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Validation cost effectiveness simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547013/new-cfd-tools-to-evaluate-nasal-airflow
#1
M A Burgos, E Sanmiguel-Rojas, C Del Pino, M A Sevilla-García, F Esteban-Ortega
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND(®) only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow...
May 25, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541904/diffusion-based-model-for-synaptic-molecular-communication-channel
#2
Tooba Khan, Bilgesu A Bilgin, Ozgur B Akan
Computational methods have been extensively used to understand underlying dynamics of molecular communication methods employed by nature. One very effective and popular approach is to utilize a Monte Carlo simulation. Although it is very reliable, this method can have a very high computational cost, which in some cases renders the simulation impractical. Therefore, in this paper, for the special case of an excitatory synaptic molecular communication channel, we present a novel mathematical model for the diffusion and binding of neurotransmitters that takes into account the effects of synaptic geometry in three-dimensional space and re-absorption of neurotransmitters by the transmitting neuron...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536460/towards-ultimate-low-frequency-air-core-magnetometer-sensitivity
#3
Ruben Pellicer-Guridi, Michael W Vogel, David C Reutens, Viktor Vegh
Air-core magnetometers are amongst the most commonly used magnetic field detectors in biomedical instruments. They offer excellent sensitivity, low fabrication complexity and a robust, cost-effective solution. However, air-core magnetometers must be tailored to the specific application to achieve high sensitivity, which can be decisive in the accuracy of the diagnoses and the time required for the examination. Existing methods proposed for the design of air-core magnetometers are based on simplified models and simulations using a reduced number of variables, potentially leading to sensitivity that is suboptimal...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534290/wear-predictions-for-uhmwpe-material-with-various-surface-properties-used-on-the-femoral-component-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-computational-simulation-study
#4
Kyoung-Tak Kang, Juhyun Son, Ho-Joong Kim, Changhyun Baek, Oh-Ryong Kwon, Yong-Gon Koh
The wear of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial inserts in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains a major limitation that hinders the longevity of clinically successful devices. Surface properties significantly affect the overall performance of TKA, and surface modification with mechanically and chemically stable materials is an effective method for overcoming the wear of TKA. However, wear tests are not cost-efficient or time-efficient; thus, the effects of geometric, loading, and alignment perturbations are often evaluated via parametric studies...
July 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526634/microsurgery-simulation-training-system-and-set-up-an-essential-system-to-complement-every-training-programme
#5
Dhalia Masud, Nadine Haram, Margarita Moustaki, Whitney Chow, Samer Saour, Pari Naz Mohanna
INTRODUCTION: Microsurgical techniques are essential in plastic surgery; however, inconsistent training practices, acquiring these skills can be difficult. To address this, we designed a standardised laboratory-based microsurgical training programme, which allows trainees to develop their dexterity, visuospatial ability, operative flow and judgement as separate components. METHOD: Thirty trainees completed an initial microsurgical anastomosis on a chicken femoral artery, assessed using the structured assessment of microsurgical skills (SAMS) method...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521828/markov-modeling-in-hepatitis-b-screening-and-linkage-to-care
#6
Martin A Sehr, Kartik D Joshi, John M Fontanesi, Robert J Wong, Robert R Bitmead, Robert G Gish
BACKGROUND: With up to 240 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B worldwide, including an estimated 2 million in the United States, widespread screening is needed to link the infected to care and decrease the possible consequences of untreated infection, including liver cancer, cirrhosis and death. Screening is currently fraught with challenges in both the developed and developing world. New point-of-care tests may have advantages over standard-of-care tests in terms of cost-effectiveness and linkage to care...
