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Validation cost effectiveness simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634131/cost-effectiveness-of-pre-versus-post-liver-transplant-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#1
Sumeyye Samur, Brian Kues, Turgay Ayer, Mark S Roberts, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Drew Michael S Donnell, Raymond T Chung, Jagpreet Chhatwal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment offer new hope to both pre- and post-liver transplant (LT) patients. However, whether to treat HCV patients pre- versus post-LT is not clear, as treatment can improve liver function but could reduce the chance of receiving a LT while on the waiting list. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pre-LT versus post-LT HCV treatment with oral DAAs in decompensated cirrhotic patients on the LT waiting list...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618527/implementation-of-dual-time-stepping-strategy-of-the-gas-kinetic-scheme-for-unsteady-flow-simulations
#2
Ji Li, Chengwen Zhong, Yong Wang, Congshan Zhuo
In our study, the dual time-stepping strategy of the gas-kinetic scheme is constructed and used for the simulation of unsteady flows. In comparison to the previous implicit gas-kinetic scheme, both the inviscid and viscous flux Jacobian are considered in our work, and the linear system of the pseudo-steady-state is solved by applying generalized minimal residual algorithm. The accuracy is validated by several numerical cases, the incompressible flow around blunt bodies (stationary circular cylinder and square cylinder), and the transonic buffet on the NACA0012 airfoil under hybrid mesh...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608824/a-novel-unsupervised-adaptive-learning-method-for-long-term-electromyography-emg-pattern-recognition
#3
Qi Huang, Dapeng Yang, Li Jiang, Huajie Zhang, Hong Liu, Kiyoshi Kotani
Performance degradation will be caused by a variety of interfering factors for pattern recognition-based myoelectric control methods in the long term. This paper proposes an adaptive learning method with low computational cost to mitigate the effect in unsupervised adaptive learning scenarios. We presents a particle adaptive classifier (PAC), by constructing a particle adaptive learning strategy and universal incremental least square support vector classifier (LS-SVC). We compared PAC performance with incremental support vector classifier (ISVC) and non-adapting SVC (NSVC) in a long-term pattern recognition task in both unsupervised and supervised adaptive learning scenarios...
June 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593095/load-enhanced-movement-quality-screening-and-tactical-athleticism-an-extension-of-evidence
#4
Stephen M Glass, Randy J Schmitz, Christopher K Rhea, Scott E Ross
BACKGROUND: Military organizations use movement quality screening for prediction of injury risk and performance potential. Currently, evidence of an association between movement quality and performance is limited. Recent work has demonstrated that external loading strengthens the relationship between movement screens and performance outcomes. Such loading may therefore steer us toward robust implementations of movement quality screens while maintaining their appeal as cost effective, field-expedient tools...
June 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590498/a-multi-way-multi-task-learning-approach-for-multinomial-logistic-regression-an-application-in-joint-prediction-of-appointment-miss-opportunities-across-multiple-clinics
#5
Adel Alaeddini, Seung Hee Hong
OBJECTIVES: Whether they have been engineered for it or not, most healthcare systems experience a variety of unexpected events such as appointment miss-opportunities that can have significant impact on their revenue, cost and resource utilization. In this paper, a multi-way multi-task learning model based on multinomial logistic regression is proposed to jointly predict the occurrence of different types of miss-opportunities at multiple clinics. METHODS: An extension of L1 / L2 regularization is proposed to enable transfer of information among various types of miss-opportunities as well as different clinics...
June 7, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577041/determining-skeletal-muscle-architecture-with-laplacian-simulations-a-comparison-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#6
Geoffrey G Handsfield, Bart Bolsterlee, Joshua M Inouye, Robert D Herbert, Thor F Besier, Justin W Fernandez
Determination of skeletal muscle architecture is important for accurately modeling muscle behavior. Current methods for 3D muscle architecture determination can be costly and time-consuming, making them prohibitive for clinical or modeling applications. Computational approaches such as Laplacian flow simulations can estimate muscle fascicle orientation based on muscle shape and aponeurosis location. The accuracy of this approach is unknown, however, since it has not been validated against other standards for muscle architecture determination...
