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Validation cost effectiveness simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330250/deciphering-the-evolutionary-affiliations-among-bacterial-strains-pseudomonas-and-frankia-sp-inhabiting-same-ecological-niche-using-virtual-rflp-and-simulation-based-approaches
#1
Meenakshi Srivastava, Manish Singh Kaushik, Amrita Srivastava, Anumeha Singh, Ekta Verma, Arun Kumar Mishra
To decipher an evolutionary lineage between two different but important bacterial groups, i.e., Pseudomonas strain (γ-Proteobacteria) and Frankia strain (actinobacteria) growing in the same ecological niche in and around of an actinorhizal plant Hippophae salicifolia D. Don, genetic diversity and comparative molecular phylogeny have been investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequences and computer-simulated and virtually directed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) through 10 restriction enzymes. Bayesian and coalescent analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested three major groups with close proximity between Pseudomonas and Frankia isolates...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314392/combining-simplicity-with-cost-effectiveness-investigation-of-potential-counterfeit-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-through-simulated-formulations-using-thin-layer-chromatography
#2
Nejal M Bhatt, Vijay D Chavada, Mallika Sanyal, Pranav S Shrivastav
A simple, accurate and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the analysis of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and their co-formulated drugs, available as binary combination. Planar chromatographic separation was achieved using a single mobile phase comprising of toluene: iso-propranol: acetone: ammonia 5.0:2.3:2.5:0.2 (v/v/v/v) for the analysis of 14 analytes on aluminium-backed layer of silica gel 60 FG254. Densitometric determination of the separated spots was done at 290nm...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304353/phase-error-correction-for-approximated-observation-based-compressed-sensing-radar-imaging
#3
Bo Li, Falin Liu, Chongbin Zhou, Yuanhao Lv, Jingqiu Hu
Defocus of the reconstructed image of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) occurs in the presence of the phase error. In this work, a phase error correction method is proposed for compressed sensing (CS) radar imaging based on approximated observation. The proposed method has better image focusing ability with much less memory cost, compared to the conventional approaches, due to the inherent low memory requirement of the approximated observation operator. The one-dimensional (1D) phase error correction for approximated observation-based CS-SAR imaging is first carried out and it can be conveniently applied to the cases of random-frequency waveform and linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform without any a priori knowledge...
March 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297968/lattice-boltzmann-simulations-of-microswimmer-tracer-interactions
#4
Joost de Graaf, Joakim Stenhammar
Hydrodynamic interactions in systems composed of self-propelled particles, such as swimming microorganisms and passive tracers, have a significant impact on the tracer dynamics compared to the equivalent "dry" sample. However, such interactions are often difficult to take into account in simulations due to their computational cost. Here, we perform a systematic investigation of swimmer-tracer interaction using an efficient force-counterforce-based lattice-Boltzmann (LB) algorithm [De Graaf et al., J. Chem...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296799/empirical-validation-of-the-unaids-spectrum-model-for-subnational-hiv-estimates-case-study-of-children-and-adults-in-manicaland-zimbabwe
#5
Romain Silhol, Simon Gregson, Constance Nyamukapa, Mutsa Mhangara, Janet Dzangare, Elizabeth Gonese, Jeffrey W Eaton, Kelsey K Case, Mary Mahy, John Stover, Owen Mugurungi
BACKGROUND: More cost-effective HIV control may be achieved by targeting geographical areas with high infection rates. The AIDS Impact model of Spectrum - used routinely to produce national HIV estimates - could provide the required subnational estimates but is rarely validated with empirical data, even at a national level. DESIGN: The validity of the Spectrum model estimates were compared with empirical estimates. METHODS: Antenatal surveillance and population survey data from a population HIV cohort study in Manicaland, East Zimbabwe, were input into Spectrum 5...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293137/nonlinear-information-fusion-algorithms-for-data-efficient-multi-fidelity-modelling
#6
P Perdikaris, M Raissi, A Damianou, N D Lawrence, G E Karniadakis
Multi-fidelity modelling enables accurate inference of quantities of interest by synergistically combining realizations of low-cost/low-fidelity models with a small set of high-fidelity observations. This is particularly effective when the low- and high-fidelity models exhibit strong correlations, and can lead to significant computational gains over approaches that solely rely on high-fidelity models. However, in many cases of practical interest, low-fidelity models can only be well correlated to their high-fidelity counterparts for a specific range of input parameters, and potentially return wrong trends and erroneous predictions if probed outside of their validity regime...