May 18, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502728/technical-validation-of-a-next-generation-sequencing-assay-for-detecting-clinically-relevant-levels-of-breast-cancer-related-single-nucleotide-variants-and-copy-number-variants-using-simulated-cell-free-dna
#7
Xin Yang, Yuxing Chu, Rui Zhang, Yanxi Han, Lucheng Zhang, Yu Fu, Dan Li, Rongxue Peng, Dongdong Li, Jiansheng Ding, Ziyang Li, Meiru Zhao, Kuo Zhang, Tian Lu, Lang Yi, Qisheng Wu, Guigao Lin, Jiehong Xie, Tao Liu, Ling Yang, Xin Yi, Jinming Li
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used in a clinical setting for diagnostic and prognostic testing of genetic mutations to select optimal targeted therapies. Herein, we describe the development of a custom NGS assay for detecting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) in a panel of 51 genes related to breast cancer. We designed and implemented a validation strategy in accordance with principles and guidelines developed by the Next-Generation Sequencing: Standardization of Clinical Testing work group using artificial, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) with mutant fragments prepared in a simple, rapid, and cost-effective manner...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490271/validation-of-a-cardiovascular-disease-policy-micro-simulation-model-using-both-survival-and-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves
#8
Ankur Pandya, Stephen Sy, Sylvia Cho, Sartaj Alam, Milton C Weinstein, Thomas A Gaziano
BACKGROUND: Despite some advances, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and healthcare costs in the United States. We therefore developed a comprehensive CVD policy simulation model that identifies cost-effective approaches for reducing CVD burden. This paper aims to: 1) describe our model in detail; and 2) perform model validation analyses. METHODS: The model simulates 1,000,000 adults (ages 35 to 80 years) using a variety of CVD-related epidemiological data, including previously calibrated Framingham-based risk scores for coronary heart disease and stroke...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488257/a-comparison-of-four-software-programs-for-implementing-decision-analytic-cost-effectiveness-models
#9
REVIEW
Chase Hollman, Mike Paulden, Petros Pechlivanoglou, Christopher McCabe
The volume and technical complexity of both academic and commercial research using decision analytic modelling has increased rapidly over the last two decades. The range of software programs used for their implementation has also increased, but it remains true that a small number of programs account for the vast majority of cost-effectiveness modelling work. We report a comparison of four software programs: TreeAge Pro, Microsoft Excel, R and MATLAB. Our focus is on software commonly used for building Markov models and decision trees to conduct cohort simulations, given their predominance in the published literature around cost-effectiveness modelling...
May 9, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479787/indigenous-inexpensive-practice-models-for-skill-development-in-neuroendoscopy
#10
Jitin Bajaj, Yad Ram Yadav, Anurag Pateriya, Vijay Parihar, Shailendra Ratre, Amitesh Dubey
INTRODUCTION: Neurosurgery is a branch having a tough learning curve. Residents generally get very less hands-on exposure for advanced procedures like neuroendoscopy. With the limited number of cadavers available and ethical issues associated with animal models, practice models, and simulators are becoming the able alternative. Most of these simulators are very costly. We tried to build indigenous inexpensive practice models that can help in developing most of the skills of neuroendoscopy...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475060/the-implementation-and-validation-of-a-virtual-environment-for-training-powered-wheelchair-manoeuvres
#11
Nigel W John, Serban R Pop, Thomas W Day, Panagiotis D Ritsos, Christopher J Headleand
Navigating a powered wheelchair and avoiding collisions is often a daunting task for new wheelchair users. It takes time and practice to gain the coordination needed to become a competent driver and this can be even more of a challenge for someone with a disability. We present a cost-effective virtual reality (VR) application that takes advantage of consumer level VR hardware. The system can be easily deployed in an assessment centre or for home use, and does not depend on a specialized high-end virtual environment such as a Powerwall or CAVE...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452934/a-genetic-algorithm-for-the-generation-of-packetization-masks-for-robust-image-communication
#12
Katherine Zapata-Quiñones, Cristian Duran-Faundez, Gilberto Gutiérrez, Vincent Lecuire, Christopher Arredondo-Flores, Hugo Jara-Lipán
Image interleaving has proven to be an effective solution to provide the robustness of image communication systems when resource limitations make reliable protocols unsuitable (e.g., in wireless camera sensor networks); however, the search for optimal interleaving patterns is scarcely tackled in the literature. In 2008, Rombaut et al. presented an interesting approach introducing a packetization mask generator based in Simulated Annealing (SA), including a cost function, which allows assessing the suitability of a packetization pattern, avoiding extensive simulations...
April 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431428/computational-and-in-vitro-experimental-investigation-of-intrathecal-drug-distribution-parametric-study-of-the-effect-of-injection-volume-cerebrospinal-fluid-pulsatility-and-drug-uptake
#13
Kevin M Tangen, Roxanne Leval, Ankit I Mehta, Andreas A Linninger
BACKGROUND: Intrathecal drug delivery is an attractive option to circumvent the blood-brain barrier for pain management through its increased efficacy of pain relief, reduction in adverse side effects, and cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, there are limited guidelines for physicians to choose infusion or drug pump settings to administer therapeutic doses to specific regions of the spine or the brain. Although empiric trialing of intrathecal drugs is critical to determine the sustained side effects, currently there is no inexpensive in vitro method to guide the selection of spinal drug delivery parameters...