June 2, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575929/influence-of-land-development-on-stormwater-runoff-from-a-mixed-land-use-and-land-cover-catchment
#7
M A Paule-Mercado, B Y Lee, S A Memon, S R Umer, I Salim, C-H Lee
Mitigating for the negative impacts of stormwater runoff is becoming a concern due to increased land development. Understanding how land development influences stormwater runoff is essential for sustainably managing water resources. In recent years, aggregate low impact development-best management practices (LID-BMPs) have been implemented to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff on receiving water bodies. This study used an integrated approach to determine the influence of land development and assess the ecological benefits of four aggregate LID-BMPs in stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover (LULC) catchment with ongoing land development...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574314/a-microcontroller-based-simulation-of-dural-venous-sinus-injury-for-neurosurgical-training
#8
Daniel R Cleary, Dominic A Siler, Nathaniel Whitney, Nathan R Selden
OBJECTIVE Surgical simulation has the potential to supplement and enhance traditional resident training. However, the high cost of equipment and limited number of available scenarios have inhibited wider integration of simulation in neurosurgical education. In this study the authors provide initial validation of a novel, low-cost simulation platform that recreates the stress of surgery using a combination of hands-on, model-based, and computer elements. Trainee skill was quantified using multiple time and performance measures...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547013/new-cfd-tools-to-evaluate-nasal-airflow
#9
M A Burgos, E Sanmiguel-Rojas, C Del Pino, M A Sevilla-García, F Esteban-Ortega
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND(®) only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow...
May 25, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541904/diffusion-based-model-for-synaptic-molecular-communication-channel
#10
Tooba Khan, Bilgesu A Bilgin, Ozgur B Akan
Computational methods have been extensively used to understand underlying dynamics of molecular communication methods employed by nature. One very effective and popular approach is to utilize a Monte Carlo simulation. Although it is very reliable, this method can have a very high computational cost, which in some cases renders the simulation impractical. Therefore, in this paper, for the special case of an excitatory synaptic molecular communication channel, we present a novel mathematical model for the diffusion and binding of neurotransmitters that takes into account the effects of synaptic geometry in three-dimensional space and re-absorption of neurotransmitters by the transmitting neuron...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536460/towards-ultimate-low-frequency-air-core-magnetometer-sensitivity
#11
Ruben Pellicer-Guridi, Michael W Vogel, David C Reutens, Viktor Vegh
Air-core magnetometers are amongst the most commonly used magnetic field detectors in biomedical instruments. They offer excellent sensitivity, low fabrication complexity and a robust, cost-effective solution. However, air-core magnetometers must be tailored to the specific application to achieve high sensitivity, which can be decisive in the accuracy of the diagnoses and the time required for the examination. Existing methods proposed for the design of air-core magnetometers are based on simplified models and simulations using a reduced number of variables, potentially leading to sensitivity that is suboptimal...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534290/wear-predictions-for-uhmwpe-material-with-various-surface-properties-used-on-the-femoral-component-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-computational-simulation-study
#12
Kyoung-Tak Kang, Juhyun Son, Ho-Joong Kim, Changhyun Baek, Oh-Ryong Kwon, Yong-Gon Koh
The wear of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial inserts in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains a major limitation that hinders the longevity of clinically successful devices. Surface properties significantly affect the overall performance of TKA, and surface modification with mechanically and chemically stable materials is an effective method for overcoming the wear of TKA. However, wear tests are not cost-efficient or time-efficient; thus, the effects of geometric, loading, and alignment perturbations are often evaluated via parametric studies...
July 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526634/microsurgery-simulation-training-system-and-set-up-an-essential-system-to-complement-every-training-programme
#13
Dhalia Masud, Nadine Haram, Margarita Moustaki, Whitney Chow, Samer Saour, Pari Naz Mohanna
INTRODUCTION: Microsurgical techniques are essential in plastic surgery; however, inconsistent training practices, acquiring these skills can be difficult. To address this, we designed a standardised laboratory-based microsurgical training programme, which allows trainees to develop their dexterity, visuospatial ability, operative flow and judgement as separate components. METHOD: Thirty trainees completed an initial microsurgical anastomosis on a chicken femoral artery, assessed using the structured assessment of microsurgical skills (SAMS) method...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521828/markov-modeling-in-hepatitis-b-screening-and-linkage-to-care
#14
Martin A Sehr, Kartik D Joshi, John M Fontanesi, Robert J Wong, Robert R Bitmead, Robert G Gish
BACKGROUND: With up to 240 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B worldwide, including an estimated 2 million in the United States, widespread screening is needed to link the infected to care and decrease the possible consequences of untreated infection, including liver cancer, cirrhosis and death. Screening is currently fraught with challenges in both the developed and developing world. New point-of-care tests may have advantages over standard-of-care tests in terms of cost-effectiveness and linkage to care...
