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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445970/acid-ceramidase-is-a-novel-drug-target-for-pediatric-brain-tumors
#1
Ninh B Doan, Ha S Nguyen, Andrew Montoure, Mona M Al-Gizawiy, Wade M Mueller, Shekar Kurpad, Scott D Rand, Jennifer M Connelly, Christopher R Chitambar, Kathleen M Schmainda, Shama P Mirza
Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children and are also a leading culprit of cancer-related fatalities in children. Pediatric brain tumors remain hard to treat. In this study, we demonstrated that medulloblastoma, pediatric glioblastoma, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors express significant levels of acid ceramidase, where levels are highest in the radioresistant tumors, suggesting that acid ceramidase may confer radioresistance. More importantly, we also showed that acid ceramidase inhibitors are highly effective at targeting these pediatric brain tumors with low IC50 values (4...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442918/targeting-the-pd-1-pathway-in-pediatric-solid-tumors-and-brain-tumors
#2
REVIEW
Lars M Wagner, Val R Adams
While remarkable advances have been made in the treatment of pediatric leukemia over the past decades, new therapies are needed for children with advanced solid tumors and high-grade brain tumors who fail standard chemotherapy regimens. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors acting through the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway has shown efficacy in some chemotherapy-resistant adult cancers, generating interest that these agents may also be helpful to treat certain refractory pediatric malignancies...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440450/comprehensive-analysis-of-a-microrna-expression-profile-in-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#3
Junqiang Dai, Qiao Li, Zhitong Bing, Yinian Zhang, Liang Niu, Hang Yin, Guoqiang Yuan, Yawen Pan
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of the central nervous system among children. Medulloblastoma is an embryonal tumor, of which little is known about the pathogenesis. Several efforts have been made to understand the molecular aspects of its tumorigenic pathways; however, these are poorly understood. microRNA (miRNA), a type of non‑coding short RNA, has been proven to be associated with a number of physiological processes and pathological processes of serious diseases, including brain tumors...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440255/clinical-profile-and-neuroimaging-in-pediatric-optic-neuritis-in-indian-population-a-case-series
#4
Rutika Khadse, Meenakshi Ravindran, Neelam Pawar, Padmavathy Maharajan, Ramakrishnan Rengappa
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to report clinical features, neuroimaging, and visual outcome in pediatric optic neuritis (ON) in Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of children up to the age of 16 years, diagnosed with ON, that presented at pediatric and neuroophthalmology clinic of a tertiary eye care center, in South India, within the period of 2010-2015. RESULTS: We identified 62 eyes of 40 children diagnosed as ON within the study period...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439753/abating-mercury-exposure-in-young-children-should-include-thimerosal-free-vaccines
#5
REVIEW
José G Dórea
Pediatric immunization is essential to prevent, control and eradicate children`s infectious diseases. Newborns and infants in less developed countries have a concentrated schedule of Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs); pregnant mothers are also immunized with TCVs. Metabolic changes during early development are demonstrably an important risk factor for ethylmercury (EtHg) effects on neurodevelopment, while exposure to Thimerosal sensitizes susceptible individuals to life-long contact dermatitis. Concerns regarding toxicity of Hg have moved rich nations to withdraw it from medicines and, in particular, Thimerosal from pediatric vaccines; it has been more than 20 years since rich countries started using Thimerosal-free vaccines...
April 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439202/a-rare-complication-of-esophageal-dilatation-brain-abscess
#6
Nagehan Aslan, Esra Sesli, Tuba Koca, Nilgün Şenol, Mustafa Akçam
Brain abscess is an uncommon serious disease, which has been reported as a rare complication of repeated esophageal dilations; however, routine periprocedural antibiotic prophylaxis is not currently recommended. Herein, we present a brain abscess that developed after esophageal dilatation for the treatment of induced caustic esophageal strictures. The clinical presentation is non-specific, the most reported signs are high fever and neurologic findings. Cases have been reported in the literature in adult and pediatric patients...