May 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431361/uncertainty-quantification-and-validation-of-3d-lattice-scaffolds-for-computer-aided-biomedical-applications
#14
Recep M Gorguluarslan, Seung-Kyum Choi, Christopher J Saldana
A methodology is proposed for uncertainty quantification and validation to accurately predict the mechanical response of lattice structures used in the design of scaffolds. Effective structural properties of the scaffolds are characterized using a developed multi-level stochastic upscaling process that propagates the quantified uncertainties at strut level to the lattice structure level. To obtain realistic simulation models for the stochastic upscaling process and minimize the experimental cost, high-resolution finite element models of individual struts were reconstructed from the micro-CT scan images of lattice structures which are fabricated by selective laser melting...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425890/biomedical-simulation-evolution-concepts-challenges-and-future-trends
#15
Carla Sá-Couto, Luís Patrão, Francisco Maio-Matos, José Miguel Pêgo
Biomedical simulation is an effective educational complement for healthcare training, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. It enables knowledge, skills and attitudes to be acquired in a safe, educationally orientated and efficient manner. In this context, simulation provides skills and experience that facilitate the transfer of cognitive, psychomotor and proper communication competences, thus changing behavior and attitudes, and ultimately improving patient safety. Beyond the impact on individual and team performance, simulation provides an opportunity to study organizational failures and improve system performance...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425488/an-analytic-approach-for-optimal-geometrical-design-of-gaas-nanowires-for-maximal-light-harvesting-in-photovoltaic-cells
#16
Dan Wu, Xiaohong Tang, Kai Wang, Xianqiang Li
Semiconductor nanowires(NWs) with subwavelength scale diameters have demonstrated superior light trapping features, which unravel a new pathway for low cost and high efficiency future generation solar cells. Unlike other published work, a fully analytic design is for the first time proposed for optimal geometrical parameters of vertically-aligned GaAs NW arrays for maximal energy harvesting. Using photocurrent density as the light absorbing evaluation standard, 2 μm length NW arrays whose multiple diameters and periodicity are quantitatively identified achieving the maximal value of 29...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420531/high-throughput-determination-of-vancomycin-in-human-plasma-by-a-cost-effective-system-of-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography
#17
Yanghao Sheng, Boting Zhou
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is one of the most important services of clinical laboratories. Two main techniques are commonly used: the immunoassay and chromatography method. We have developed a cost-effective system of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (2D-LC-UV) for high-throughput determination of vancomycin in human plasma that combines the automation and low start-up costs of the immunoassay with the high selectivity and sensitivity of the liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection without incurring their disadvantages, achieving high cost-effectiveness...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420333/strategies-and-cost-effectiveness-evaluation-of-persistent-albuminuria-screening-among-high-risk-population-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Huaiyu Wang, Li Yang, Fang Wang, Luxia Zhang
BACKGROUND: Screening for persistent albuminuria among the high-risk population is important for early detection of CKD while studies regarding screening protocol and related cost-effectiveness analysis are limited. This study explored a feasible and cost-efficient screening strategy for detecting persistent albuminuria among the high-risk population. METHODS: A cohort study including 157 clinically stable outpatients with a risk factor of CKD and whose laboratory tests revealed an albumin-creatinine-ratio (ACR) between 30 and 300 mg/g of creatinine during the previous 12 months was conducted to assess the validity of alternative screening strategies...
April 18, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409648/assessment-of-simulated-emergency-scenarios-are-trained-observers-necessary
#19
Juliane Noveanu, Felix Amsler, Wolfgang Ummenhofer, Thomas von Wyl, Mathias Zuercher
OBJECTIVES: Simulation-based medical training is associated with superior educational outcomes and improved cost efficiency. Self- and peer-assessment may be a cost-effective and flexible alternative to expert-led assessment. We compared accuracy of self- and peer-assessment of untrained raters using basic evaluation tools to expert assessment using advanced validation tools including validated questionnaires and post hoc video-based analysis. METHODS: Twenty-eight simulated emergency airway management scenarios were observed and video-recorded for further assessment...
April 14, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390355/optimizing-the-formation-of-solid-solutions-with-components-of-different-shapes
#20
Fernando A Escobedo
A key challenge to engineer ordered solids from the co-assembly of two differently shaped building blocks is to predict the key particle characteristics that lead to maximal mutual ordered-phase compatibility (MaxOC). While both entropy disparity, as captured by the relative size of the components, and energetic inter-species selectivity affect MaxOC, it is the former whose effect is less intuitive and the main focus of this work. Such MaxOC predictive rules are formulated and validated by using Monte Carlo simulation results for hard-core mixtures of octahedra and spheres and of other previously studied mixtures...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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