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Validation cost effectiveness simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141153/using-observational-data-to-calibrate-simulation-models
#1
Eleanor J Murray, James M Robins, George R Seage, Sara Lodi, Emily P Hyle, Krishna P Reddy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: Individual-level simulation models are valuable tools for comparing the impact of clinical or public health interventions on population health and cost outcomes over time. However, a key challenge is ensuring that outcome estimates correctly reflect real-world impacts. Calibration to targets obtained from randomized trials may be insufficient if trials do not exist for populations, time periods, or interventions of interest. Observational data can provide a wider range of calibration targets but requires methods to adjust for treatment-confounder feedback...
November 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139057/cadaveric-simulation-a-review-of-reviews
#2
REVIEW
M Yiasemidou, E Gkaragkani, D Glassman, C S Biyani
BACKGROUND: Traditional surgical training, largely based on the Halstedian model "see one, do one, teach one" is not as effective in the era of working time restrictions and elaborate shift-patterns. As a result, contemporary surgeons turned to educational methods outside the operating theatre such as simulation. Cadavers are high fidelity models but their use has ethical and cost implications and their availability may be limited. In this review, we explore the role of cadaveric simulation in modern surgical education...
November 14, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122046/model-based-cost-effectiveness-of-conventional-and-innovative-chemo-radiation-in-lung-cancer
#3
Mathilda L Bongers, Dirk de Ruysscher, Cary Oberije, Philippe Lambin, Carin A Uyl-de Groot, José Belderbos, Veerle M H Coupé
INTRODUCTION: Optimizing radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy through advanced imaging and accelerated radiation schemes shows promising results in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study compared the cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography-computed tomography based isotoxic accelerated sequential chemo-radiation (SRT2) and concurrent chemo-radiation with daily low-dose cisplatin (CRT2) with standard sequential (SRT1) and concurrent chemo-radiation (CRT1)...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121247/prediction-of-individual-outcomes-for-asthma-sufferers
#4
B Storlie Curtis, E Branda Megan, R Gionfriddo Michael, D Shah Nilay, A Rank Matthew
We consider the problem of individual-specific medication level recommendation (initiation, removal, increase, or decrease) for asthma sufferers. Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in both adults and children, affecting 8% of the US population and costing $37-63 billion/year in the United States of America. Asthma is a complex disease, whose symptoms may wax and wane, making it difficult for clinicians to predict outcomes and prognosis. Improved ability to predict prognosis can inform decision making and may promote conversations between clinician and provider around optimizing medication therapy...
November 6, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102016/editorial-commentary-arthroscopic-simulation-training-need-not-be-expensive-to-be-effective
#5
EDITORIAL
Aman Dhawan
In a randomized controlled trial of arthroscopic training tools, the low-cost/low-fidelity Cigar Box Arthroscopy Trainer demonstrated equivalent efficacy to the validated, and more expensive, Anatomic Knee Arthroscopy Trainer (AKAT) in the training of novice arthroscopists using a validated scoring system, the Basic Arthroscopic Knee Skill Scoring System. As simulation training and formal surgical skills training is now mandatory, residency and fellowship programs are required to incorporate training modules and equipment to maximize learning while minimizing potential for patient harm...
November 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081317/evaluation-of-a-low-fidelity-ear-surgery-simulator-in-a-low-resource-setting
#6
K Luu, L Straatman, D Nakku, B Westerberg, N Carter, M Clark
OBJECTIVE: The provision of healthcare education in developing countries is a complex problem that simulation has the potential to help. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a low-cost ear surgery simulator, the Ear Trainer. METHODS: The Ear Trainer was assessed in two low-resource environments in Cambodia and Uganda. Participants were video-recorded performing four specific middle-ear procedures, and blindly scored using a validated measurement tool...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079992/vcsim3-a-vr-simulator-for-cardiovascular-interventions
#7
Przemyslaw Korzeniowski, Ruth J White, Fernando Bello
PURPOSE: Effective and safe performance of cardiovascular interventions requires excellent catheter/guidewire manipulation skills. These skills are currently mainly gained through an apprenticeship on real patients, which may not be safe or cost-effective. Computer simulation offers an alternative for core skills training. However, replicating the physical behaviour of real instruments navigated through blood vessels is a challenging task. METHODS: We have developed VCSim3-a virtual reality simulator for cardiovascular interventions...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065744/exploring-the-potential-cost-effectiveness-of-precision-medicine-treatment-strategies-for-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#8
Qiushi Chen, Ashley D Staton, Turgay Ayer, Daniel A Goldstein, Jean L Koff, Christopher R Flowers
Activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with worse survival after standard rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP) chemoimmunotherapy compared to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) subtype. Preliminary evidence suggests that benefits from novel agents may vary by subtype. Hypothesizing that treatment stratified by DLBCL subtype could be potentially cost-effective, we developed micro-simulation models to compare three first-line treatment strategies: (1) standard RCHOP for all patients (2) subtype testing followed by RCHOP for GCB and novel treatment for ABC DLBCL, and (3) novel treatment for all patients...