March 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437838/prognostic-relevance-of-mir-124-3p-and-its-target-tp53inp1-in-pediatric-ependymoma
#7
Yulia Margolin-Miller, Natalia Yanichkin, Keren Shichrur, Helen Toledano, Anat Ohali, Theophilos Tzaridis, Shalom Michowitz, Suzana Fichman-Horn, Meora Feinmesser, Stefan M Pfister, Hendrik Witt, Uri Tabori, Eric Bouffet, Vijay Ramaswamy, Cynthia Hawkins, Michael D Taylor, Isaac Yaniv, Smadar Avigad
Ependymoma is a malignant pediatric brain tumor, often incurable under the current treatment regimen. We aimed to evaluate the expression of microRNAs (miRs) in pediatric ependymoma tumors in an attempt to identify prognostic molecular markers which would lead to potential therapeutic targets. Following miR-array expression analysis, we focused on 9 miRs that correlated with relapse which were further validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in a cohort of 67 patients. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure target protein expression in 20 and 34 tumor samples, respectively...
April 24, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436445/cortical-thickness-and-subcortical-gray-matter-volume-in-pediatric-anxiety-disorders
#8
Andrea L Gold, Elizabeth R Steuber, Lauren K White, Jennifer Pacheco, Jessica F Sachs, David Pagliaccio, Erin Berman, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine
Perturbations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and amygdala are implicated in the development of anxiety disorders. However, most structural neuroimaging studies of patients with anxiety disorders utilize adult samples, and the few studies in youths examine small samples, primarily with volume-based measures. This study tested the hypothesis that cortical thickness of PFC regions and gray matter volume of the hippocampus and amygdala differ between pediatric anxiety disorder patients and healthy volunteers (HVs)...
April 24, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436245/book-review-pediatric-cochlear-implantation-learning-and-the-brain-kirk-nancy-m-young-karen-iler-eds-pediatric-cochlear-implantation-learning-and-the-brain-new-york-ny-springer-2016-365-pages-83-129-hardcover-122-kindle
#9
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435999/neonatal-propofol-anesthesia-changes-expression-of-synaptic-plasticity-proteins-and-increases-stereotypic-and-anxyolitic-behavior-in-adult-rats
#10
Desanka Milanovic, Vesna Pesic, Natasa Loncarevic-Vasiljkovic, Vladimir Avramovic, Vesna Tesic, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Selma Kanazir, Sabera Ruzdijic
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain...
April 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434268/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-uch-l1-as-a-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-target-in-neurodegeneration-neurotrauma-and-neuro-injuries
#11
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, George Sarkis, Isabel Torres, Vijaya Raghavan
Since its discovery as a major CNS-abundant protein 25 years ago, Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has emerged as an important enzyme in regulating brain protein metabolism, by coupling to the proteasome pathway of protein degradation. Areas covered: UCH-L1 is implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson disease and other chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Also, UCH-L1 has been recently emerging as a biofluid-based biomarker for various forms of acute neurotrauma and CNS injury. Expert opinion: The loss of UCH-L1 activity coupled with the gain of proteinopathy function are linked to neurodegeneration such as Parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433357/brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-confirmed-the-prognostic-accuracy-in-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-time-for-their-inclusion-in-prediction-risk-models
#12
EDITORIAL
Massimiliano Cantinotti, Aldo Clerico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431179/mirna-regulation-in-gliomas-usual-suspects-in-glial-tumorigenesis-and-evolving-clinical-applications
#13
Heather Ames, Marc K Halushka, Fausto J Rodriguez
In recent years, an increasing role for noncoding small RNAs (miRNA) has been uncovered in carcinogenesis. These oligonucleotides can promote degradation and/or inhibit translation of key mRNAs. Recent studies have also highlighted a possible role for miRNAs in adult and pediatric brain tumors, including high- and low-grade gliomas, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and neoplasms associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Gliomas represent the most common category of primary intraparenchymal brain tumors, and, for example, manipulation of signaling pathways, through inhibition of PTEN transcription appears to be an important function of miRNA dysregulation through miR-21, miR-106b, and miR-26a...