fouling control and nitrogen removal performance are of great concern in airlift external circulation membrane bioreactors (AEC-MBRs). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model incorporating sub-models of bio-kinetics, oxygen transfer and sludge rheology was developed for the cost-effective optimization of a lab-scale AEC-MBR. The model was calibrated and validated by extensive measurements of water velocities and water quality parameters in the AEC-MBR. The validated results demonstrated that the optimized height of gas-liquid dispersion was at around 300mm...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
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