October 25, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060031/effects-of-wide-step-walking-on-swing-phase-hip-muscle-forces-and-spatio-temporal-gait-parameters
#9
Soheil Bajelan, Hanatsu Nagano, Tony Sparrow, Rezaul K Begg
Human walking can be viewed essentially as a continuum of anterior balance loss followed by a step that re-stabilizes balance. To secure balance an extended base of support can be assistive but healthy young adults tend to walk with relatively narrower steps compared to vulnerable populations (e.g. older adults and patients). It was, therefore, hypothesized that wide step walking may enhance dynamic balance at the cost of disturbed optimum coupling of muscle functions, leading to additional muscle work and associated reduction of gait economy...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048467/identification-of-copy-number-variations-and-translocations-in-cancer-cells-from-hi-c-data
#10
Abhijit Chakraborty, Ferhat Ay
Motivation: Eukaryotic chromosomes adapt a complex and highly dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structure, which profoundly affects different cellular functions and outcomes including changes in epigenetic landscape and in gene expression. Making the scenario even more complex, cancer cells harbor chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., copy number variations (CNVs) and translocations) altering their genomes both at the sequence level and at the level of 3D organization. High-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques (e...
October 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047983/simplified-paraboloid-phase-model-based-phase-tracker-for-demodulation-of-a-single-complex-fringe
#11
A He, B Deepan, C Quan
A regularized phase tracker (RPT) is an effective method for demodulation of single closed-fringe patterns. However, lengthy calculation time, specially designed scanning strategy, and sign-ambiguity problems caused by noise and saddle points reduce its effectiveness, especially for demodulating large and complex fringe patterns. In this paper, a simplified paraboloid phase model-based regularized phase tracker (SPRPT) is proposed. In SPRPT, first and second phase derivatives are pre-determined by the density-direction-combined method and discrete higher-order demodulation algorithm, respectively...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047771/astigmatism-corrected-echelle-spectrometer-using-an-off-the-shelf-cylindrical-lens
#12
Xiao Fu, Fajie Duan, Jiajia Jiang, Tingting Huang, Ling Ma, Changrong Lv
As a special kind of spectrometer with the Czerny-Turner structure, the echelle spectrometer features two-dimensional dispersion, which leads to a complex astigmatic condition. In this work, we propose an optical design of astigmatism-corrected echelle spectrometer using an off-the-shelf cylindrical lens. The mathematical model considering astigmatism introduced by the off-axis mirrors, the echelle grating, and the prism is established. Our solution features simplified calculation and low-cost construction, which is capable of overall compensation of the astigmatism in a wide spectral range (200-600 nm)...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047479/light-scattering-from-sessile-water-drops-and-raindrop-shaped-glass-beads-as-a-validation-tool-for-rainbow-simulations
#13
Alexander Haußmann
The shape deviation of falling raindrops from exact spheres is known to affect the appearance of natural rainbows, e.g., by enhancing the visibility of supernumerary arcs around the top or by creating branching effects known as "twinned rainbows." To check the accuracy of numerical optical models for rainbow scattering from such nonspherical drops, two simple and low-cost experiments are presented in this paper: (1) sessile, i.e., sitting, drops on ultrahydrophobic surfaces, and (2) glass beads in the shape of falling raindrops...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040384/selansi-a-toolbox-for-simulation-of-stochastic-gene-regulatory-networks
#14
Manuel Pájaro, Irene Otero-Muras, Carlos Vázquez, Antonio A Alonso
Motivation: Gene regulation is inherently stochastic. In many applications concerning Systems and Synthetic Biology such as the reverse engineering and the de novo design of genetic circuits, stochastic effects (yet potentially crucial) are often neglected due to the high computational cost of stochastic simulations. With advances in these fields there is an increasing need of tools providing accurate approximations of the stochastic dynamics of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) with reduced computational effort...