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430697/abusive-head-trauma-and-mortality-an-analysis-from-an-international-comparative-effectiveness-study-of-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Nikki Miller Ferguson, Ajit Sarnaik, Darryl Miles, Nadeem Shafi, Mark J Peters, Edward Truemper, Monica S Vavilala, Michael J Bell, Stephen R Wisniewski, James F Luther, Adam L Hartman, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Small series have suggested that outcomes after abusive head trauma are less favorable than after other injury mechanisms. We sought to determine the impact of abusive head trauma on mortality and identify factors that differentiate children with abusive head trauma from those with traumatic brain injury from other mechanisms. DESIGN: First 200 subjects from the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Trial-a comparative effectiveness study using an observational, cohort study design...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429381/the-structural-connectome-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Marsh Königs, L W Ernest van Heurn, Roel Bakx, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Marleen van der Wees, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan, Petra J W Pouwels
This study aimed to investigate the impact of mild to severe pediatric TBI on the structural connectome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild(RF+) , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 16) at 2.8 years post-injury. Probabilistic tractography on diffusion tensor imaging data was used in combination with graph theory to study structural connectivity. Functional outcome was measured using neurocognitive tests and parent and teacher questionnaires for behavioral functioning...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426684/long-term-results-after-transplantation-of-pediatric-liver-grafts-from-donation-after-circulatory-death-donors
#16
Rianne van Rijn, Pieter E R Hoogland, Frank Lehner, Ernest L W van Heurn, Robert J Porte
BACKGROUND: Liver grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are increasingly accepted as an extension of the organ pool for transplantation. There is little data on the outcome of liver transplantation with DCD grafts from a pediatric donor. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of liver transplantation with pediatric DCD grafts and to compare this with the outcome after transplantation of livers from pediatric donation after brain death (DBD) donors. METHOD: All transplantations performed with a liver from a pediatric donor (≤16 years) in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2015 were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426648/pregnancy-swimming-causes-short-and-long-term-neuroprotection-against-hypoxia-ischemia-in-very-immature-rats
#17
Eduardo Farias Sanches, Luz Elena Duran Carabali, Andrea Tosta, Fabrício Nicola, Felipe Schmitz, André Rodrigues, Cassiana Siebert, Angela Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of neurological damage in preterm. Pregnancy swimming alters the pup's brain development. We tested the effects of swimming during pregnancy in the very immature rat brain. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n=12) were assigned to sedentary (SE, n=6) or swimming groups (SW, n=6). From the gestational day 0 (DG0) to GD21 they performed 20 min/daily swimming sessions. HI on postnatal day 3 rat cause sensorimotor and cognitive impairments...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425334/remifentanil-for-sedation-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
James L Hungerford, Nicole O'Brien, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Eric A Sribnick, Cheryl Sargel, Mark Hall, Jeffrey R Leonard, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether remifentanil would provide adequate sedation while allowing frequent and reproducible neurologic assessments in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary care PICU. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight patients over a 30-month period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Median age was 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425226/a-review-of-pediatric-pulmonary-hypertension-with-new-guidelines
#19
Serdar Kula, Ayhan Pektaş
This study aims to review pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) by comparing the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Heart Association (AHA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN). All three sets of guidelines define PH as having a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg and accept the validity of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Every child with a high index of suspicion for PH should undergo an initial work-up of chest X-rays, electrocardiography, and echocardiography...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424604/mapping-critical-language-sites-in-children-performing-verb-generation-whole-brain-connectivity-and-graph-theoretical-analysis-in-meg
#20
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Brady J Williamson, Darren S Kadis
A classic left frontal-temporal brain network is known to support language processes. However, the level of participation of constituent regions, and the contribution of extra-canonical areas, is not fully understood; this is particularly true in children, and in individuals who have experienced early neurological insult. In the present work, we propose whole-brain connectivity and graph-theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates to provide robust maps of the pediatric expressive language network...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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