February 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292484/external-validation-of-health-economic-decision-models-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-report-of-the-third-copd-modeling-meeting
#7
Martine Hoogendoorn, Talitha L Feenstra, Yumi Asukai, Andrew H Briggs, Ryan N Hansen, Reiner Leidl, Nancy Risebrough, Yevgeniy Samyshkin, Margarethe Wacker, Maureen P M H Rutten-van Mölken
OBJECTIVES: To validate outcomes of presently available chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cost-effectiveness models against results of two large COPD trials-the 3-year TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) trial and the 4-year Understanding Potential Long-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT) trial. METHODS: Participating COPD modeling groups simulated the outcomes for the placebo-treated groups of the TORCH and UPLIFT trials using baseline characteristics of the trial populations as input...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270096/selecting-sequence-variants-to-improve-genomic-predictions-for-dairy-cattle
#8
Paul M VanRaden, Melvin E Tooker, Jeffrey R O'Connell, John B Cole, Derek M Bickhart
BACKGROUND: Millions of genetic variants have been identified by population-scale sequencing projects, but subsets of these variants are needed for routine genomic predictions or genotyping arrays. Methods for selecting sequence variants were compared using simulated sequence genotypes and real July 2015 data from the 1000 Bull Genomes Project. METHODS: Candidate sequence variants for 444 Holstein animals were combined with high-density (HD) imputed genotypes for 26,970 progeny-tested Holstein bulls...
March 7, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265822/systematic-review-of-model-based-economic-evaluations-of-heart-valve-implantations
#9
Simone A Huygens, Johanna J M Takkenberg, Maureen P M H Rutten-van Mölken
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of heart valve implantations generated by decision analytic models and to assess their methodological quality. METHODS: A systematic review was performed including model-based cost-effectiveness analyses of heart valve implantations. Study and model characteristics and cost-effectiveness results were extracted and the methodological quality was assessed using the Philips checklist. RESULTS: Fourteen decision-analytic models regarding the cost-effectiveness of heart valve implantations were identified...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265023/linearized-simulation-of-flow-over-wind-farms-and-complex-terrains
#10
Antonio Segalini
The flow over complex terrains and wind farms is estimated here by numerically solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are linearized around the unperturbed incoming wind profile, here assumed logarithmic. The Boussinesq approximation is used to model the Reynolds stress with a prescribed turbulent eddy viscosity profile. Without requiring the boundary-layer approximation, two new linear equations are obtained for the vertical velocity and the wall-normal vorticity, with a reduction in the computational cost by a factor of 8 when compared with a primitive-variables formulation...
April 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262203/development-and-evaluation-of-a-trauma-decision-making-simulator-in-oculus-virtual-reality
#11
Cuan M Harrington, Dara O Kavanagh, John F Quinlan, Donncha Ryan, Patrick Dicker, Dara O'Keeffe, Oscar Traynor, Sean Tierney
BACKGROUND: Consumer-available virtual-reality technology was launched in 2016 with strong foundations in the entertainment-industry. We developed an innovative medical-training simulator on the Oculus™ Gear-VR platform. This novel application was developed utilising internationally recognised Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) principles, requiring decision-making skills for critically-injured virtual-patients. METHODS: Participants were recruited in June, 2016 at a single-centre trauma-course (ATLS, Leinster, Ireland) and trialled the platform...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262082/influence-of-noise-generating-factors-on-cross-correlation-electron-backscatter-diffraction-ebsd-measurement-of-geometrically-necessary-dislocations-gnds
#12
Landon T Hansen, Brian E Jackson, David T Fullwood, Stuart I Wright, Marc De Graef, Eric R Homer, Robert H Wagoner
Studies of dislocation density evolution are fundamental to improved understanding in various areas of deformation mechanics. Recent advances in cross-correlation techniques, applied to electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data have particularly shed light on geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) behavior. However, the framework is relatively computationally expensive-patterns are typically saved from the EBSD scan and analyzed offline. A better understanding of the impact of EBSD pattern degradation, such as binning, compression, and various forms of noise, is vital to enable optimization of rapid and low-cost GND analysis...