October 11, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039750/modeling-of-body-weight-metrics-for-effective-and-cost-efficient-conventional-factor-viii-dosing-in-hemophilia-a-prophylaxis
#15
Alanna McEneny-King, Pierre Chelle, Severine Henrard, Cedric Hermans, Alfonso Iorio, Andrea N Edginton
The total body weight-based dosing strategy currently used in the prophylactic treatment of hemophilia A may not be appropriate for all populations. The assumptions that guide weight-based dosing are not valid in overweight and obese populations, resulting in overdosing and ineffective resource utilization. We explored different weight metrics including lean body weight, ideal body weight, and adjusted body weight to determine an alternative dosing strategy that is both safe and resource-efficient in normal and overweight/obese adult patients...
October 17, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037213/personalized-treatment-of-women-with-early-breast-cancer-a-risk-group-specific-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-accounting-for-companion-prognostic-tests-oncotypedx-and-adjuvant-online
#16
Beate Jahn, Ursula Rochau, Christina Kurzthaler, Michael Hubalek, Rebecca Miksad, Gaby Sroczynski, Mike Paulden, Marvin Bundo, David Stenehjem, Diana Brixner, Murray Krahn, Uwe Siebert
BACKGROUND: Due to high survival rates and the relatively small benefit of adjuvant therapy, the application of personalized medicine (PM) through risk stratification is particularly beneficial in early breast cancer (BC) to avoid unnecessary harms from treatment. The new 21-gene assay (OncotypeDX, ODX) is a promising prognostic score for risk stratification that can be applied in conjunction with Adjuvant!Online (AO) to guide personalized chemotherapy decisions for early BC patients...
October 16, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035238/neuroadaptive-control-of-strict-feedback-systems-with-full-state-constraints-and-unknown-actuation-characteristics-an-inexpensive-solution
#17
Yongduan Song, Ziyun Shen, Liu He, Xiucai Huang
In this paper, we present a neuroadaptive control for a class of uncertain nonlinear strict-feedback systems with full-state constraints and unknown actuation characteristics where the break points of the dead-zone model are considered as time-variant. In order to deal with the modeling uncertainties and the impact of the nonsmooth actuation characteristics, neural networks are utilized at each step of the backstepping design. By using barrier Lyapunov function, together with the concept of virtual parameter, we develop a neuroadaptive control scheme ensuring tracking stability and at the same time maintaining full-state constraints...
October 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016166/-replicability-and-other-features-of-a-high-quality-science-toward-a-balanced-and-empirical-approach-correction-to-finkel-et-al-2017
#18
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Replicability and other features of a high-quality science: Toward a balanced and empirical approach" by Eli J. Finkel, Paul W. Eastwick and Harry T. Reis (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2017[Aug], Vol 113[2], 244-253). In the commentary, there was an error in the References list. The publishing year for the 18th article was cited incorrectly as 2016. The in-text acronym associated with this citation should read instead as LCL2017. The correct References list citation should read as follows: LeBel, E...
November 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982807/computer-simulation-models-of-pre-diabetes-populations-a-systematic-review-protocol
#19
Jose Leal, Waqar Khurshid, Eva Pagano, Talitha Feenstra
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a major public health problem and prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycaemia) is associated with a high risk of developing diabetes. With evidence supporting the use of preventive interventions for prediabetes populations and the discovery of novel biomarkers stratifying the risk of progression, there is a need to evaluate their cost-effectiveness across jurisdictions. In diabetes and prediabetes, it is relevant to inform cost-effectiveness analysis using decision models due to their ability to forecast long-term health outcomes and costs beyond the time frame of clinical trials...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958932/exploring-dna-dynamics-within-oligonucleosomes-with-coarse-grained-simulations-sirah-force-field-extension-for-protein-dna-complexes
#20
Astrid Brandner, Andreas Schüller, Francisco Melo, Sergio Pantano
Describing the regulation of chromatin segments by protein recognition events constitute a major goal in biology and biotechnology. Despite astonishing experimental developments, achieving nearly atomistic spatial/temporal resolution on such macromolecular systems remains a big challenge owing to the intrinsic flexibility of large biological assemblies. Although computer simulations have become a reliable complement to experimental techniques, computational cost limits their routine applications to relatively small systems...
September 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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