May 18, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502728/technical-validation-of-a-next-generation-sequencing-assay-for-detecting-clinically-relevant-levels-of-breast-cancer-related-single-nucleotide-variants-and-copy-number-variants-using-simulated-cell-free-dna
#15
Xin Yang, Yuxing Chu, Rui Zhang, Yanxi Han, Lucheng Zhang, Yu Fu, Dan Li, Rongxue Peng, Dongdong Li, Jiansheng Ding, Ziyang Li, Meiru Zhao, Kuo Zhang, Tian Lu, Lang Yi, Qisheng Wu, Guigao Lin, Jiehong Xie, Tao Liu, Ling Yang, Xin Yi, Jinming Li
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used in a clinical setting for diagnostic and prognostic testing of genetic mutations to select optimal targeted therapies. Herein, we describe the development of a custom NGS assay for detecting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) in a panel of 51 genes related to breast cancer. We designed and implemented a validation strategy in accordance with principles and guidelines developed by the Next-Generation Sequencing: Standardization of Clinical Testing work group using artificial, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) with mutant fragments prepared in a simple, rapid, and cost-effective manner...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490271/validation-of-a-cardiovascular-disease-policy-micro-simulation-model-using-both-survival-and-receiver-operating-characteristic-curves
#16
Ankur Pandya, Stephen Sy, Sylvia Cho, Sartaj Alam, Milton C Weinstein, Thomas A Gaziano
BACKGROUND: Despite some advances, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and healthcare costs in the United States. We therefore developed a comprehensive CVD policy simulation model that identifies cost-effective approaches for reducing CVD burden. This paper aims to: 1) describe our model in detail; and 2) perform model validation analyses. METHODS: The model simulates 1,000,000 adults (ages 35 to 80 years) using a variety of CVD-related epidemiological data, including previously calibrated Framingham-based risk scores for coronary heart disease and stroke...
May 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488257/a-comparison-of-four-software-programs-for-implementing-decision-analytic-cost-effectiveness-models
#17
REVIEW
Chase Hollman, Mike Paulden, Petros Pechlivanoglou, Christopher McCabe
The volume and technical complexity of both academic and commercial research using decision analytic modelling has increased rapidly over the last two decades. The range of software programs used for their implementation has also increased, but it remains true that a small number of programs account for the vast majority of cost-effectiveness modelling work. We report a comparison of four software programs: TreeAge Pro, Microsoft Excel, R and MATLAB. Our focus is on software commonly used for building Markov models and decision trees to conduct cohort simulations, given their predominance in the published literature around cost-effectiveness modelling...
May 9, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479787/indigenous-inexpensive-practice-models-for-skill-development-in-neuroendoscopy
#18
Jitin Bajaj, Yad Ram Yadav, Anurag Pateriya, Vijay Parihar, Shailendra Ratre, Amitesh Dubey
INTRODUCTION: Neurosurgery is a branch having a tough learning curve. Residents generally get very less hands-on exposure for advanced procedures like neuroendoscopy. With the limited number of cadavers available and ethical issues associated with animal models, practice models, and simulators are becoming the able alternative. Most of these simulators are very costly. We tried to build indigenous inexpensive practice models that can help in developing most of the skills of neuroendoscopy...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475060/the-implementation-and-validation-of-a-virtual-environment-for-training-powered-wheelchair-manoeuvres
#19
Nigel W John, Serban R Pop, Thomas W Day, Panagiotis D Ritsos, Christopher J Headleand
Navigating a powered wheelchair and avoiding collisions is often a daunting task for new wheelchair users. It takes time and practice to gain the coordination needed to become a competent driver and this can be even more of a challenge for someone with a disability. We present a cost-effective virtual reality (VR) application that takes advantage of consumer level VR hardware. The system can be easily deployed in an assessment centre or for home use, and does not depend on a specialized high-end virtual environment such as a Powerwall or CAVE...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452934/a-genetic-algorithm-for-the-generation-of-packetization-masks-for-robust-image-communication
#20
Katherine Zapata-Quiñones, Cristian Duran-Faundez, Gilberto Gutiérrez, Vincent Lecuire, Christopher Arredondo-Flores, Hugo Jara-Lipán
Image interleaving has proven to be an effective solution to provide the robustness of image communication systems when resource limitations make reliable protocols unsuitable (e.g., in wireless camera sensor networks); however, the search for optimal interleaving patterns is scarcely tackled in the literature. In 2008, Rombaut et al. presented an interesting approach introducing a packetization mask generator based in Simulated Annealing (SA), including a cost function, which allows assessing the suitability of a packetization pattern, avoiding extensive simulations...
April 28, 2017: Sensors
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