March 6, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241044/medico-economic-impact-of-mskcc-non-sentinel-node-prediction-nomogram-for-er-positive-her2-negative-breast-cancers
#13
Hélène Bonsang-Kitzis, Delphine Mouttet-Boizat, Eugénie Guillot, Jean-Guillaume Feron, Virginie Fourchotte, Séverine Alran, Jean-Yves Pierga, Paul Cottu, Florence Lerebours, Denise Stevens, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Brigitte Sigal-Zafrani, François Campana, Roman Rouzier, Fabien Reyal
BACKGROUND: Avoiding axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for invasive breast cancers with isolated tumor cells or micrometastatic sentinel node biopsy (SNB) could decrease morbidity with minimal clinical significance. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to simulate the medico-economic impact of the routine use of the MSKCC non-sentinel node (NSN) prediction nomogram for ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients. METHODS: We studied 1036 ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a metastatic SNB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238953/cost-effectiveness-of-screening-patients-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-for-barrett-s-esophagus-with-a-minimally-invasive-cell-sampling-device
#14
Curtis R Heberle, Amir-Houshang Omidvari, Ayman Ali, Sonja Kroep, Chung Yin Kong, John M Inadomi, Joel H Rubenstein, Angela C Tramontano, Emily C Dowling, William D Hazelton, E Georg Luebeck, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Chin Hur
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is important to identify patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Patients with BE are usually identified by endoscopy, which is expensive. The cytosponge, which collects tissue from the esophagus non-invasively, could be a cost-effective tool for screening individuals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), who are at increased risk for BE. We developed a model to analyze the cost effectiveness of using cytosponge in first-line screening of patients with GERD for BE with endoscopic confirmation, compared to endoscopy screening only, METHODS: We incorporated data from a large clinical trial of cytosponge performance into 2 validated microsimulation models of EAC progression (the esophageal adenocarcinoma model from the Massachusetts General Hospital and the microsimulation screening analysis model from Erasmus University Medical Center)...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206667/geometry-calibration-method-for-a-cone-beam-ct-system
#15
Hongkai Yang, Kejun Kang, Yuxiang Xing
PURPOSE: The positioning accuracy of each component is important to ensure the image quality of cone-beam CT. However, accurate positioning is not easy and requires experience and time. The option is to calibrate the geometric parameters and then plug them into a reconstruction algorithm which is the preferred solution in practice. In this case, the image quality is determined by the accuracy and precision of the calibration method. This work describes a method to independently calibrate an imaging system in each pose (projection angle) for a cone-beam CT with a non-ideal-circular trajectory...
February 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185134/cost-effectiveness-models-in-breast-cancer-screening-in-the-general-population-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Irmgard C Schiller-Frühwirth, Beate Jahn, Marjan Arvandi, Uwe Siebert
BACKGROUND: Many Western countries have long-established population-based mammography screening programs. Prior to implementing these programs, decision-analytic modeling was widely used to inform decisions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of cost-effectiveness models in breast cancer screening in the general population to analyze their structural and methodological approaches. METHODS: A systematic literature search for health economic models was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CRD Databases, Cochrane Library, and EconLit in August 2011 with updates in June 2013, April 2015, and November 2016...
February 10, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183343/spectrum-malaria-a-user-friendly-projection-tool-for-health-impact-assessment-and-strategic-planning-by-malaria-control-programmes-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Matthew Hamilton, Guy Mahiane, Elric Werst, Rachel Sanders, Olivier Briët, Thomas Smith, Richard Cibulskis, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Daniel J Weiss, Peter W Gething, Carel Pretorius, Eline L Korenromp
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of malaria prevention and treatment needs to continue but national strategies and budget allocations are not always evidence-based. This article presents a new modelling tool projecting malaria infection, cases and deaths to support impact evaluation, target setting and strategic planning. METHODS: Nested in the Spectrum suite of programme planning tools, the model includes historic estimates of case incidence and deaths in groups aged up to 4, 5-14, and 15+ years, and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection (PfPR) among children 2-9 years, for 43 sub-Saharan African countries and their 602 provinces, from the WHO and malaria atlas project...
February 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178872/validation-study-of-a-portable-home-trainer-using-a-pad-for-laparoscopic-practice
#18
Zaki Sleiman, Elie Atallah, Elie Rassi, Riad Sarkis, Aline Khazzaka
The aim of this study was to describe and validate a homemade laparoscopic trainer. The abdominal cavity is simulated within a 3-mm-thick stainless steel model. Thirty-four participants were evaluated in a pilot study to validate our model. Participants were divided into experts (n = 19) and novices (n = 15) to perform basic and complex laparoscopic skills. The comparison between the homemade trainer (HT) and the standard laparoscopic trainer showed no significant differences for the 2 tasks performed for each group ( P > ...
January 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146513/spatial-convolution-for-mirror-image-suppression-in-fourier-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#19
Miao Zhang, Lixin Ma, Ping Yu
We developed a spatial convolution approach for mirror image suppression in phase-modulated Fourier domain optical coherence tomography, and demonstrated it in vivo for small animal imaging. Utilizing the correlation among neighboring A-scans, the mirror image suppression process was simplified to a three-parameter convolution. By adjusting the three parameters, we can implement different Fourier domain sideband windows, which is important but complicated in existing approaches. By properly selecting the window size, we validated the spatial convolution approach on both simulated and experimental data, and showed that it is versatile, fast, and effective...
February 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143408/evaluation-of-biases-present-in-the-cohort-multiple-randomised-controlled-trial-design-a-simulation-study
#20
Jane Candlish, Alexander Pate, Matthew Sperrin, Tjeerd van Staa
BACKGROUND: The cohort multiple randomised controlled trial (cmRCT) design provides an opportunity to incorporate the benefits of randomisation within clinical practice; thus reducing costs, integrating electronic healthcare records, and improving external validity. This study aims to address a key concern of the cmRCT design: refusal to treatment is only present in the intervention arm, and this may lead to bias and reduce statistical power. METHODS: We used simulation studies to assess the effect of this refusal, both random and related to event risk, on bias of the effect estimator and statistical power...
January 31, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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